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9/5/2023 Llama 2: Open Foundation and Fine-Tuned Chat Models
In this work, we develop and release Llama 2, a collection of pretrained and fine-tuned large language models (LLMs) ranging in scale from 7 billion to 70 billion parameters. Our fine-tuned LLMs, called Llama 2-Chat, are optimized for dialogue use cases. Our models outperform open-source chat models on most benchmarks we tested, and based on our human evaluations for helpfulness and safety, may be a suitable substitute for closed-source models. We provide a detailed description of our approach to fine-tuning and safety improvements of Llama 2-Chat in order to enable the community to build on our work and contribute to the responsible development of LLMs.
Hugo Touvron, Louis Martin, Kevin Stone, Peter Albert, Amjad Almahairi, Yasmine Babaei, Nikolay Bashlykov, Soumya Batra, Prajjwal Bhargava, Shruti Bhosale, Dan Bikel, Lukas Blecher, Cristian Canton Ferrer, Moya Chen, Guillem Cucurull, David Esiobu, Jude Fernandes, Jeremy Fu, Wenyin Fu, Brian Fuller, Cynthia Gao, Vedanuj Goswami, Naman Goyal, Anthony Hartshorn, Saghar Hosseini, Rui Hou, Hakan Inan, Marcin Kardas, Viktor Kerkez, Madian Khabsa, Isabel Kloumann, Artem Korenev, Punit Singh Koura, Marie-Anne Lachaux, Thibaut Lavril, Jenya Lee, Diana Liskovich, Yinghai Lu, Yuning Mao, Xavier Martinet, Todor Mihaylov, Pushkar Mishra, Igor Molybog, Yixin Nie, Andrew Poulton, Jeremy Reizenstein, Rashi Rungta, Kalyan Saladi, Alan Schelten, Ruan Silva, Eric Michael Smith, Ranjan Subramanian, Xiaoqing Ellen Tan, Binh Tang, Ross Taylor, Adina Williams, Jian Xiang Kuan, Puxin Xu, Zheng Yan, Iliyan Zarov, Yuchen Zhang, Angela Fan, Melanie Kambadur, Sharan Narang, Aurelien Rodriguez, Robert Stojnic, Sergey Edunov, Thomas Scialom
9/5/2023 Android in the Wild: A Large-Scale Dataset for Android Device Control
There is a growing interest in device-control systems that can interpret human natural language instructions and execute them on a digital device by directly controlling its user interface. We present a dataset for device-control research, Android in the Wild (AITW), which is orders of magnitude larger than current datasets. The dataset contains human demonstrations of device interactions, including the screens and actions, and corresponding natural language instructions. It consists of 715k episodes spanning 30k unique instructions, four versions of Android (v10-13),and eight device types (Pixel 2 XL to Pixel 6) with varying screen resolutions. It contains multi-step tasks that require semantic understanding of language and visual context. This dataset poses a new challenge: actions available through the user interface must be inferred from their visual appearance. And, instead of simple UI element-based actions, the action space consists of precise gestures (e.g., horizontal scrolls to operate carousel widgets). We organize our dataset to encourage robustness analysis of device-control systems, i.e., how well a system performs in the presence of new task descriptions, new applications, or new platform versions. We develop two agents and report performance across the dataset. The dataset is available at this https URL.
Christopher Rawles, Alice Li, Daniel Rodriguez, Oriana Riva, Timothy Lillicrap
Jupyter Notebook
9/5/2023 LongNet: Scaling Transformers to 1,000,000,000 Tokens
Scaling sequence length has become a critical demand in the era of large language models. However, existing methods struggle with either computational complexity or model expressivity, rendering the maximum sequence length restricted. In this work, we introduce LongNet, a Transformer variant that can scale sequence length to more than 1 billion tokens, without sacrificing the performance on shorter sequences. Specifically, we propose dilated attention, which expands the attentive field exponentially as the distance grows. LongNet has significant advantages: 1) it has a linear computation complexity and a logarithm dependency between tokens; 2) it can be served as a distributed trainer for extremely long sequences; 3) its dilated attention is a drop-in replacement for standard attention, which can be seamlessly integrated with the existing Transformer-based optimization. Experiments results demonstrate that LongNet yields strong performance on both long-sequence modeling and general language tasks. Our work opens up new possibilities for modeling very long sequences, e.g., treating a whole corpus or even the entire Internet as a sequence.
Jiayu Ding, Shuming Ma, Li Dong, Xingxing Zhang, Shaohan Huang, Wenhui Wang, Furu Wei
9/5/2023 Retentive Network: A Successor to Transformer for Large Language Models
In this work, we propose Retentive Network (RetNet) as a foundation architecture for large language models, simultaneously achieving training parallelism, low-cost inference, and good performance. We theoretically derive the connection between recurrence and attention. Then we propose the retention mechanism for sequence modeling, which supports three computation paradigms, i.e., parallel, recurrent, and chunkwise recurrent. Specifically, the parallel representation allows for training parallelism. The recurrent representation enables low-cost $O(1)$ inference, which improves decoding throughput, latency, and GPU memory without sacrificing performance. The chunkwise recurrent representation facilitates efficient long-sequence modeling with linear complexity, where each chunk is encoded parallelly while recurrently summarizing the chunks. Experimental results on language modeling show that RetNet achieves favorable scaling results, parallel training, low-cost deployment, and efficient inference. The intriguing properties make RetNet a strong successor to Transformer for large language models. Code will be available at this https URL.
Yutao Sun, Li Dong, Shaohan Huang, Shuming Ma, Yuqing Xia, Jilong Xue, Jianyong Wang, Furu Wei
9/5/2023 FinGPT: Democratizing Internet-scale Data for Financial Large Language Models
Large language models (LLMs) have demonstrated remarkable proficiency in understanding and generating human-like texts, which may potentially revolutionize the finance industry. However, existing LLMs often fall short in the financial field, which is mainly attributed to the disparities between general text data and financial text data. Unfortunately, there is only a limited number of financial text datasets available (quite small size), and BloombergGPT, the first financial LLM (FinLLM), is close-sourced (only the training logs were released). In light of this, we aim to democratize Internet-scale financial data for LLMs, which is an open challenge due to diverse data sources, low signal-to-noise ratio, and high time-validity. To address the challenges, we introduce an open-sourced and data-centric framework, \textit{Financial Generative Pre-trained Transformer (FinGPT)}, that automates the collection and curation of real-time financial data from >34 diverse sources on the Internet, providing researchers and practitioners with accessible and transparent resources to develop their FinLLMs. Additionally, we propose a simple yet effective strategy for fine-tuning FinLLM using the inherent feedback from the market, dubbed Reinforcement Learning with Stock Prices (RLSP). We also adopt the Low-rank Adaptation (LoRA, QLoRA) method that enables users to customize their own FinLLMs from open-source general-purpose LLMs at a low cost. Finally, we showcase several FinGPT applications, including robo-advisor, sentiment analysis for algorithmic trading, and low-code development. FinGPT aims to democratize FinLLMs, stimulate innovation, and unlock new opportunities in open finance. The codes are available at this https URL and this https URL
Xiao-Yang Liu, Guoxuan Wang, Daochen Zha
Jupyter Notebook
9/5/2023 h2oGPT: Democratizing Large Language Models
Applications built on top of Large Language Models (LLMs) such as GPT-4 represent a revolution in AI due to their human-level capabilities in natural language processing. However, they also pose many significant risks such as the presence of biased, private, or harmful text, and the unauthorized inclusion of copyrighted material. We introduce h2oGPT, a suite of open-source code repositories for the creation and use of LLMs based on Generative Pretrained Transformers (GPTs). The goal of this project is to create the world's best truly open-source alternative to closed-source approaches. In collaboration with and as part of the incredible and unstoppable open-source community, we open-source several fine-tuned h2oGPT models from 7 to 40 Billion parameters, ready for commercial use under fully permissive Apache 2.0 licenses. Included in our release is 100\% private document search using natural language. Open-source language models help boost AI development and make it more accessible and trustworthy. They lower entry hurdles, allowing people and groups to tailor these models to their needs. This openness increases innovation, transparency, and fairness. An open-source strategy is needed to share AI benefits fairly, and this http URL will continue to democratize AI and LLMs.
Arno Candel, Jon McKinney, Philipp Singer, Pascal Pfeiffer, Maximilian Jeblick, Prithvi Prabhu, Jeff Gambera, Mark Landry, Shivam Bansal, Ryan Chesler, Chun Ming Lee, Marcos V. Conde, Pasha Stetsenko, Olivier Grellier, SriSatish Ambati
9/5/2023 LMFlow: An Extensible Toolkit for Finetuning and Inference of Large Foundation Models
Large foundation models have demonstrated a great ability to achieve general human-level intelligence far beyond traditional approaches. As the technique keeps attracting attention from the AI community, more and more large foundation models have become publically available. However, most of those models exhibit a major deficiency in specialized-task applications, where the step of finetuning is still required for obtaining satisfactory performance. As the number of available models and specialized tasks keeps growing, the job of general finetuning becomes highly nontrivial. In this paper, we take the first step to address this issue. We introduce an extensible and lightweight toolkit, LMFlow, which aims to simplify the finetuning and inference of general large foundation models. LMFlow offers a complete finetuning workflow for a large foundation model to support personalized training with limited computing resources. Furthermore, it supports continuous pretraining, instruction tuning, parameter-efficient finetuning, alignment tuning, and large model inference, along with carefully designed and extensible APIs. This toolkit has been thoroughly tested and is available at this https URL.
Shizhe Diao, Rui Pan, Hanze Dong, Ka Shun Shum, Jipeng Zhang, Wei Xiong, Tong Zhang
9/5/2023 Bayes Risk Transducer: Transducer with Controllable Alignment Prediction
Automatic speech recognition (ASR) based on transducers is widely used. In training, a transducer maximizes the summed posteriors of all paths. The path with the highest posterior is commonly defined as the predicted alignment between the speech and the transcription. While the vanilla transducer does not have a prior preference for any of the valid paths, this work intends to enforce the preferred paths and achieve controllable alignment prediction. Specifically, this work proposes Bayes Risk Transducer (BRT), which uses a Bayes risk function to set lower risk values to the preferred paths so that the predicted alignment is more likely to satisfy specific desired properties. We further demonstrate that these predicted alignments with intentionally designed properties can provide practical advantages over the vanilla transducer. Experimentally, the proposed BRT saves inference cost by up to 46% for non-streaming ASR and reduces overall system latency by 41% for streaming ASR.
Jinchuan Tian, Jianwei Yu, Hangting Chen, Brian Yan, Chao Weng, Dong Yu, Shinji Watanabe
9/5/2023 WizardCoder: Empowering Code Large Language Models with Evol-Instruct
Code Large Language Models (Code LLMs), such as StarCoder, have demonstrated exceptional performance in code-related tasks. However, most existing models are solely pre-trained on extensive raw code data without instruction fine-tuning. In this paper, we introduce WizardCoder, which empowers Code LLMs with complex instruction fine-tuning, by adapting the Evol-Instruct method to the domain of code. Through comprehensive experiments on four prominent code generation benchmarks, namely HumanEval, HumanEval+, MBPP, and DS-1000, we unveil the exceptional capabilities of our model. It surpasses all other open-source Code LLMs by a substantial margin. Moreover, our model even outperforms the largest closed LLMs, Anthropic's Claude and Google's Bard, on HumanEval and HumanEval+. Our code, model weights, and data are public at this https URL
Ziyang Luo, Can Xu, Pu Zhao, Qingfeng Sun, Xiubo Geng, Wenxiang Hu, Chongyang Tao, Jing Ma, Qingwei Lin, Daxin Jiang
9/5/2023 WizardMath: Empowering Mathematical Reasoning for Large Language Models via Reinforced Evol-Instruct
Large language models (LLMs), such as GPT-4, have shown remarkable performance in natural language processing (NLP) tasks, including challenging mathematical reasoning. However, most existing open-source models are only pre-trained on large-scale internet data and without math-related optimization. In this paper, we present WizardMath, which enhances the mathematical reasoning abilities of Llama-2, by applying our proposed Reinforcement Learning from Evol-Instruct Feedback (RLEIF) method to the domain of math. Through extensive experiments on two mathematical reasoning benchmarks, namely GSM8k and MATH, we reveal the extraordinary capabilities of our model. WizardMath surpasses all other open-source LLMs by a substantial margin. Furthermore, our model even outperforms ChatGPT-3.5, Claude Instant-1, PaLM-2 and Minerva on GSM8k, simultaneously surpasses Text-davinci-002, PaLM-1 and GPT-3 on MATH. More details and model weights are public at this https URL and this https URL.
Haipeng Luo, Qingfeng Sun, Can Xu, Pu Zhao, Jianguang Lou, Chongyang Tao, Xiubo Geng, Qingwei Lin, Shifeng Chen, Dongmei Zhang
9/5/2023 ChatHome: Development and Evaluation of a Domain-Specific Language Model for Home Renovation
This paper presents the development and evaluation of ChatHome, a domain-specific language model (DSLM) designed for the intricate field of home renovation. Considering the proven competencies of large language models (LLMs) like GPT-4 and the escalating fascination with home renovation, this study endeavors to reconcile these aspects by generating a dedicated model that can yield high-fidelity, precise outputs relevant to the home renovation arena. ChatHome's novelty rests on its methodology, fusing domain-adaptive pretraining and instruction-tuning over an extensive dataset. This dataset includes professional articles, standard documents, and web content pertinent to home renovation. This dual-pronged strategy is designed to ensure that our model can assimilate comprehensive domain knowledge and effectively address user inquiries. Via thorough experimentation on diverse datasets, both universal and domain-specific, including the freshly introduced "EvalHome" domain dataset, we substantiate that ChatHome not only amplifies domain-specific functionalities but also preserves its versatility.
Cheng Wen, Xianghui Sun, Shuaijiang Zhao, Xiaoquan Fang, Liangyu Chen, Wei Zou
9/5/2023 SeamlessM4T-Massively Multilingual & Multimodal Machine Translation
What does it take to create the Babel Fish, a tool that can help individuals translate speech between any two languages? While recent breakthroughs in text-based models have pushed machine translation coverage beyond 200 languages, unified speech-to-speech translation models have yet to achieve similar strides. More specifically, conventional speech-to-speech translation systems rely on cascaded systems that perform translation progressively, putting high-performing unified systems out of reach. To address these gaps, we introduce SeamlessM4T, a single model that supports speech-to-speech translation, speech-to-text translation, text-to-speech translation, text-to-text translation, and automatic speech recognition for up to 100 languages. To build this, we used 1 million hours of open speech audio data to learn self-supervised speech representations with w2v-BERT 2.0. Subsequently, we created a multimodal corpus of automatically aligned speech translations. Filtered and combined with human-labeled and pseudo-labeled data, we developed the first multilingual system capable of translating from and into English for both speech and text. On FLEURS, SeamlessM4T sets a new standard for translations into multiple target languages, achieving an improvement of 20% BLEU over the previous SOTA in direct speech-to-text translation. Compared to strong cascaded models, SeamlessM4T improves the quality of into-English translation by 1.3 BLEU points in speech-to-text and by 2.6 ASR-BLEU points in speech-to-speech. Tested for robustness, our system performs better against background noises and speaker variations in speech-to-text tasks compared to the current SOTA model. Critically, we evaluated SeamlessM4T on gender bias and added toxicity to assess translation safety. Finally, all contributions in this work are open-sourced and accessible at this https URL
Loic Barrault, Yu-An Chung, Mariano Cora Meglioli, David Dale, Ning Dong, Paul-Ambroise Duquenne, Hady Elsahar, Hongyu Gong, Kevin Heffernan, John Hoffman, Christopher Klaiber, Pengwei Li, Daniel Licht, Jean Maillard, Alice Rakotoarison, Kaushik Ram Sadagopan, Guillaume Wenzek, Ethan Ye, Bapi Akula, Peng-Jen Chen, Naji El Hachem, Brian Ellis, Gabriel Mejia Gonzalez, Justin Haaheim, Prangthip Hansanti, Russ Howes, Bernie Huang, Min-Jae Hwang, Hirofumi Inaguma, Somya Jain, Elahe Kalbassi, Amanda Kallet, Ilia Kulikov, Janice Lam, Daniel Li, Xutai Ma, Ruslan Mavlyutov, Benjamin Peloquin, Mohamed Ramadan, Abinesh Ramakrishnan, Anna Sun, Kevin Tran, Tuan Tran, Igor Tufanov, Vish Vogeti, Carleigh Wood, Yilin Yang, Bokai Yu, Pierre Andrews, Can Balioglu, Marta R. Costa-jussa�, Onur Celebi, Maha Elbayad, Cynthia Gao, Francisco Guzman, Justine Kao, Ann Lee, Alexandre Mourachko, Juan Pino, Sravya Popuri, Christophe Ropers, Safiyyah Saleem, Holger Schwenk, Paden Tomasello, Changhan Wang, Jeff Wang, Skyler Wang
9/5/2023 xSIM++: An Improved Proxy to Bitext Mining Performance for Low-Resource Languages
We introduce a new proxy score for evaluating bitext mining based on similarity in a multilingual embedding space: xSIM++. In comparison to xSIM, this improved proxy leverages rule-based approaches to extend English sentences in any evaluation set with synthetic, hard-to-distinguish examples which more closely mirror the scenarios we encounter during large-scale mining. We validate this proxy by running a significant number of bitext mining experiments for a set of low-resource languages, and subsequently train NMT systems on the mined data. In comparison to xSIM, we show that xSIM++ is better correlated with the downstream BLEU scores of translation systems trained on mined bitexts, providing a reliable proxy of bitext mining performance without needing to run expensive bitext mining pipelines. xSIM++ also reports performance for different error types, offering more fine-grained feedback for model development.
Mingda Chen, Kevin Heffernan, Onur Celebi, Alex Mourachko, Holger Schwenk
9/5/2023 ToolLLM: Facilitating Large Language Models to Master 16000+ Real-world APIs
Despite the advancements of open-source large language models (LLMs) and their variants, e.g., LLaMA and Vicuna, they remain significantly limited in performing higher-level tasks, such as following human instructions to use external tools (APIs). This is because current instruction tuning largely focuses on basic language tasks instead of the tool-use domain. This is in contrast to state-of-the-art (SOTA) LLMs, e.g., ChatGPT, which have demonstrated excellent tool-use capabilities but are unfortunately closed source. To facilitate tool-use capabilities within open-source LLMs, we introduce ToolLLM, a general tool-use framework of data construction, model training and evaluation. We first present ToolBench, an instruction-tuning dataset for tool use, which is created automatically using ChatGPT. Specifically, we collect 16,464 real-world RESTful APIs spanning 49 categories from RapidAPI Hub, then prompt ChatGPT to generate diverse human instructions involving these APIs, covering both single-tool and multi-tool scenarios. Finally, we use ChatGPT to search for a valid solution path (chain of API calls) for each instruction. To make the searching process more efficient, we develop a novel depth-first search-based decision tree (DFSDT), enabling LLMs to evaluate multiple reasoning traces and expand the search space. We show that DFSDT significantly enhances the planning and reasoning capabilities of LLMs. For efficient tool-use assessment, we develop an automatic evaluator: ToolEval. We fine-tune LLaMA on ToolBench and obtain ToolLLaMA. Our ToolEval reveals that ToolLLaMA demonstrates a remarkable ability to execute complex instructions and generalize to unseen APIs, and exhibits comparable performance to ChatGPT. To make the pipeline more practical, we devise a neural API retriever to recommend appropriate APIs for each instruction, negating the need for manual API selection.
Yujia Qin, Shihao Liang, Yining Ye, Kunlun Zhu, Lan Yan, Yaxi Lu, Yankai Lin, Xin Cong, Xiangru Tang, Bill Qian, Sihan Zhao, Runchu Tian, Ruobing Xie, Jie Zhou, Mark Gerstein, Dahai Li, Zhiyuan Liu, Maosong Sun
9/5/2023 INT2.1: Towards Fine-Tunable Quantized Large Language Models with Error Correction through Low-Rank Adaptation
We introduce a method that dramatically reduces fine-tuning VRAM requirements and rectifies quantization errors in quantized Large Language Models. First, we develop an extremely memory-efficient fine-tuning (EMEF) method for quantized models using Low-Rank Adaptation (LoRA), and drawing upon it, we construct an error-correcting algorithm designed to minimize errors induced by the quantization process. Our method reduces the memory requirements by up to 5.6 times, which enables fine-tuning a 7 billion parameter Large Language Model (LLM) on consumer laptops. At the same time, we propose a Low-Rank Error Correction (LREC) method that exploits the added LoRA layers to ameliorate the gap between the quantized model and its float point counterpart. Our error correction framework leads to a fully functional INT2 quantized LLM with the capacity to generate coherent English text. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first INT2 Large Language Model that has been able to reach such a performance. The overhead of our method is merely a 1.05 times increase in model size, which translates to an effective precision of INT2.1. Also, our method readily generalizes to other quantization standards, such as INT3, INT4, and INT8, restoring their lost performance, which marks a significant milestone in the field of model quantization. The strategies delineated in this paper hold promising implications for the future development and optimization of quantized models, marking a pivotal shift in the landscape of low-resource machine learning computations.
Yuji Chai, John Gkountouras, Glenn G. Ko, David Brooks, Gu-Yeon Wei
9/5/2023 Learning to Retrieve In-Context Examples for Large Language Models
Large language models (LLMs) have demonstrated their ability to learn in-context, allowing them to perform various tasks based on a few input-output examples. However, the effectiveness of in-context learning is heavily reliant on the quality of the selected examples. In this paper, we propose a novel framework to iteratively train dense retrievers that can identify high-quality in-context examples for LLMs. Our framework initially trains a reward model based on LLM feedback to evaluate the quality of candidate examples, followed by knowledge distillation to train a bi-encoder based dense retriever. Our experiments on a suite of 30 tasks demonstrate that our framework significantly enhances in-context learning performance. Furthermore, we show the generalization ability of our framework to unseen tasks during training. An in-depth analysis reveals that our model improves performance by retrieving examples with similar patterns, and the gains are consistent across LLMs of varying sizes.
Liang Wang, Nan Yang, Furu Wei
9/5/2023 Universal and Transferable Adversarial Attacks on Aligned Language Models
Because "out-of-the-box" large language models are capable of generating a great deal of objectionable content, recent work has focused on aligning these models in an attempt to prevent undesirable generation. While there has been some success at circumventing these measures -- so-called "jailbreaks" against LLMs -- these attacks have required significant human ingenuity and are brittle in practice. In this paper, we propose a simple and effective attack method that causes aligned language models to generate objectionable behaviors. Specifically, our approach finds a suffix that, when attached to a wide range of queries for an LLM to produce objectionable content, aims to maximize the probability that the model produces an affirmative response (rather than refusing to answer). However, instead of relying on manual engineering, our approach automatically produces these adversarial suffixes by a combination of greedy and gradient-based search techniques, and also improves over past automatic prompt generation methods. Surprisingly, we find that the adversarial prompts generated by our approach are quite transferable, including to black-box, publicly released LLMs. Specifically, we train an adversarial attack suffix on multiple prompts (i.e., queries asking for many different types of objectionable content), as well as multiple models (in our case, Vicuna-7B and 13B). When doing so, the resulting attack suffix is able to induce objectionable content in the public interfaces to ChatGPT, Bard, and Claude, as well as open source LLMs such as LLaMA-2-Chat, Pythia, Falcon, and others. In total, this work significantly advances the state-of-the-art in adversarial attacks against aligned language models, raising important questions about how such systems can be prevented from producing objectionable information. Code is available at this http URL.
Andy Zou, Zifan Wang, J. Zico Kolter, Matt Fredrikson
9/5/2023 Do LLMs Possess a Personality? Making the MBTI Test an Amazing Evaluation for Large Language Models
The field of large language models (LLMs) has made significant progress, and their knowledge storage capacity is approaching that of human beings. Furthermore, advanced techniques, such as prompt learning and reinforcement learning, are being employed to address ethical concerns and hallucination problems associated with LLMs, bringing them closer to aligning with human values. This situation naturally raises the question of whether LLMs with human-like abilities possess a human-like personality? In this paper, we aim to investigate the feasibility of using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), a widespread human personality assessment tool, as an evaluation metric for LLMs. Specifically, extensive experiments will be conducted to explore: 1) the personality types of different LLMs, 2) the possibility of changing the personality types by prompt engineering, and 3) How does the training dataset affect the model's personality. Although the MBTI is not a rigorous assessment, it can still reflect the similarity between LLMs and human personality. In practice, the MBTI has the potential to serve as a rough indicator. Our codes are available at this https URL.
Keyu Pan, Yawen Zeng
Jupyter Notebook
9/5/2023 Prompt2Model: Generating Deployable Models from Natural Language Instructions
Large language models (LLMs) enable system builders today to create competent NLP systems through prompting, where they only need to describe the task in natural language and provide a few examples. However, in other ways, LLMs are a step backward from traditional special-purpose NLP models; they require extensive computational resources for deployment and can be gated behind APIs. In this paper, we propose Prompt2Model, a general-purpose method that takes a natural language task description like the prompts provided to LLMs, and uses it to train a special-purpose model that is conducive to deployment. This is done through a multi-step process of retrieval of existing datasets and pretrained models, dataset generation using LLMs, and supervised fine-tuning on these retrieved and generated datasets. Over three tasks, we demonstrate that given the same few-shot prompt as input, Prompt2Model trains models that outperform the results of a strong LLM, gpt-3.5-turbo, by an average of 20% while being up to 700 times smaller. We also show that this data can be used to obtain reliable performance estimates of model performance, enabling model developers to assess model reliability before deployment. Prompt2Model is available open-source at this https URL.
Vijay Viswanathan, Chenyang Zhao, Amanda Bertsch, Tongshuang Wu, Graham Neubig
9/5/2023 Graph of Thoughts: Solving Elaborate Problems with Large Language Models
We introduce Graph of Thoughts (GoT): a framework that advances prompting capabilities in large language models (LLMs) beyond those offered by paradigms such as Chain-of-Thought or Tree of Thoughts (ToT). The key idea and primary advantage of GoT is the ability to model the information generated by an LLM as an arbitrary graph, where units of information ("LLM thoughts") are vertices, and edges correspond to dependencies between these vertices. This approach enables combining arbitrary LLM thoughts into synergistic outcomes, distilling the essence of whole networks of thoughts, or enhancing thoughts using feedback loops. We illustrate that GoT offers advantages over state of the art on different tasks, for example increasing the quality of sorting by 62% over ToT, while simultaneously reducing costs by >31%. We ensure that GoT is extensible with new thought transformations and thus can be used to spearhead new prompting schemes. This work brings the LLM reasoning closer to human thinking or brain mechanisms such as recurrence, both of which form complex networks.
Maciej Besta, Nils Blach, Ales Kubicek, Robert Gerstenberger, Lukas Gianinazzi, Joanna Gajda, Tomasz Lehmann, Michal Podstawski, Hubert Niewiadomski, Piotr Nyczyk, Torsten Hoefler
9/5/2023 Macaw-LLM: Multi-Modal Language Modeling with Image, Audio, Video, and Text Integration
Although instruction-tuned large language models (LLMs) have exhibited remarkable capabilities across various NLP tasks, their effectiveness on other data modalities beyond text has not been fully studied. In this work, we propose Macaw-LLM, a novel multi-modal LLM that seamlessly integrates visual, audio, and textual information. Macaw-LLM consists of three main components: a modality module for encoding multi-modal data, a cognitive module for harnessing pretrained LLMs, and an alignment module for harmonizing diverse representations. Our novel alignment module seamlessly bridges multi-modal features to textual features, simplifying the adaptation process from the modality modules to the cognitive module. In addition, we construct a large-scale multi-modal instruction dataset in terms of multi-turn dialogue, including 69K image instances and 50K video instances. We have made our data, code and model publicly available, which we hope can pave the way for future research in multi-modal LLMs and expand the capabilities of LLMs to handle diverse data modalities and address complex real-world scenarios.
Chenyang Lyu, Minghao Wu, Longyue Wang, Xinting Huang, Bingshuai Liu, Zefeng Du, Shuming Shi, Zhaopeng Tu
9/5/2023 Meta-Transformer: A Unified Framework for Multimodal Learning
Multimodal learning aims to build models that can process and relate information from multiple modalities. Despite years of development in this field, it still remains challenging to design a unified network for processing various modalities ($\textit{e.g.}$ natural language, 2D images, 3D point clouds, audio, video, time series, tabular data) due to the inherent gaps among them. In this work, we propose a framework, named Meta-Transformer, that leverages a $\textbf{frozen}$ encoder to perform multimodal perception without any paired multimodal training data. In Meta-Transformer, the raw input data from various modalities are mapped into a shared token space, allowing a subsequent encoder with frozen parameters to extract high-level semantic features of the input data. Composed of three main components: a unified data tokenizer, a modality-shared encoder, and task-specific heads for downstream tasks, Meta-Transformer is the first framework to perform unified learning across 12 modalities with unpaired data. Experiments on different benchmarks reveal that Meta-Transformer can handle a wide range of tasks including fundamental perception (text, image, point cloud, audio, video), practical application (X-Ray, infrared, hyperspectral, and IMU), and data mining (graph, tabular, and time-series). Meta-Transformer indicates a promising future for developing unified multimodal intelligence with transformers. Code will be available at this https URL
Yiyuan Zhang, Kaixiong Gong, Kaipeng Zhang, Hongsheng Li, Yu Qiao, Wanli Ouyang, Xiangyu Yue
9/5/2023 Qwen-VL: A Frontier Large Vision-Language Model with Versatile Abilities
We introduce the Qwen-VL series, a set of large-scale vision-language models designed to perceive and understand both text and images. Comprising Qwen-VL and Qwen-VL-Chat, these models exhibit remarkable performance in tasks like image captioning, question answering, visual localization, and flexible interaction. The evaluation covers a wide range of tasks including zero-shot captioning, visual or document visual question answering, and grounding. We demonstrate the Qwen-VL outperforms existing Large Vision Language Models (LVLMs). We present their architecture, training, capabilities, and performance, highlighting their contributions to advancing multimodal artificial intelligence. Code, demo and models are available at this https URL.
Jinze Bai, Shuai Bai, Shusheng Yang, Shijie Wang, Sinan Tan, Peng Wang, Junyang Lin, Chang Zhou, Jingren Zhou
9/5/2023 AgentBench: Evaluating LLMs as Agents
Large Language Models (LLMs) are becoming increasingly smart and autonomous, targeting real-world pragmatic missions beyond traditional NLP tasks. As a result, there has been an urgent need to evaluate LLMs as agents on challenging tasks in interactive environments. We present AgentBench, a multi-dimensional evolving benchmark that currently consists of 8 distinct environments to assess LLM-as-Agent's reasoning and decision-making abilities in a multi-turn open-ended generation setting. Our extensive test over 25 LLMs (including APIs and open-sourced models) shows that, while top commercial LLMs present a strong ability of acting as agents in complex environments, there is a significant disparity in performance between them and open-sourced competitors. It also serves as a component of an ongoing project with wider coverage and deeper consideration towards systematic LLM evaluation. Datasets, environments, and an integrated evaluation package for AgentBench are released at this https URL
Xiao Liu, Hao Yu, Hanchen Zhang, Yifan Xu, Xuanyu Lei, Hanyu Lai, Yu Gu, Hangliang Ding, Kaiwen Men, Kejuan Yang, Shudan Zhang, Xiang Deng, Aohan Zeng, Zhengxiao Du, Chenhui Zhang, Sheng Shen, Tianjun Zhang, Yu Su, Huan Sun, Minlie Huang, Yuxiao Dong, Jie Tang
9/5/2023 Focused Transformer: Contrastive Training for Context Scaling
Large language models have an exceptional capability to incorporate new information in a contextual manner. However, the full potential of such an approach is often restrained due to a limitation in the effective context length. One solution to this issue is to endow an attention layer with access to an external memory, which comprises of (key, value) pairs. Yet, as the number of documents increases, the proportion of relevant keys to irrelevant ones decreases, leading the model to focus more on the irrelevant keys. We identify a significant challenge, dubbed the distraction issue, where keys linked to different semantic values might overlap, making them hard to distinguish. To tackle this problem, we introduce the Focused Transformer (FoT), a technique that employs a training process inspired by contrastive learning. This novel approach enhances the structure of the (key, value) space, enabling an extension of the context length. Our method allows for fine-tuning pre-existing, large-scale models to lengthen their effective context. This is demonstrated by our fine-tuning of $3B$ and $7B$ OpenLLaMA checkpoints. The resulting models, which we name LongLLaMA, exhibit advancements in tasks requiring a long context. We further illustrate that our LongLLaMA models adeptly manage a $256 k$ context length for passkey retrieval.
Szymon Tworkowski, Konrad Staniszewski, Miko?aj Pacek, Yuhuai Wu, Henryk Michalewski, Piotr Mi?o?
Jupyter Notebook
9/5/2023 AgentVerse: Facilitating Multi-Agent Collaboration and Exploring Emergent Behaviors in Agents
Autonomous agents empowered by Large Language Models (LLMs) have undergone significant improvements, enabling them to generalize across a broad spectrum of tasks. However, in real-world scenarios, cooperation among individuals is often required to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of task accomplishment. Hence, inspired by human group dynamics, we propose a multi-agent framework \framework that can collaboratively and dynamically adjust its composition as a greater-than-the-sum-of-its-parts system. Our experiments demonstrate that \framework framework can effectively deploy multi-agent groups that outperform a single agent. Furthermore, we delve into the emergence of social behaviors among individual agents within a group during collaborative task accomplishment. In view of these behaviors, we discuss some possible strategies to leverage positive ones and mitigate negative ones for improving the collaborative potential of multi-agent groups. Our codes for \framework will soon be released at \url{this https URL}.
Weize Chen, Yusheng Su, Jingwei Zuo, Cheng Yang, Chenfei Yuan, Chen Qian, Chi-Min Chan, Yujia Qin, Yaxi Lu, Ruobing Xie, Zhiyuan Liu, Maosong Sun, Jie Zhou
9/5/2023 Large Multilingual Models Pivot Zero-Shot Multimodal Learning across Languages
Recently there has been a significant surge in multimodal learning in terms of both image-to-text and text-to-image generation. However, the success is typically limited to English, leaving other languages largely behind. Building a competitive counterpart in other languages is highly challenging due to the low-resource nature of non-English multimodal data (i.e., lack of large-scale, high-quality image-text data). In this work, we propose MPM, an effective training paradigm for training large multimodal models in low-resource languages. MPM demonstrates that Multilingual language models can Pivot zero-shot Multimodal learning across languages. Specifically, based on a strong multilingual large language model, multimodal models pretrained on English-only image-text data can well generalize to other languages in a zero-shot manner for both image-to-text and text-to-image generation, even surpassing models trained on image-text data in native languages. Taking Chinese as a practice of MPM, we build large multimodal models VisCPM in image-to-text and text-to-image generation, which achieve state-of-the-art (open-source) performance in Chinese. To facilitate future research, we open-source codes and model weights at this https URL.
Jinyi Hu, Yuan Yao, Chongyi Wang, Shan Wang, Yinxu Pan, Qianyu Chen, Tianyu Yu, Hanghao Wu, Yue Zhao, Haoye Zhang, Xu Han, Yankai Lin, Jiao Xue, Dahai Li, Zhiyuan Liu, Maosong Sun
9/5/2023 Full Parameter Fine-tuning for Large Language Models with Limited Resources
Large Language Models (LLMs) have revolutionized Natural Language Processing (NLP) but demand massive GPU resources for training. Lowering the threshold for LLMs training would encourage greater participation from researchers, benefiting both academia and society. While existing approaches have focused on parameter-efficient fine-tuning, which tunes or adds a small number of parameters, few have addressed the challenge of tuning the full parameters of LLMs with limited resources. In this work, we propose a new optimizer, LOw-Memory Optimization (LOMO), which fuses the gradient computation and the parameter update in one step to reduce memory usage. By integrating LOMO with existing memory saving techniques, we reduce memory usage to 10.8% compared to the standard approach (DeepSpeed solution). Consequently, our approach enables the full parameter fine-tuning of a 65B model on a single machine with 8 RTX 3090, each with 24GB memory.
Kai Lv, Yuqing Yang, Tengxiao Liu, Qinghui Gao, Qipeng Guo, Xipeng Qiu
9/5/2023 Secrets of RLHF in Large Language Models Part I: PPO
Large language models (LLMs) have formulated a blueprint for the advancement of artificial general intelligence. Its primary objective is to function as a human-centric (helpful, honest, and harmless) assistant. Alignment with humans assumes paramount significance, and reinforcement learning with human feedback (RLHF) emerges as the pivotal technological paradigm underpinning this pursuit. Current technical routes usually include \textbf{reward models} to measure human preferences, \textbf{Proximal Policy Optimization} (PPO) to optimize policy model outputs, and \textbf{process supervision} to improve step-by-step reasoning capabilities. However, due to the challenges of reward design, environment interaction, and agent training, coupled with huge trial and error cost of large language models, there is a significant barrier for AI researchers to motivate the development of technical alignment and safe landing of LLMs. The stable training of RLHF has still been a puzzle. In the first report, we dissect the framework of RLHF, re-evaluate the inner workings of PPO, and explore how the parts comprising PPO algorithms impact policy agent training. We identify policy constraints being the key factor for the effective implementation of the PPO algorithm. Therefore, we explore the PPO-max, an advanced version of PPO algorithm, to efficiently improve the training stability of the policy model. Based on our main results, we perform a comprehensive analysis of RLHF abilities compared with SFT models and ChatGPT. The absence of open-source implementations has posed significant challenges to the investigation of LLMs alignment. Therefore, we are eager to release technical reports, reward models and PPO codes
Rui Zheng, Shihan Dou, Songyang Gao, Wei Shen, Binghai Wang, Yan Liu, Senjie Jin, Qin Liu, Limao Xiong, Lu Chen, Zhiheng Xi, Yuhao Zhou, Nuo Xu, Wenbin Lai, Minghao Zhu, Rongxiang Weng, Wensen Cheng, Cheng Chang, Zhangyue Yin, Yuan Hua, Haoran Huang, Tianxiang Sun, Hang Yan, Tao Gui, Qi Zhang, Xipeng Qiu, Xuanjing Huang
9/5/2023 A Survey on Evaluation of Large Language Models
Large language models (LLMs) are gaining increasing popularity in both academia and industry, owing to their unprecedented performance in various applications. As LLMs continue to play a vital role in both research and daily use, their evaluation becomes increasingly critical, not only at the task level, but also at the society level for better understanding of their potential risks. Over the past years, significant efforts have been made to examine LLMs from various perspectives. This paper presents a comprehensive review of these evaluation methods for LLMs, focusing on three key dimensions: what to evaluate, where to evaluate, and how to evaluate. Firstly, we provide an overview from the perspective of evaluation tasks, encompassing general natural language processing tasks, reasoning, medical usage, ethics, educations, natural and social sciences, agent applications, and other areas. Secondly, we answer the `where' and `how' questions by diving into the evaluation methods and benchmarks, which serve as crucial components in assessing performance of LLMs. Then, we summarize the success and failure cases of LLMs in different tasks. Finally, we shed light on several future challenges that lie ahead in LLMs evaluation. Our aim is to offer invaluable insights to researchers in the realm of LLMs evaluation, thereby aiding the development of more proficient LLMs. Our key point is that evaluation should be treated as an essential discipline to better assist the development of LLMs. We consistently maintain the related open-source materials at: this https URL.
Yupeng Chang, Xu Wang, Jindong Wang, Yuan Wu, Kaijie Zhu, Hao Chen, Linyi Yang, Xiaoyuan Yi, Cunxiang Wang, Yidong Wang, Wei Ye, Yue Zhang, Yi Chang, Philip S. Yu, Qiang Yang, Xing Xie
9/5/2023 ChatHaruhi: Reviving Anime Character in Reality via Large Language Model
Role-playing chatbots built on large language models have drawn interest, but better techniques are needed to enable mimicking specific fictional characters. We propose an algorithm that controls language models via an improved prompt and memories of the character extracted from scripts. We construct ChatHaruhi, a dataset covering 32 Chinese / English TV / anime characters with over 54k simulated dialogues. Both automatic and human evaluations show our approach improves role-playing ability over baselines. Code and data are available at this https URL .
Cheng Li, Ziang Leng, Chenxi Yan, Junyi Shen, Hao Wang, Weishi MI, Yaying Fei, Xiaoyang Feng, Song Yan, HaoSheng Wang, Linkang Zhan, Yaokai Jia, Pingyu Wu, Haozhen Sun
Jupyter Notebook
9/5/2023 Wider and Deeper LLM Networks are Fairer LLM Evaluators
Measuring the quality of responses generated by LLMs is a challenging task, particularly when it comes to evaluating whether the response is aligned with human preference. A novel approach involves using the LLM itself to make evaluation and stabilizing the results through multiple independent evaluations, similar to a single-layer narrow LLM network. This network consists of a fixed number of neurons, with each neuron being the same LLM. In this paper, we draw upon the extensive research on deep neural networks to explore whether deeper and wider networks can lead to fairer evaluations. Specifically, inspired by the observation that different neurons in a neural network are responsible for detecting different concepts, we first adaptively generate as many neuron roles as possible for each evaluation sample. Each perspective corresponds to the role of a specific LLM neuron in the first layer. In subsequent layers, we follow the idea that higher layers in deep networks are responsible for more comprehensive features, each layer receives representations from all neurons in the previous layer, integrating the locally learned evaluation information to obtain a more comprehensive evaluation result. Interestingly, this network design resembles the process of academic paper reviewing. To validate the effectiveness of our method, we construct the largest and most diverse English evaluation benchmark LLMEval$^2$ for LLM evaluators, comprising 15 tasks, 8 abilities, and 2,553 samples. Experimental results demonstrate that a wider network (involving many reviewers) with 2 layers (one round of discussion) performs the best, improving kappa correlation coefficient from 0.28 to 0.34. We also leverage WideDeep to aid in the assessment of Chinese LLMs, which has accelerated the evaluation time by 4.6 times, resulting in a 60% cost saving. WideDeep achieves a remarkable 93% agreement level among humans.
Xinghua Zhang, Bowen Yu, Haiyang Yu, Yangyu Lv, Tingwen Liu, Fei Huang, Hongbo Xu, Yongbin Li
9/5/2023 A Preliminary Study of the Intrinsic Relationship between Complexity and Alignment
Training large language models (LLMs) with open-domain instruction data has yielded remarkable success in aligning to end tasks and user preferences. Extensive research has highlighted that enhancing the quality and diversity of instruction data consistently improves performance. However, the impact of data complexity, as a crucial metric, remains relatively unexplored in three aspects: (1) scaling law, where the sustainability of performance improvements with increasing complexity is uncertain, (2) additional tokens, whether the improvement brought by complexity comes from introducing more training tokens, and (3) curriculum tuning, where the potential advantages of incorporating instructions ranging from easy to difficult are not yet fully understood. In this paper, we propose \textit{tree-instruct} to systematically enhance the complexity of instruction data in a controllable manner. This approach adds a specified number of nodes into the instruction semantic tree, yielding new instruction data based on the modified tree. By adjusting the number of added nodes, we can control the difficulty level in the modified instruction data. Our preliminary experiments reveal the following insights: (1) Increasing complexity consistently leads to sustained performance improvements. For instance, using 1,000 instruction data and 10 nodes resulted in a substantial 24\% increase in win rate. (2) Under the same token budget, a few complex instructions outperform diverse yet simple instructions. (3) Curriculum instruction tuning might not yield the anticipated results; focusing on increasing complexity appears to be the key.
Yingxiu Zhao, Bowen Yu, Binyuan Hui, Haiyang Yu, Fei Huang, Yongbin Li, Nevin L. Zhang
9/5/2023 A Survey on Large Language Model based Autonomous Agents
Autonomous agents have long been a prominent research topic in the academic community. Previous research in this field often focuses on training agents with limited knowledge within isolated environments, which diverges significantly from the human learning processes, and thus makes the agents hard to achieve human-like decisions. Recently, through the acquisition of vast amounts of web knowledge, large language models (LLMs) have demonstrated remarkable potential in achieving human-level intelligence. This has sparked an upsurge in studies investigating autonomous agents based on LLMs. To harness the full potential of LLMs, researchers have devised diverse agent architectures tailored to different applications. In this paper, we present a comprehensive survey of these studies, delivering a systematic review of the field of autonomous agents from a holistic perspective. More specifically, our focus lies in the construction of LLM-based agents, for which we propose a unified framework that encompasses a majority of the previous work. Additionally, we provide a summary of the various applications of LLM-based AI agents in the domains of social science, natural science, and engineering. Lastly, we discuss the commonly employed evaluation strategies for LLM-based AI agents. Based on the previous studies, we also present several challenges and future directions in this field. To keep track of this field and continuously update our survey, we maintain a repository for the related references at this https URL.
Lei Wang, Chen Ma, Xueyang Feng, Zeyu Zhang, Hao Yang, Jingsen Zhang, Zhiyuan Chen, Jiakai Tang, Xu Chen, Yankai Lin, Wayne Xin Zhao, Zhewei Wei, Ji-Rong Wen
9/5/2023 MMBench: Is Your Multi-modal Model an All-around Player?
Large vision-language models have recently achieved remarkable progress, exhibiting great perception and reasoning abilities concerning visual information. However, how to effectively evaluate these large vision-language models remains a major obstacle, hindering future model development. Traditional benchmarks like VQAv2 or COCO Caption provide quantitative performance measurements but suffer from a lack of fine-grained ability assessment and non-robust evaluation metrics. Recent subjective benchmarks, such as OwlEval, offer comprehensive evaluations of a model's abilities by incorporating human labor, but they are not scalable and display significant bias. In response to these challenges, we propose MMBench, a novel multi-modality benchmark. MMBench methodically develops a comprehensive evaluation pipeline, primarily comprised of two elements. The first element is a meticulously curated dataset that surpasses existing similar benchmarks in terms of the number and variety of evaluation questions and abilities. The second element introduces a novel CircularEval strategy and incorporates the use of ChatGPT. This implementation is designed to convert free-form predictions into pre-defined choices, thereby facilitating a more robust evaluation of the model's predictions. MMBench is a systematically-designed objective benchmark for robustly evaluating the various abilities of vision-language models. We hope MMBench will assist the research community in better evaluating their models and encourage future advancements in this domain. Project page: this https URL.
Yuan Liu, Haodong Duan, Yuanhan Zhang, Bo Li, Songyang Zhang, Wangbo Zhao, Yike Yuan, Jiaqi Wang, Conghui He, Ziwei Liu, Kai Chen, Dahua Lin
9/5/2023 FacTool: Factuality Detection in Generative AI -- A Tool Augmented Framework for Multi-Task and Multi-Domain Scenarios
The emergence of generative pre-trained models has facilitated the synthesis of high-quality text, but it has also posed challenges in identifying factual errors in the generated text. In particular: (1) A wider range of tasks now face an increasing risk of containing factual errors when handled by generative models. (2) Generated texts tend to be lengthy and lack a clearly defined granularity for individual facts. (3) There is a scarcity of explicit evidence available during the process of fact checking. With the above challenges in mind, in this paper, we propose FacTool, a task and domain agnostic framework for detecting factual errors of texts generated by large language models (e.g., ChatGPT). Experiments on four different tasks (knowledge-based QA, code generation, mathematical reasoning, and scientific literature review) show the efficacy of the proposed method. We release the code of FacTool associated with ChatGPT plugin interface at this https URL .
I-Chun Chern, Steffi Chern, Shiqi Chen, Weizhe Yuan, Kehua Feng, Chunting Zhou, Junxian He, Graham Neubig, Pengfei Liu
9/5/2023 Topical-Chat: Towards Knowledge-Grounded Open-Domain Conversations
Building socialbots that can have deep, engaging open-domain conversations with humans is one of the grand challenges of artificial intelligence (AI). To this end, bots need to be able to leverage world knowledge spanning several domains effectively when conversing with humans who have their own world knowledge. Existing knowledge-grounded conversation datasets are primarily stylized with explicit roles for conversation partners. These datasets also do not explore depth or breadth of topical coverage with transitions in conversations. We introduce Topical-Chat, a knowledge-grounded human-human conversation dataset where the underlying knowledge spans 8 broad topics and conversation partners don't have explicitly defined roles, to help further research in open-domain conversational AI. We also train several state-of-the-art encoder-decoder conversational models on Topical-Chat and perform automated and human evaluation for benchmarking.
Karthik Gopalakrishnan, Behnam Hedayatnia, Qinlang Chen, Anna Gottardi, Sanjeev Kwatra, Anu Venkatesh, Raefer Gabriel, Dilek Hakkani-Tur
9/5/2023 Platypus: Quick, Cheap, and Powerful Refinement of LLMs
We present $\textbf{Platypus}$, a family of fine-tuned and merged Large Language Models (LLMs) that achieves the strongest performance and currently stands at first place in HuggingFace's Open LLM Leaderboard as of the release date of this work. In this work we describe (1) our curated dataset $\textbf{Open-Platypus}$, that is a subset of other open datasets and which $\textit{we release to the public}$ (2) our process of fine-tuning and merging LoRA modules in order to conserve the strong prior of pretrained LLMs, while bringing specific domain knowledge to the surface (3) our efforts in checking for test data leaks and contamination in the training data, which can inform future research. Specifically, the Platypus family achieves strong performance in quantitative LLM metrics across model sizes, topping the global Open LLM leaderboard while using just a fraction of the fine-tuning data and overall compute that are required for other state-of-the-art fine-tuned LLMs. In particular, a 13B Platypus model can be trained on $\textit{a single}$ A100 GPU using 25k questions in 5 hours. This is a testament of the quality of our Open-Platypus dataset, and opens opportunities for more improvements in the field. Project page: this https URL
Ariel N. Lee, Cole J. Hunter, Nataniel Ruiz
9/5/2023 EasyEdit: An Easy-to-use Knowledge Editing Framework for Large Language Models
Large Language Models (LLMs) usually suffer from knowledge cutoff or fallacy issues, which means they are unaware of unseen events or generate text with incorrect facts owing to the outdated/noisy data. To this end, many knowledge editing approaches for LLMs have emerged -- aiming to subtly inject/edit updated knowledge or adjust undesired behavior while minimizing the impact on unrelated inputs. Nevertheless, due to significant differences among various knowledge editing methods and the variations in task setups, there is no standard implementation framework available for the community, which hinders practitioners to apply knowledge editing to applications. To address these issues, we propose EasyEdit, an easy-to-use knowledge editing framework for LLMs. It supports various cutting-edge knowledge editing approaches and can be readily apply to many well-known LLMs such as T5, GPT-J, LlaMA, etc. Empirically, we report the knowledge editing results on LlaMA-2 with EasyEdit, demonstrating that knowledge editing surpasses traditional fine-tuning in terms of reliability and generalization. We have released the source code on GitHub at this https URL, along with Google Colab tutorials and comprehensive documentation for beginners to get started. Besides, we present an online system for real-time knowledge editing, and a demo video at this http URL.
Peng Wang, Ningyu Zhang, Xin Xie, Yunzhi Yao, Bozhong Tian, Mengru Wang, Zekun Xi, Siyuan Cheng, Kangwei Liu, Guozhou Zheng, Huajun Chen
Jupyter Notebook
9/5/2023 SPAE: Semantic Pyramid AutoEncoder for Multimodal Generation with Frozen LLMs
In this work, we introduce Semantic Pyramid AutoEncoder (SPAE) for enabling frozen LLMs to perform both understanding and generation tasks involving non-linguistic modalities such as images or videos. SPAE converts between raw pixels and interpretable lexical tokens (or words) extracted from the LLM's vocabulary. The resulting tokens capture both the semantic meaning and the fine-grained details needed for visual reconstruction, effectively translating the visual content into a language comprehensible to the LLM, and empowering it to perform a wide array of multimodal tasks. Our approach is validated through in-context learning experiments with frozen PaLM 2 and GPT 3.5 on a diverse set of image understanding and generation tasks. Our method marks the first successful attempt to enable a frozen LLM to generate image content while surpassing state-of-the-art performance in image understanding tasks, under the same setting, by over 25%.
Lijun Yu, Yong Cheng, Zhiruo Wang, Vivek Kumar, Wolfgang Macherey, Yanping Huang, David A. Ross, Irfan Essa, Yonatan Bisk, Ming-Hsuan Yang, Kevin Murphy, Alexander G. Hauptmann, Lu Jiang
9/5/2023 Spanish Pre-trained BERT Model and Evaluation Data
The Spanish language is one of the top 5 spoken languages in the world. Nevertheless, finding resources to train or evaluate Spanish language models is not an easy task. In this paper we help bridge this gap by presenting a BERT-based language model pre-trained exclusively on Spanish data. As a second contribution, we also compiled several tasks specifically for the Spanish language in a single repository much in the spirit of the GLUE benchmark. By fine-tuning our pre-trained Spanish model, we obtain better results compared to other BERT-based models pre-trained on multilingual corpora for most of the tasks, even achieving a new state-of-the-art on some of them. We have publicly released our model, the pre-training data, and the compilation of the Spanish benchmarks.
Jose Canete, Gabriel Chaperon, Rodrigo Fuentes, Jou-Hui Ho, Hojin Kang, Jorge Perez
9/5/2023 Giraffe: Adventures in Expanding Context Lengths in LLMs
Modern large language models (LLMs) that rely on attention mechanisms are typically trained with fixed context lengths which enforce upper limits on the length of input sequences that they can handle at evaluation time. To use these models on sequences longer than the train-time context length, one might employ techniques from the growing family of context length extrapolation methods -- most of which focus on modifying the system of positional encodings used in the attention mechanism to indicate where tokens or activations are located in the input sequence. We conduct a wide survey of existing methods of context length extrapolation on a base LLaMA or LLaMA 2 model, and introduce some of our own design as well -- in particular, a new truncation strategy for modifying the basis for the position encoding. We test these methods using three new evaluation tasks (FreeFormQA, AlteredNumericQA, and LongChat-Lines) as well as perplexity, which we find to be less fine-grained as a measure of long context performance of LLMs. We release the three tasks publicly as datasets on HuggingFace. We discover that linear scaling is the best method for extending context length, and show that further gains can be achieved by using longer scales at evaluation time. We also discover promising extrapolation capabilities in the truncated basis. To support further research in this area, we release three new 13B parameter long-context models which we call Giraffe: 4k and 16k context models trained from base LLaMA-13B, and a 32k context model trained from base LLaMA2-13B. We also release the code to replicate our results.
Arka Pal, Deep Karkhanis, Manley Roberts, Samuel Dooley, Arvind Sundararajan, Siddartha Naidu
9/5/2023 LoraHub: Efficient Cross-Task Generalization via Dynamic LoRA Composition
Low-rank adaptations (LoRA) are often employed to fine-tune large language models (LLMs) for new tasks. This paper investigates LoRA composability for cross-task generalization and introduces LoraHub, a strategic framework devised for the purposive assembly of LoRA modules trained on diverse given tasks, with the objective of achieving adaptable performance on unseen tasks. With just a few examples from a novel task, LoraHub enables the fluid combination of multiple LoRA modules, eradicating the need for human expertise. Notably, the composition requires neither additional model parameters nor gradients. Our empirical results, derived from the Big-Bench Hard (BBH) benchmark, suggest that LoraHub can effectively mimic the performance of in-context learning in few-shot scenarios, excluding the necessity of in-context examples alongside each inference input. A significant contribution of our research is the fostering of a community for LoRA, where users can share their trained LoRA modules, thereby facilitating their application to new tasks. We anticipate this resource will widen access to and spur advancements in general intelligence as well as LLMs in production. Code will be available at this https URL.
Chengsong Huang, Qian Liu, Bill Yuchen Lin, Tianyu Pang, Chao Du, Min Lin
9/5/2023 Aligning Large Language Models with Human: A Survey
Large Language Models (LLMs) trained on extensive textual corpora have emerged as leading solutions for a broad array of Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks. Despite their notable performance, these models are prone to certain limitations such as misunderstanding human instructions, generating potentially biased content, or factually incorrect (hallucinated) information. Hence, aligning LLMs with human expectations has become an active area of interest within the research community. This survey presents a comprehensive overview of these alignment technologies, including the following aspects. (1) Data collection: the methods for effectively collecting high-quality instructions for LLM alignment, including the use of NLP benchmarks, human annotations, and leveraging strong LLMs. (2) Training methodologies: a detailed review of the prevailing training methods employed for LLM alignment. Our exploration encompasses Supervised Fine-tuning, both Online and Offline human preference training, along with parameter-efficient training mechanisms. (3) Model Evaluation: the methods for evaluating the effectiveness of these human-aligned LLMs, presenting a multifaceted approach towards their assessment. In conclusion, we collate and distill our findings, shedding light on several promising future research avenues in the field. This survey, therefore, serves as a valuable resource for anyone invested in understanding and advancing the alignment of LLMs to better suit human-oriented tasks and expectations. An associated GitHub link collecting the latest papers is available at this https URL.
Yufei Wang, Wanjun Zhong, Liangyou Li, Fei Mi, Xingshan Zeng, Wenyong Huang, Lifeng Shang, Xin Jiang, Qun Liu
9/5/2023 DialogStudio: Towards Richest and Most Diverse Unified Dataset Collection for Conversational AI
Despite advancements in conversational AI, language models encounter challenges to handle diverse conversational tasks, and existing dialogue dataset collections often lack diversity and comprehensiveness. To tackle these issues, we introduce DialogStudio: the largest and most diverse collection of dialogue datasets, unified under a consistent format while preserving their original information. Our collection encompasses data from open-domain dialogues, task-oriented dialogues, natural language understanding, conversational recommendation, dialogue summarization, and knowledge-grounded dialogues, making it an incredibly rich and diverse resource for dialogue research and model training. To further enhance the utility of DialogStudio, we identify the licenses for each dataset and design domain-aware prompts for selected dialogues to facilitate instruction-aware fine-tuning. Furthermore, we develop conversational AI models using the dataset collection, and our experiments in both zero-shot and few-shot learning scenarios demonstrate the superiority of DialogStudio. To improve transparency and support dataset and task-based research, as well as language model pre-training, all datasets, licenses, codes, and models associated with DialogStudio are made publicly accessible at this https URL
Jianguo Zhang, Kun Qian, Zhiwei Liu, Shelby Heinecke, Rui Meng, Ye Liu, Zhou Yu, Huan Wang, Silvio Savarese, Caiming Xiong
9/5/2023 RED$^{\rm FM}$: a Filtered and Multilingual Relation Extraction Dataset
Relation Extraction (RE) is a task that identifies relationships between entities in a text, enabling the acquisition of relational facts and bridging the gap between natural language and structured knowledge. However, current RE models often rely on small datasets with low coverage of relation types, particularly when working with languages other than English. In this paper, we address the above issue and provide two new resources that enable the training and evaluation of multilingual RE systems. First, we present SRED$^{\rm FM}$, an automatically annotated dataset covering 18 languages, 400 relation types, 13 entity types, totaling more than 40 million triplet instances. Second, we propose RED$^{\rm FM}$, a smaller, human-revised dataset for seven languages that allows for the evaluation of multilingual RE systems. To demonstrate the utility of these novel datasets, we experiment with the first end-to-end multilingual RE model, mREBEL, that extracts triplets, including entity types, in multiple languages. We release our resources and model checkpoints at this https URL
Pere-Lluís Huguet Cabot, Simone Tedeschi, Axel-Cyrille Ngonga Ngomo, Roberto Navigli
9/5/2023 An Efficient Sparse Inference Software Accelerator for Transformer-based Language Models on CPUs
In recent years, Transformer-based language models have become the standard approach for natural language processing tasks. However, stringent throughput and latency requirements in industrial applications are limiting their adoption. To mitigate the gap, model compression techniques such as structured pruning are being used to improve inference efficiency. However, most existing neural network inference runtimes lack adequate support for structured sparsity. In this paper, we propose an efficient sparse deep learning inference software stack for Transformer-based language models where the weights are pruned with constant block size. Our sparse software accelerator leverages Intel Deep Learning Boost to maximize the performance of sparse matrix - dense matrix multiplication (commonly abbreviated as SpMM) on CPUs. Our SpMM kernel outperforms the existing sparse libraries (oneMKL, TVM, and LIBXSMM) by an order of magnitude on a wide range of GEMM shapes under 5 representative sparsity ratios (70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%). Moreover, our SpMM kernel shows up to 5x speedup over dense GEMM kernel of oneDNN, a well-optimized dense library widely used in industry. We apply our sparse accelerator on widely-used Transformer-based language models including Bert-Mini, DistilBERT, Bert-Base, and BERT-Large. Our sparse inference software shows up to 1.5x speedup over Neural Magic's Deepsparse under same configurations on Xeon on Amazon Web Services under proxy production latency constraints. We also compare our solution with two framework-based inference solutions, ONNX Runtime and PyTorch, and demonstrate up to 37x speedup over ONNX Runtime and 345x over PyTorch on Xeon under the latency constraints. All the source code is publicly available on Github: this https URL.
Haihao Shen, Hengyu Meng, Bo Dong, Zhe Wang, Ofir Zafrir, Yi Ding, Yu Luo, Hanwen Chang, Qun Gao, Ziheng Wang, Guy Boudoukh, Moshe Wasserblat
9/5/2023 GPT-4 Is Too Smart To Be Safe: Stealthy Chat with LLMs via Cipher
Safety lies at the core of the development of Large Language Models (LLMs). There is ample work on aligning LLMs with human ethics and preferences, including data filtering in pretraining, supervised fine-tuning, reinforcement learning from human feedback, and red teaming, etc. In this study, we discover that chat in cipher can bypass the safety alignment techniques of LLMs, which are mainly conducted in natural languages. We propose a novel framework CipherChat to systematically examine the generalizability of safety alignment to non-natural languages -- ciphers. CipherChat enables humans to chat with LLMs through cipher prompts topped with system role descriptions and few-shot enciphered demonstrations. We use CipherChat to assess state-of-the-art LLMs, including ChatGPT and GPT-4 for different representative human ciphers across 11 safety domains in both English and Chinese. Experimental results show that certain ciphers succeed almost 100% of the time to bypass the safety alignment of GPT-4 in several safety domains, demonstrating the necessity of developing safety alignment for non-natural languages. Notably, we identify that LLMs seem to have a ''secret cipher'', and propose a novel SelfCipher that uses only role play and several demonstrations in natural language to evoke this capability. SelfCipher surprisingly outperforms existing human ciphers in almost all cases. Our code and data will be released at this https URL.
Youliang Yuan, Wenxiang Jiao, Wenxuan Wang, Jen-tse Huang, Pinjia He, Shuming Shi, Zhaopeng Tu
9/5/2023 A Simple and Effective Pruning Approach for Large Language Models
As their size increases, Large Languages Models (LLMs) are natural candidates for network pruning methods: approaches that drop a subset of network weights while striving to preserve performance. Existing methods, however, require either retraining, which is rarely affordable for billion-scale LLMs, or solving a weight reconstruction problem reliant on second-order information, which may also be computationally expensive. In this paper, we introduce a novel, straightforward yet effective pruning method, termed Wanda (Pruning by Weights and activations), designed to induce sparsity in pretrained LLMs. Motivated by the recent observation of emergent large magnitude features in LLMs, our approach prune weights with the smallest magnitudes multiplied by the corresponding input activations, on a per-output basis. Notably, Wanda requires no retraining or weight update, and the pruned LLM can be used as is. We conduct a thorough evaluation of our method on LLaMA across various language benchmarks. Wanda significantly outperforms the established baseline of magnitude pruning and competes favorably against recent methods involving intensive weight update. Code is available at this https URL.
Mingjie Sun, Zhuang Liu, Anna Bair, J. Zico Kolter
9/5/2023 How is ChatGPT's behavior changing over time?
GPT-3.5 and GPT-4 are the two most widely used large language model (LLM) services. However, when and how these models are updated over time is opaque. Here, we evaluate the March 2023 and June 2023 versions of GPT-3.5 and GPT-4 on four diverse tasks: 1) solving math problems, 2) answering sensitive/dangerous questions, 3) generating code and 4) visual reasoning. We find that the performance and behavior of both GPT-3.5 and GPT-4 can vary greatly over time. For example, GPT-4 (March 2023) was very good at identifying prime numbers (accuracy 97.6%) but GPT-4 (June 2023) was very poor on these same questions (accuracy 2.4%). Interestingly GPT-3.5 (June 2023) was much better than GPT-3.5 (March 2023) in this task. GPT-4 was less willing to answer sensitive questions in June than in March, and both GPT-4 and GPT-3.5 had more formatting mistakes in code generation in June than in March. Overall, our findings shows that the behavior of the same LLM service can change substantially in a relatively short amount of time, highlighting the need for continuous monitoring of LLM quality.
Lingjiao Chen, Matei Zaharia, James Zou
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9/5/2023 CMMLU: Measuring massive multitask language understanding in Chinese
As the capabilities of large language models (LLMs) continue to advance, evaluating their performance becomes increasingly crucial and challenging. This paper aims to bridge this gap by introducing CMMLU, a comprehensive Chinese benchmark that covers various subjects, including natural science, social sciences, engineering, and humanities. We conduct a thorough evaluation of 18 advanced multilingual- and Chinese-oriented LLMs, assessing their performance across different subjects and settings. The results reveal that most existing LLMs struggle to achieve an average accuracy of 50%, even when provided with in-context examples and chain-of-thought prompts, whereas the random baseline stands at 25%. This highlights significant room for improvement in LLMs. Additionally, we conduct extensive experiments to identify factors impacting the models' performance and propose directions for enhancing LLMs. CMMLU fills the gap in evaluating the knowledge and reasoning capabilities of large language models within the Chinese context.
Haonan Li, Yixuan Zhang, Fajri Koto, Yifei Yang, Hai Zhao, Yeyun Gong, Nan Duan, Timothy Baldwin
9/5/2023 LLaSM: Large Language and Speech Model
Multi-modal large language models have garnered significant interest recently. Though, most of the works focus on vision-language multi-modal models providing strong capabilities in following vision-and-language instructions. However, we claim that speech is also an important modality through which humans interact with the world. Hence, it is crucial for a general-purpose assistant to be able to follow multi-modal speech-and-language instructions. In this work, we propose Large Language and Speech Model (LLaSM). LLaSM is an end-to-end trained large multi-modal speech-language model with cross-modal conversational abilities, capable of following speech-and-language instructions. Our early experiments show that LLaSM demonstrates a more convenient and natural way for humans to interact with artificial intelligence. Specifically, we also release a large Speech Instruction Following dataset LLaSM-Audio-Instructions. Code and demo are available at this https URL and this https URL. The LLaSM-Audio-Instructions dataset is available at this https URL.
Yu Shu, Siwei Dong, Guangyao Chen, Wenhao Huang, Ruihua Zhang, Daochen Shi, Qiqi Xiang, Yemin Shi
9/5/2023 WanJuan: A Comprehensive Multimodal Dataset for Advancing English and Chinese Large Models
The rise in popularity of ChatGPT and GPT-4 has significantly accelerated the development of large models, leading to the creation of numerous impressive large language models(LLMs) and multimodal large language models (MLLMs). These cutting-edge models owe their remarkable performance to high-quality data. However, the details of the training data used in leading paradigms are often kept confidential. This lack of transparency, coupled with the scarcity of open-source data, impedes further developments within the community. As a response, this paper presents "Wan Juan", a large-scale multimodal dataset composed of both Chinese and English data, collected from a wide range of web sources. The dataset incorporates text, image-text, and video modalities, with a total volume exceeding 2TB. It was utilized in the training of InternLM, a model that demonstrated significant advantages in multi-dimensional evaluations when compared to models of a similar scale. All data can be accessed at this https URL.
Conghui He, Zhenjiang Jin, Chao Xu, Jiantao Qiu, Bin Wang, Wei Li, Hang Yan, Jiaqi Wang, Dahua Lin
9/5/2023 EduChat: A Large-Scale Language Model-based Chatbot System for Intelligent Education
EduChat ( is a large-scale language model (LLM)-based chatbot system in the education domain. Its goal is to support personalized, fair, and compassionate intelligent education, serving teachers, students, and parents. Guided by theories from psychology and education, it further strengthens educational functions such as open question answering, essay assessment, Socratic teaching, and emotional support based on the existing basic LLMs. Particularly, we learn domain-specific knowledge by pre-training on the educational corpus and stimulate various skills with tool use by fine-tuning on designed system prompts and instructions. Currently, EduChat is available online as an open-source project, with its code, data, and model parameters available on platforms (e.g., GitHub this https URL, Hugging Face this https URL ). We also prepare a demonstration of its capabilities online (this https URL). This initiative aims to promote research and applications of LLMs for intelligent education.
Yuhao Dan, Zhikai Lei, Yiyang Gu, Yong Li, Jianghao Yin, Jiaju Lin, Linhao Ye, Zhiyan Tie, Yougen Zhou, Yilei Wang, Aimin Zhou, Ze Zhou, Qin Chen, Jie Zhou, Liang He, Xipeng Qiu
9/5/2023 WizMap: Scalable Interactive Visualization for Exploring Large Machine Learning Embeddings
Machine learning models often learn latent embedding representations that capture the domain semantics of their training data. These embedding representations are valuable for interpreting trained models, building new models, and analyzing new datasets. However, interpreting and using embeddings can be challenging due to their opaqueness, high dimensionality, and the large size of modern datasets. To tackle these challenges, we present WizMap, an interactive visualization tool to help researchers and practitioners easily explore large embeddings. With a novel multi-resolution embedding summarization method and a familiar map-like interaction design, WizMap enables users to navigate and interpret embedding spaces with ease. Leveraging modern web technologies such as WebGL and Web Workers, WizMap scales to millions of embedding points directly in users' web browsers and computational notebooks without the need for dedicated backend servers. WizMap is open-source and available at the following public demo link: this https URL.
Zijie J. Wang, Fred Hohman, Duen Horng Chau
9/5/2023 CValues: Measuring the Values of Chinese Large Language Models from Safety to Responsibility
With the rapid evolution of large language models (LLMs), there is a growing concern that they may pose risks or have negative social impacts. Therefore, evaluation of human values alignment is becoming increasingly important. Previous work mainly focuses on assessing the performance of LLMs on certain knowledge and reasoning abilities, while neglecting the alignment to human values, especially in a Chinese context. In this paper, we present CValues, the first Chinese human values evaluation benchmark to measure the alignment ability of LLMs in terms of both safety and responsibility criteria. As a result, we have manually collected adversarial safety prompts across 10 scenarios and induced responsibility prompts from 8 domains by professional experts. To provide a comprehensive values evaluation of Chinese LLMs, we not only conduct human evaluation for reliable comparison, but also construct multi-choice prompts for automatic evaluation. Our findings suggest that while most Chinese LLMs perform well in terms of safety, there is considerable room for improvement in terms of responsibility. Moreover, both the automatic and human evaluation are important for assessing the human values alignment in different aspects. The benchmark and code is available on ModelScope and Github.
Guohai Xu, Jiayi Liu, Ming Yan, Haotian Xu, Jinghui Si, Zhuoran Zhou, Peng Yi, Xing Gao, Jitao Sang, Rong Zhang, Ji Zhang, Chao Peng, Fei Huang, Jingren Zhou
9/5/2023 Stack More Layers Differently: High-Rank Training Through Low-Rank Updates
Despite the dominance and effectiveness of scaling, resulting in large networks with hundreds of billions of parameters, the necessity to train overparametrized models remains poorly understood, and alternative approaches do not necessarily make it cheaper to train high-performance models. In this paper, we explore low-rank training techniques as an alternative approach to training large neural networks. We introduce a novel method called ReLoRA, which utilizes low-rank updates to train high-rank networks. We apply ReLoRA to pre-training transformer language models with up to 350M parameters and demonstrate comparable performance to regular neural network training. Furthermore, we observe that the efficiency of ReLoRA increases with model size, making it a promising approach for training multi-billion-parameter networks efficiently. Our findings shed light on the potential of low-rank training techniques and their implications for scaling laws.
Vladislav Lialin, Namrata Shivagunde, Sherin Muckatira, Anna Rumshisky
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9/5/2023 BayLing: Bridging Cross-lingual Alignment and Instruction Following through Interactive Translation for Large Language Models
Large language models (LLMs) have demonstrated remarkable prowess in language understanding and generation. Advancing from foundation LLMs to instructionfollowing LLMs, instruction tuning plays a vital role in aligning LLMs to human preferences. However, the existing LLMs are usually focused on English, leading to inferior performance in non-English languages. In order to improve the performance for non-English languages, it is necessary to collect language-specific training data for foundation LLMs and construct language-specific instructions for instruction tuning, both of which are heavy loads. To minimize human workload, we propose to transfer the capabilities of language generation and instruction following from English to other languages through an interactive translation task. We have developed BayLing, an instruction-following LLM by utilizing LLaMA as the foundation LLM and automatically constructing interactive translation instructions for instructing tuning. Extensive assessments demonstrate that BayLing achieves comparable performance to GPT-3.5-turbo, despite utilizing a considerably smaller parameter size of only 13 billion. Experimental results on translation tasks show that BayLing achieves 95% of single-turn translation capability compared to GPT-4 with automatic evaluation and 96% of interactive translation capability compared to GPT-3.5-turbo with human evaluation. To estimate the performance on general tasks, we created a multi-turn instruction test set called BayLing-80. The experimental results on BayLing-80 indicate that BayLing achieves 89% of performance compared to GPT-3.5-turbo. BayLing also demonstrates outstanding performance on knowledge assessment of Chinese GaoKao and English SAT, second only to GPT-3.5-turbo among a multitude of instruction-following LLMs. Demo, homepage, code and models of BayLing are available.
Shaolei Zhang, Qingkai Fang, Zhuocheng Zhang, Zhengrui Ma, Yan Zhou, Langlin Huang, Mengyu Bu, Shangtong Gui, Yunji Chen, Xilin Chen, Yang Feng
9/5/2023 OctoPack: Instruction Tuning Code Large Language Models
Finetuning large language models (LLMs) on instructions leads to vast performance improvements on natural language tasks. We apply instruction tuning using code, leveraging the natural structure of Git commits, which pair code changes with human instructions. We compile CommitPack: 4 terabytes of Git commits across 350 programming languages. We benchmark CommitPack against other natural and synthetic code instructions (xP3x, Self-Instruct, OASST) on the 16B parameter StarCoder model, and achieve state-of-the-art performance among models not trained on OpenAI outputs, on the HumanEval Python benchmark (46.2% pass@1). We further introduce HumanEvalPack, expanding the HumanEval benchmark to a total of 3 coding tasks (Code Repair, Code Explanation, Code Synthesis) across 6 languages (Python, JavaScript, Java, Go, C++, Rust). Our models, OctoCoder and OctoGeeX, achieve the best performance across HumanEvalPack among all permissive models, demonstrating CommitPack's benefits in generalizing to a wider set of languages and natural coding tasks. Code, models and data are freely available at this https URL.
Niklas Muennighoff, Qian Liu, Armel Zebaze, Qinkai Zheng, Binyuan Hui, Terry Yue Zhuo, Swayam Singh, Xiangru Tang, Leandro von Werra, Shayne Longpre
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9/5/2023 SynJax: Structured Probability Distributions for JAX
The development of deep learning software libraries enabled significant progress in the field by allowing users to focus on modeling, while letting the library to take care of the tedious and time-consuming task of optimizing execution for modern hardware accelerators. However, this has benefited only particular types of deep learning models, such as Transformers, whose primitives map easily to the vectorized computation. The models that explicitly account for structured objects, such as trees and segmentations, did not benefit equally because they require custom algorithms that are difficult to implement in a vectorized form. SynJax directly addresses this problem by providing an efficient vectorized implementation of inference algorithms for structured distributions covering alignment, tagging, segmentation, constituency trees and spanning trees. With SynJax we can build large-scale differentiable models that explicitly model structure in the data. The code is available at this https URL.
Miloš Stanojevi?, Laurent Sartran
9/5/2023 Unleashing Cognitive Synergy in Large Language Models: A Task-Solving Agent through Multi-Persona Self-Collaboration
Human intelligence thrives on the concept of cognitive synergy, where collaboration and information integration among different cognitive processes yield superior outcomes compared to individual cognitive processes in isolation. Although Large Language Models (LLMs) have demonstrated promising performance as general task-solving agents, they still struggle with tasks that require intensive domain knowledge and complex reasoning. In this work, we propose Solo Performance Prompting (SPP), which transforms a single LLM into a cognitive synergist by engaging in multi-turn self-collaboration with multiple personas. A cognitive synergist refers to an intelligent agent that collaborates with multiple minds, combining their individual strengths and knowledge, to enhance problem-solving and overall performance in complex tasks. By dynamically identifying and simulating different personas based on task inputs, SPP unleashes the potential of cognitive synergy in LLMs. We have discovered that assigning multiple, fine-grained personas in LLMs elicits better problem-solving abilities compared to using a single or fixed number of personas. We evaluate SPP on three challenging tasks: Trivia Creative Writing, Codenames Collaborative, and Logic Grid Puzzle, encompassing both knowledge-intensive and reasoning-intensive types. Unlike previous works, such as Chain-of-Thought, that solely enhance the reasoning abilities in LLMs, SPP effectively elicits internal knowledge acquisition abilities, reduces hallucination, and maintains strong reasoning capabilities. Code, data, and prompts can be found at: this https URL.
Zhenhailong Wang, Shaoguang Mao, Wenshan Wu, Tao Ge, Furu Wei, Heng Ji
9/5/2023 When Do Program-of-Thoughts Work for Reasoning?
The reasoning capabilities of Large Language Models (LLMs) play a pivotal role in the realm of embodied artificial intelligence. Although there are effective methods like program-of-thought prompting for LLMs which uses programming language to tackle complex reasoning tasks, the specific impact of code data on the improvement of reasoning capabilities remains under-explored. To address this gap, we propose complexity-impacted reasoning score (CIRS), which combines structural and logical attributes, to measure the correlation between code and reasoning abilities. Specifically, we use the abstract syntax tree to encode the structural information and calculate logical complexity by considering the difficulty and the cyclomatic complexity. Through an empirical analysis, we find not all code data of complexity can be learned or understood by LLMs. Optimal level of complexity is critical to the improvement of reasoning abilities by program-aided prompting. Then we design an auto-synthesizing and stratifying algorithm, and apply it to instruction generation for mathematical reasoning and code data filtering for code generation tasks. Extensive results demonstrates the effectiveness of our proposed approach. Code will be integrated into the EasyInstruct framework at this https URL.
Zhen Bi, Ningyu Zhang, Yinuo Jiang, Shumin Deng, Guozhou Zheng, Huajun Chen
9/5/2023 Efficiently Measuring the Cognitive Ability of LLMs: An Adaptive Testing Perspective
Large language models (LLMs), like ChatGPT, have shown some human-like cognitive abilities. For comparing these abilities of different models, several benchmarks (i.e. sets of standard test questions) from different fields (e.g., Literature, Biology and Psychology) are often adopted and the test results under traditional metrics such as accuracy, recall and F1, are reported. However, such way for evaluating LLMs can be inefficient and inaccurate from the cognitive science perspective. Inspired by Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT) used in psychometrics, we propose an adaptive testing framework for LLM evaluation. Rather than using a standard test set and simply reporting accuracy, this approach dynamically adjusts the characteristics of the test questions, such as difficulty, based on the model's performance. This allows for a more accurate estimation of the model's abilities, using fewer questions. More importantly, it allows LLMs to be compared with humans easily, which is essential for NLP models that aim for human-level ability. Our diagnostic reports have found that ChatGPT often behaves like a ``careless student'', prone to slip and occasionally guessing the questions. We conduct a fine-grained diagnosis and rank the latest 6 instruction-tuned LLMs from three aspects of Subject Knowledge, Mathematical Reasoning, and Programming, where GPT4 can outperform other models significantly and reach the cognitive ability of middle-level students. Different tests for different models using efficient adaptive testing -- we believe this has the potential to become a new norm in evaluating large language models.
Yan Zhuang, Qi Liu, Yuting Ning, Weizhe Huang, Rui Lv, Zhenya Huang, Guanhao Zhao, Zheng Zhang, Qingyang Mao, Shijin Wang, Enhong Chen
9/5/2023 LongBench: A Bilingual, Multitask Benchmark for Long Context Understanding
Although large language models (LLMs) demonstrate impressive performance for many language tasks, most of them can only handle texts a few thousand tokens long, limiting their applications on longer sequence inputs, such as books, reports, and codebases. Recent works have proposed methods to improve LLMs' long context capabilities by extending context windows and more sophisticated memory mechanisms. However, comprehensive benchmarks tailored for evaluating long context understanding are lacking. In this paper, we introduce LongBench, the first bilingual, multi-task benchmark for long context understanding, enabling a more rigorous evaluation of long context understanding. LongBench comprises 21 datasets across 6 task categories in both English and Chinese, with an average length of 6,711 words (English) and 13,386 characters (Chinese). These tasks cover key long-text application areas including single-doc QA, multi-doc QA, summarization, few-shot learning, synthetic tasks, and code completion. All datasets in LongBench are standardized into a unified format, allowing for effortless automatic evaluation of LLMs. Upon comprehensive evaluation of 8 LLMs on LongBench, we find that: (1) Commercial model (GPT-3.5-Turbo-16k) outperforms other open-sourced models, but still struggles on longer contexts. (2) Scaled position embedding and fine-tuning on longer sequences lead to substantial improvement on long context understanding. (3) Context compression technique such as retrieval brings improvement for model with weak ability on long contexts, but the performance still lags behind models that have strong long context understanding capability. The code and datasets are available at this https URL.
Yushi Bai, Xin Lv, Jiajie Zhang, Hongchang Lyu, Jiankai Tang, Zhidian Huang, Zhengxiao Du, Xiao Liu, Aohan Zeng, Lei Hou, Yuxiao Dong, Jie Tang, Juanzi Li
9/5/2023 Shepherd: A Critic for Language Model Generation
As large language models improve, there is increasing interest in techniques that leverage these models' capabilities to refine their own outputs. In this work, we introduce Shepherd, a language model specifically tuned to critique responses and suggest refinements, extending beyond the capabilities of an untuned model to identify diverse errors and provide suggestions to remedy them. At the core of our approach is a high quality feedback dataset, which we curate from community feedback and human annotations. Even though Shepherd is small (7B parameters), its critiques are either equivalent or preferred to those from established models including ChatGPT. Using GPT-4 for evaluation, Shepherd reaches an average win-rate of 53-87% compared to competitive alternatives. In human evaluation, Shepherd strictly outperforms other models and on average closely ties with ChatGPT.
Tianlu Wang, Ping Yu, Xiaoqing Ellen Tan, Sean O'Brien, Ramakanth Pasunuru, Jane Dwivedi-Yu, Olga Golovneva, Luke Zettlemoyer, Maryam Fazel-Zarandi, Asli Celikyilmaz
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9/5/2023 MagicBrush: A Manually Annotated Dataset for Instruction-Guided Image Editing
Text-guided image editing is widely needed in daily life, ranging from personal use to professional applications such as Photoshop. However, existing methods are either zero-shot or trained on an automatically synthesized dataset, which contains a high volume of noise. Thus, they still require lots of manual tuning to produce desirable outcomes in practice. To address this issue, we introduce MagicBrush (this https URL), the first large-scale, manually annotated dataset for instruction-guided real image editing that covers diverse scenarios: single-turn, multi-turn, mask-provided, and mask-free editing. MagicBrush comprises over 10K manually annotated triples (source image, instruction, target image), which supports trainining large-scale text-guided image editing models. We fine-tune InstructPix2Pix on MagicBrush and show that the new model can produce much better images according to human evaluation. We further conduct extensive experiments to evaluate current image editing baselines from multiple dimensions including quantitative, qualitative, and human evaluations. The results reveal the challenging nature of our dataset and the gap between current baselines and real-world editing needs.
Kai Zhang, Lingbo Mo, Wenhu Chen, Huan Sun, Yu Su
9/5/2023 DISC-MedLLM: Bridging General Large Language Models and Real-World Medical Consultation
We propose DISC-MedLLM, a comprehensive solution that leverages Large Language Models (LLMs) to provide accurate and truthful medical response in end-to-end conversational healthcare services. To construct high-quality Supervised Fine-Tuning (SFT) datasets, we employ three strategies: utilizing medical knowledge-graphs, reconstructing real-world dialogues, and incorporating human-guided preference rephrasing. These datasets are instrumental in training DISC-MedLLM, surpassing existing medical LLMs in both single-turn and multi-turn consultation scenarios. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model in bridging the gap between general language models and real-world medical consultation. Additionally, we release the constructed dataset and model weights to further contribute to research and development. Further details and resources can be found at this https URL
Zhijie Bao, Wei Chen, Shengze Xiao, Kuang Ren, Jiaao Wu, Cheng Zhong, Jiajie Peng, Xuanjing Huang, Zhongyu Wei
9/5/2023 Drive Like a Human: Rethinking Autonomous Driving with Large Language Models
In this paper, we explore the potential of using a large language model (LLM) to understand the driving environment in a human-like manner and analyze its ability to reason, interpret, and memorize when facing complex scenarios. We argue that traditional optimization-based and modular autonomous driving (AD) systems face inherent performance limitations when dealing with long-tail corner cases. To address this problem, we propose that an ideal AD system should drive like a human, accumulating experience through continuous driving and using common sense to solve problems. To achieve this goal, we identify three key abilities necessary for an AD system: reasoning, interpretation, and memorization. We demonstrate the feasibility of employing an LLM in driving scenarios by building a closed-loop system to showcase its comprehension and environment-interaction abilities. Our extensive experiments show that the LLM exhibits the impressive ability to reason and solve long-tailed cases, providing valuable insights for the development of human-like autonomous driving. The related code are available at this https URL .
Daocheng Fu, Xin Li, Licheng Wen, Min Dou, Pinlong Cai, Botian Shi, Yu Qiao
9/5/2023 LegalBench: A Collaboratively Built Benchmark for Measuring Legal Reasoning in Large Language Models
The advent of large language models (LLMs) and their adoption by the legal community has given rise to the question: what types of legal reasoning can LLMs perform? To enable greater study of this question, we present LegalBench: a collaboratively constructed legal reasoning benchmark consisting of 162 tasks covering six different types of legal reasoning. LegalBench was built through an interdisciplinary process, in which we collected tasks designed and hand-crafted by legal professionals. Because these subject matter experts took a leading role in construction, tasks either measure legal reasoning capabilities that are practically useful, or measure reasoning skills that lawyers find interesting. To enable cross-disciplinary conversations about LLMs in the law, we additionally show how popular legal frameworks for describing legal reasoning -- which distinguish between its many forms -- correspond to LegalBench tasks, thus giving lawyers and LLM developers a common vocabulary. This paper describes LegalBench, presents an empirical evaluation of 20 open-source and commercial LLMs, and illustrates the types of research explorations LegalBench enables.
Neel Guha, Julian Nyarko, Daniel E. Ho, Christopher Ré, Adam Chilton, Aditya Narayana, Alex Chohlas-Wood, Austin Peters, Brandon Waldon, Daniel N. Rockmore, Diego Zambrano, Dmitry Talisman, Enam Hoque, Faiz Surani, Frank Fagan, Galit Sarfaty, Gregory M. Dickinson, Haggai Porat, Jason Hegland, Jessica Wu, Joe Nudell, Joel Niklaus, John Nay, Jonathan H. Choi, Kevin Tobia, Margaret Hagan, Megan Ma, Michael Livermore, Nikon Rasumov-Rahe, Nils Holzenberger, Noam Kolt, Peter Henderson, Sean Rehaag, Sharad Goel, Shang Gao, Spencer Williams, Sunny Gandhi, Tom Zur, Varun Iyer, Zehua Li
9/5/2023 LLM As DBA
Database administrators (DBAs) play a crucial role in managing, maintaining and optimizing a database system to ensure data availability, performance, and reliability. However, it is hard and tedious for DBAs to manage a large number of database instances (e.g., millions of instances on the cloud databases). Recently large language models (LLMs) have shown great potential to understand valuable documents and accordingly generate reasonable answers. Thus, we propose D-Bot, a LLM-based database administrator that can continuously acquire database maintenance experience from textual sources, and provide reasonable, well-founded, in-time diagnosis and optimization advice for target databases. This paper presents a revolutionary LLM-centric framework for database maintenance, including (i) database maintenance knowledge detection from documents and tools, (ii) tree of thought reasoning for root cause analysis, and (iii) collaborative diagnosis among multiple LLMs. Our preliminary experimental results that D-Bot can efficiently and effectively diagnose the root causes and our code is available at this http URL.
Xuanhe Zhou, Guoliang Li, Zhiyuan Liu
9/5/2023 Copy Is All You Need
The dominant text generation models compose the output by sequentially selecting words from a fixed vocabulary. In this paper, we formulate text generation as progressively copying text segments (e.g., words or phrases) from an existing text collection. We compute the contextualized representations of meaningful text segments and index them using efficient vector search toolkits. The task of text generation is then decomposed into a series of copy-and-paste operations: at each time step, we seek suitable text spans from the text collection rather than selecting from a standalone vocabulary. Experiments on the standard language modeling benchmark (WikiText-103) show that our approach achieves better generation quality according to both automatic and human evaluations. Besides, its inference efficiency is comparable to token-level autoregressive models thanks to the reduction of decoding steps. We also show that our approach allows for effective domain adaptation by simply switching to domain-specific text collection without extra training. Finally, we observe that our approach attains additional performance gains by simply scaling up to larger text collections, again without further training.\footnote{Our source codes are publicly available at \url{this https URL}.}
Tian Lan, Deng Cai, Yan Wang, Heyan Huang, Xian-Ling Mao
9/5/2023 Advancing Hungarian Text Processing with HuSpaCy: Efficient and Accurate NLP Pipelines
This paper presents a set of industrial-grade text processing models for Hungarian that achieve near state-of-the-art performance while balancing resource efficiency and accuracy. Models have been implemented in the spaCy framework, extending the HuSpaCy toolkit with several improvements to its architecture. Compared to existing NLP tools for Hungarian, all of our pipelines feature all basic text processing steps including tokenization, sentence-boundary detection, part-of-speech tagging, morphological feature tagging, lemmatization, dependency parsing and named entity recognition with high accuracy and throughput. We thoroughly evaluated the proposed enhancements, compared the pipelines with state-of-the-art tools and demonstrated the competitive performance of the new models in all text preprocessing steps. All experiments are reproducible and the pipelines are freely available under a permissive license.
Gyorgy Orosz, Gergo Szabó, Peter Berkecz, Zsolt Szanto, Richard Farkas
9/5/2023 SONAR: Sentence-Level Multimodal and Language-Agnostic Representations
We introduce SONAR, a new multilingual and multimodal fixed-size sentence embedding space. Our single text encoder, covering 200 languages, substantially outperforms existing sentence embeddings such as LASER3 and LabSE on the xsim and xsim++ multilingual similarity search tasks. Speech segments can be embedded in the same SONAR embedding space using language-specific speech encoders trained in a teacher-student setting on speech transcription data. Our encoders outperform existing speech encoders on similarity search tasks. We also provide a text decoder for 200 languages, which allows us to perform text-to-text and speech-to-text machine translation, including for zero-shot language and modality combinations. Our text-to-text results are competitive compared to the state-of-the-art NLLB~1B model, despite the fixed-size bottleneck representation. Our zero-shot speech-to-text translation results compare favorably with strong supervised baselines such as Whisper.
Paul-Ambroise Duquenne, Holger Schwenk, Benoit Sagot
9/5/2023 L-Eval: Instituting Standardized Evaluation for Long Context Language Models
Recently, there has been growing interest in extending the context length of instruction-following models in order to effectively process single-turn long input (e.g. summarizing a paper) and conversations with more extensive histories. While proprietary models such as GPT-4 and Claude have demonstrated considerable advancements in handling tens of thousands of tokens of context, open-sourced models are still in the early stages of experimentation. It also remains unclear whether developing these long context models can offer substantial gains on practical downstream tasks over retrieval-based methods or models simply trained on chunked contexts. To address this challenge, we propose to institute standardized evaluation for long context language models. Concretely, we develop L-Eval which contains 411 long documents and over 2,000 query-response pairs manually annotated and checked by the authors encompassing areas such as law, finance, school lectures, lengthy conversations, news, long-form novels, and meetings. L-Eval also adopts diverse evaluation methods and instruction styles, enabling a more reliable assessment of Long Context Language Models (LCLMs). Our findings indicate that while open-source models typically lag behind their commercial counterparts, they still exhibit impressive performance. LLaMA2 achieves the best results (win 45\% vs turbo-16k) on open-ended tasks with only 4k context length and ChatGLM2 achieves the best results on closed-ended tasks with 8k input tokens. We release our new evaluation suite, code, and all generation results including predictions from all open-sourced LCLMs, GPT4-32k, Cluade-100k at {\url{this https URL}}.
Chenxin An, Shansan Gong, Ming Zhong, Mukai Li, Jun Zhang, Lingpeng Kong, Xipeng Qiu
9/5/2023 LLaVAR: Enhanced Visual Instruction Tuning for Text-Rich Image Understanding
Instruction tuning unlocks the superior capability of Large Language Models (LLM) to interact with humans. Furthermore, recent instruction-following datasets include images as visual inputs, collecting responses for image-based instructions. However, visual instruction-tuned models cannot comprehend textual details within images well. This work enhances the current visual instruction tuning pipeline with text-rich images (e.g., movie posters, book covers, etc.). Specifically, we first use publicly available OCR tools to collect results on 422K text-rich images from the LAION dataset. Moreover, we prompt text-only GPT-4 with recognized texts and image captions to generate 16K conversations, each containing question-answer pairs for text-rich images. By combining our collected data with previous multi-modal instruction-following data, our model, LLaVAR, substantially improves the LLaVA model's capability on text-based VQA datasets (up to 20% accuracy improvement) while achieving an accuracy of 91.42% on ScienceQA. The GPT-4-based instruction-following evaluation also demonstrates the improvement of our model on both natural images and text-rich images. Through qualitative analysis, LLaVAR shows promising interaction (e.g., reasoning, writing, and elaboration) skills with humans based on the latest real-world online content that combines text and images. We make our code/data/models publicly available at this https URL.
Yanzhe Zhang, Ruiyi Zhang, Jiuxiang Gu, Yufan Zhou, Nedim Lipka, Diyi Yang, Tong Sun
9/5/2023 mPLUG-DocOwl: Modularized Multimodal Large Language Model for Document Understanding
Document understanding refers to automatically extract, analyze and comprehend information from various types of digital documents, such as a web page. Existing Multi-model Large Language Models (MLLMs), including mPLUG-Owl, have demonstrated promising zero-shot capabilities in shallow OCR-free text recognition, indicating their potential for OCR-free document understanding. Nevertheless, without in-domain training, these models tend to ignore fine-grained OCR features, such as sophisticated tables or large blocks of text, which are essential for OCR-free document understanding. In this paper, we propose mPLUG-DocOwl based on mPLUG-Owl for OCR-free document understanding. Specifically, we first construct a instruction tuning dataset featuring a wide range of visual-text understanding tasks. Then, we strengthen the OCR-free document understanding ability by jointly train the model on language-only, general vision-and-language, and document instruction tuning dataset with our unified instruction tuning strategy. We also build an OCR-free document instruction understanding evaluation set LLMDoc to better compare models' capabilities on instruct compliance and document understanding. Experimental results show that our model outperforms existing multi-modal models, demonstrating its strong ability of document understanding. Besides, without specific fine-tuning, mPLUG-DocOwl generalizes well on various downstream tasks. Our code, models, training data and evaluation set are available at this https URL.
Jiabo Ye, Anwen Hu, Haiyang Xu, Qinghao Ye, Ming Yan, Yuhao Dan, Chenlin Zhao, Guohai Xu, Chenliang Li, Junfeng Tian, Qian Qi, Ji Zhang, Fei Huang
9/5/2023 From Word Models to World Models: Translating from Natural Language to the Probabilistic Language of Thought
How does language inform our downstream thinking? In particular, how do humans make meaning from language -- and how can we leverage a theory of linguistic meaning to build machines that think in more human-like ways? In this paper, we propose \textit{rational meaning construction}, a computational framework for language-informed thinking that combines neural models of language with probabilistic models for rational inference. We frame linguistic meaning as a context-sensitive mapping from natural language into a \textit{probabilistic language of thought} (PLoT) -- a general-purpose symbolic substrate for probabilistic, generative world modeling. Our architecture integrates two powerful computational tools that have not previously come together: we model thinking with \textit{probabilistic programs}, an expressive representation for flexible commonsense reasoning; and we model meaning construction with \textit{large language models} (LLMs), which support broad-coverage translation from natural language utterances to code expressions in a probabilistic programming language. We illustrate our framework in action through examples covering four core domains from cognitive science: probabilistic reasoning, logical and relational reasoning, visual and physical reasoning, and social reasoning about agents and their plans. In each, we show that LLMs can generate context-sensitive translations that capture pragmatically-appropriate linguistic meanings, while Bayesian inference with the generated programs supports coherent and robust commonsense reasoning. We extend our framework to integrate cognitively-motivated symbolic modules to provide a unified commonsense thinking interface from language. Finally, we explore how language can drive the construction of world models themselves.
Lionel Wong, Gabriel Grand, Alexander K. Lew, Noah D. Goodman, Vikash K. Mansinghka, Jacob Andreas, Joshua B. Tenenbaum
Jupyter Notebook
9/5/2023 OmniQuant: Omnidirectionally Calibrated Quantization for Large Language Models
Large language models (LLMs) have revolutionized natural language processing tasks. However, their practical deployment is hindered by their immense memory and computation requirements. Although recent post-training quantization (PTQ) methods are effective in reducing memory footprint and improving the computational efficiency of LLM, they hand-craft quantization parameters, which leads to low performance and fails to deal with extremely low-bit quantization. To tackle this issue, we introduce an Omnidirectionally calibrated Quantization (OmniQuant) technique for LLMs, which achieves good performance in diverse quantization settings while maintaining the computational efficiency of PTQ by efficiently optimizing various quantization parameters. OmniQuant comprises two innovative components including Learnable Weight Clipping (LWC) and Learnable Equivalent Transformation (LET). LWC modulates the extreme values of weights by optimizing the clipping threshold. Meanwhile, LET tackles activation outliers by shifting the challenge of quantization from activations to weights through a learnable equivalent transformation. Operating within a differentiable framework using block-wise error minimization, OmniQuant can optimize the quantization process efficiently for both weight-only and weight-activation quantization. For instance, the LLaMA-2 model family with the size of 7-70B can be processed with OmniQuant on a single A100-40G GPU within 1-16 hours using 128 samples. Extensive experiments validate OmniQuant's superior performance across diverse quantization configurations such as W4A4, W6A6, W4A16, W3A16, and W2A16. Additionally, OmniQuant demonstrates effectiveness in instruction-tuned models and delivers notable improvements in inference speed and memory reduction on real devices. Codes and models are available at \url{this https URL}.
Wenqi Shao, Mengzhao Chen, Zhaoyang Zhang, Peng Xu, Lirui Zhao, Zhiqian Li, Kaipeng Zhang, Peng Gao, Yu Qiao, Ping Luo
9/5/2023 Automatically Correcting Large Language Models: Surveying the landscape of diverse self-correction strategies
Large language models (LLMs) have demonstrated remarkable performance across a wide array of NLP tasks. However, their efficacy is undermined by undesired and inconsistent behaviors, including hallucination, unfaithful reasoning, and toxic content. A promising approach to rectify these flaws is self-correction, where the LLM itself is prompted or guided to fix problems in its own output. Techniques leveraging automated feedback -- either produced by the LLM itself or some external system -- are of particular interest as they are a promising way to make LLM-based solutions more practical and deployable with minimal human feedback. This paper presents a comprehensive review of this emerging class of techniques. We analyze and taxonomize a wide array of recent work utilizing these strategies, including training-time, generation-time, and post-hoc correction. We also summarize the major applications of this strategy and conclude by discussing future directions and challenges.
Liangming Pan, Michael Saxon, Wenda Xu, Deepak Nathani, Xinyi Wang, William Yang Wang
9/5/2023 Zhongjing: Enhancing the Chinese Medical Capabilities of Large Language Model through Expert Feedback and Real-world Multi-turn Dialogue
Recent advances in Large Language Models (LLMs) have achieved remarkable breakthroughs in understanding and responding to user intents. However, their performance lag behind general use cases in some expertise domains, such as Chinese medicine. Existing efforts to incorporate Chinese medicine into LLMs rely on Supervised Fine-Tuning (SFT) with single-turn and distilled dialogue data. These models lack the ability for doctor-like proactive inquiry and multi-turn comprehension and cannot always align responses with safety and professionalism experts. In this work, we introduce Zhongjing, the first Chinese medical LLaMA-based LLM that implements an entire training pipeline from pre-training to reinforcement learning with human feedback (RLHF). Additionally, we introduce a Chinese multi-turn medical dialogue dataset of 70,000 authentic doctor-patient dialogues, CMtMedQA, which significantly enhances the model's capability for complex dialogue and proactive inquiry initiation. We define a refined annotation rule and evaluation criteria given the biomedical domain's unique characteristics. Results show that our model outperforms baselines in various capacities and matches the performance of ChatGPT in a few abilities, despite having 50x training data with previous best model and 100x parameters with ChatGPT. RLHF further improves the model's instruction-following ability and safety. We also release our code, datasets and model for further research.
Songhua Yang, Hanjia Zhao, Senbin Zhu, Guangyu Zhou, Hongfei Xu, Yuxiang Jia, Hongying Zan
9/5/2023 FLASK: Fine-grained Language Model Evaluation based on Alignment Skill Sets
Evaluation of Large Language Models (LLMs) is challenging because aligning to human values requires the composition of multiple skills and the required set of skills varies depending on the instruction. Recent studies have evaluated the performance of LLMs in two ways, (1) automatic evaluation on several independent benchmarks and (2) human or machined-based evaluation giving an overall score to the response. However, both settings are coarse-grained evaluations, not considering the nature of user instructions that require instance-wise skill composition, which limits the interpretation of the true capabilities of LLMs. In this paper, we introduce FLASK (Fine-grained Language Model Evaluation based on Alignment SKill Sets), a fine-grained evaluation protocol that can be used for both model-based and human-based evaluation which decomposes coarse-level scoring to an instance-wise skill set-level. Specifically, we define 12 fine-grained skills needed for LLMs to follow open-ended user instructions and construct an evaluation set by allocating a set of skills for each instance. Additionally, by annotating the target domains and difficulty level for each instance, FLASK provides a holistic view with a comprehensive analysis of a model's performance depending on skill, domain, and difficulty. Through using FLASK, we compare multiple open-sourced and proprietary LLMs and observe highly-correlated findings between model-based and human-based evaluations. FLASK enables developers to more accurately measure the model performance and how it can be improved by analyzing factors that make LLMs proficient in particular skills. For practitioners, FLASK can be used to recommend suitable models for particular situations through comprehensive comparison among various LLMs. We release the evaluation data and code implementation at this https URL.
Seonghyeon Ye, Doyoung Kim, Sungdong Kim, Hyeonbin Hwang, Seungone Kim, Yongrae Jo, James Thorne, Juho Kim, Minjoon Seo
9/5/2023 SEED-Bench: Benchmarking Multimodal LLMs with Generative Comprehension
Based on powerful Large Language Models (LLMs), recent generative Multimodal Large Language Models (MLLMs) have gained prominence as a pivotal research area, exhibiting remarkable capability for both comprehension and generation. In this work, we address the evaluation of generative comprehension in MLLMs as a preliminary step towards a comprehensive assessment of generative models, by introducing a benchmark named SEED-Bench. SEED-Bench consists of 19K multiple choice questions with accurate human annotations (x 6 larger than existing benchmarks), which spans 12 evaluation dimensions including the comprehension of both the image and video modality. We develop an advanced pipeline for generating multiple-choice questions that target specific evaluation dimensions, integrating both automatic filtering and manual verification processes. Multiple-choice questions with groundtruth options derived from human annotation enables an objective and efficient assessment of model performance, eliminating the need for human or GPT intervention during evaluation. We further evaluate the performance of 18 models across all 12 dimensions, covering both the spatial and temporal understanding. By revealing the limitations of existing MLLMs through evaluation results, we aim for SEED-Bench to provide insights for motivating future research. We will launch and consistently maintain a leaderboard to provide a platform for the community to assess and investigate model capability.
Bohao Li, Rui Wang, Guangzhi Wang, Yuying Ge, Yixiao Ge, Ying Shan
9/5/2023 SimplyRetrieve: A Private and Lightweight Retrieval-Centric Generative AI Tool
Large Language Model (LLM) based Generative AI systems have seen significant progress in recent years. Integrating a knowledge retrieval architecture allows for seamless integration of private data into publicly available Generative AI systems using pre-trained LLM without requiring additional model fine-tuning. Moreover, Retrieval-Centric Generation (RCG) approach, a promising future research direction that explicitly separates roles of LLMs and retrievers in context interpretation and knowledge memorization, potentially leads to more efficient implementation. SimplyRetrieve is an open-source tool with the goal of providing a localized, lightweight, and user-friendly interface to these sophisticated advancements to the machine learning community. SimplyRetrieve features a GUI and API based RCG platform, assisted by a Private Knowledge Base Constructor and a Retrieval Tuning Module. By leveraging these capabilities, users can explore the potential of RCG for improving generative AI performance while maintaining privacy standards. The tool is available at this https URL with an MIT license.
Youyang Ng, Daisuke Miyashita, Yasuto Hoshi, Yasuhiro Morioka, Osamu Torii, Tomoya Kodama, Jun Deguchi
9/5/2023 DeepOnto: A Python Package for Ontology Engineering with Deep Learning
Applying deep learning techniques, particularly language models (LMs), in ontology engineering has raised widespread attention. However, deep learning frameworks like PyTorch and Tensorflow are predominantly developed for Python programming, while widely-used ontology APIs, such as the OWL API and Jena, are primarily Java-based. To facilitate seamless integration of these frameworks and APIs, we present Deeponto, a Python package designed for ontology engineering. The package encompasses a core ontology processing module founded on the widely-recognised and reliable OWL API, encapsulating its fundamental features in a more "Pythonic" manner and extending its capabilities to include other essential components including reasoning, verbalisation, normalisation, projection, and more. Building on this module, Deeponto offers a suite of tools, resources, and algorithms that support various ontology engineering tasks, such as ontology alignment and completion, by harnessing deep learning methodologies, primarily pre-trained LMs. In this paper, we also demonstrate the practical utility of Deeponto through two use-cases: the Digital Health Coaching in Samsung Research UK and the Bio-ML track of the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative (OAEI).
Yuan He, Jiaoyan Chen, Hang Dong, Ian Horrocks, Carlo Allocca, Taehun Kim, Brahmananda Sapkota
9/5/2023 Scaling Data Generation in Vision-and-Language Navigation
Recent research in language-guided visual navigation has demonstrated a significant demand for the diversity of traversable environments and the quantity of supervision for training generalizable agents. To tackle the common data scarcity issue in existing vision-and-language navigation datasets, we propose an effective paradigm for generating large-scale data for learning, which applies 1200+ photo-realistic environments from HM3D and Gibson datasets and synthesizes 4.9 million instruction trajectory pairs using fully-accessible resources on the web. Importantly, we investigate the influence of each component in this paradigm on the agent's performance and study how to adequately apply the augmented data to pre-train and fine-tune an agent. Thanks to our large-scale dataset, the performance of an existing agent can be pushed up (+11% absolute with regard to previous SoTA) to a significantly new best of 80% single-run success rate on the R2R test split by simple imitation learning. The long-lasting generalization gap between navigating in seen and unseen environments is also reduced to less than 1% (versus 8% in the previous best method). Moreover, our paradigm also facilitates different models to achieve new state-of-the-art navigation results on CVDN, REVERIE, and R2R in continuous environments.
Zun Wang, Jialu Li, Yicong Hong, Yi Wang, Qi Wu, Mohit Bansal, Stephen Gould, Hao Tan, Yu Qiao
9/5/2023 Flacuna: Unleashing the Problem Solving Power of Vicuna using FLAN Fine-Tuning
Recently, the release of INSTRUCTEVAL has provided valuable insights into the performance of large language models (LLMs) that utilize encoder-decoder or decoder-only architecture. Interestingly, despite being introduced four years ago, T5-based LLMs, such as FLAN-T5, continue to outperform the latest decoder-based LLMs, such as LLAMA and VICUNA, on tasks that require general problem-solving skills. This performance discrepancy can be attributed to three key factors: (1) Pre-training data, (2) Backbone architecture, and (3) Instruction dataset. In this technical report, our main focus is on investigating the impact of the third factor by leveraging VICUNA, a large language model based on LLAMA, which has undergone fine-tuning on ChatGPT conversations. To achieve this objective, we fine-tuned VICUNA using a customized instruction dataset collection called FLANMINI. This collection includes a subset of the large-scale instruction dataset known as FLAN, as well as various code-related datasets and conversational datasets derived from ChatGPT/GPT-4. This dataset comprises a large number of tasks that demand problem-solving skills. Our experimental findings strongly indicate that the enhanced problem-solving abilities of our model, FLACUNA, are obtained through fine-tuning VICUNA on the FLAN dataset, leading to significant improvements across numerous benchmark datasets in INSTRUCTEVAL. FLACUNA is publicly available at this https URL.
Deepanway Ghosal, Yew Ken Chia, Navonil Majumder, Soujanya Poria
9/5/2023 PointLLM: Empowering Large Language Models to Understand Point Clouds
The unprecedented advancements in Large Language Models (LLMs) have created a profound impact on natural language processing but are yet to fully embrace the realm of 3D understanding. This paper introduces PointLLM, a preliminary effort to fill this gap, thereby enabling LLMs to understand point clouds and offering a new avenue beyond 2D visual data. PointLLM processes colored object point clouds with human instructions and generates contextually appropriate responses, illustrating its grasp of point clouds and common sense. Specifically, it leverages a point cloud encoder with a powerful LLM to effectively fuse geometric, appearance, and linguistic information. We collect a novel dataset comprising 660K simple and 70K complex point-text instruction pairs to enable a two-stage training strategy: initially aligning latent spaces and subsequently instruction-tuning the unified model. To rigorously evaluate our model's perceptual abilities and its generalization capabilities, we establish two benchmarks: Generative 3D Object Classification and 3D Object Captioning, assessed through three different methods, including human evaluation, GPT-4/ChatGPT evaluation, and traditional metrics. Experiment results show that PointLLM demonstrates superior performance over existing 2D baselines. Remarkably, in human-evaluated object captioning tasks, PointLLM outperforms human annotators in over 50% of the samples. Codes, datasets, and benchmarks are available at this https URL .
Runsen Xu, Xiaolong Wang, Tai Wang, Yilun Chen, Jiangmiao Pang, Dahua Lin
9/5/2023 Camoscio: an Italian Instruction-tuned LLaMA
In recent years Large Language Models (LLMs) have increased the state of the art on several natural language processing tasks. However, their accessibility is often limited to paid API services, posing challenges for researchers in conducting extensive investigations. On the other hand, while some open-source models have been proposed by the community, they are typically multilingual and not specifically tailored for the Italian language. In an effort to democratize the available and open resources for the Italian language, in this paper we introduce Camoscio: a language model specifically tuned to follow users' prompts in Italian. Specifically, we finetuned the smallest variant of LLaMA (7b) with LoRA on a corpus of instruction prompts translated to Italian via ChatGPT. Results indicate that the model's zero-shot performance on various downstream tasks in Italian competes favorably with existing models specifically finetuned for those tasks. All the artifacts (code, dataset, model) are released to the community at the following url: this https URL
Andrea Santilli, Emanuele Rodolà
Jupyter Notebook
9/5/2023 ChatGPT for Digital Forensic Investigation: The Good, The Bad, and The Unknown
The disruptive application of ChatGPT (GPT-3.5, GPT-4) to a variety of domains has become a topic of much discussion in the scientific community and society at large. Large Language Models (LLMs), e.g., BERT, Bard, Generative Pre-trained Transformers (GPTs), LLaMA, etc., have the ability to take instructions, or prompts, from users and generate answers and solutions based on very large volumes of text-based training data. This paper assesses the impact and potential impact of ChatGPT on the field of digital forensics, specifically looking at its latest pre-trained LLM, GPT-4. A series of experiments are conducted to assess its capability across several digital forensic use cases including artefact understanding, evidence searching, code generation, anomaly detection, incident response, and education. Across these topics, its strengths and risks are outlined and a number of general conclusions are drawn. Overall this paper concludes that while there are some potential low-risk applications of ChatGPT within digital forensics, many are either unsuitable at present, since the evidence would need to be uploaded to the service, or they require sufficient knowledge of the topic being asked of the tool to identify incorrect assumptions, inaccuracies, and mistakes. However, to an appropriately knowledgeable user, it could act as a useful supporting tool in some circumstances.
Mark Scanlon, Frank Breitinger, Christopher Hargreaves, Jan-Niclas Hilgert, John Sheppard
9/5/2023 GrammarGPT: Exploring Open-Source LLMs for Native Chinese Grammatical Error Correction with Supervised Fine-Tuning
Grammatical error correction aims to correct ungrammatical sentences automatically. Recently, some work has demonstrated the excellent capabilities of closed-source Large Language Models (LLMs, e.g., ChatGPT) in grammatical error correction. However, the potential of open-source LLMs remains unexplored. In this paper, we introduced GrammarGPT, an open-source LLM, to preliminary explore its potential for native Chinese grammatical error correction. The core recipe of GrammarGPT is to leverage the hybrid dataset of ChatGPT-generated and human-annotated. For grammatical errors with clues, we proposed a heuristic method to guide ChatGPT to generate ungrammatical sentences by providing those clues. For grammatical errors without clues, we collected ungrammatical sentences from publicly available websites and manually corrected them. In addition, we employed an error-invariant augmentation method to enhance the ability of the model to correct native Chinese grammatical errors. We ultimately constructed about 1k parallel data and utilized these data to fine-tune open-source LLMs (e.g., Phoenix, released by The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen) with instruction tuning. The experimental results show that GrammarGPT outperforms the existing SOTA system significantly. Although model parameters are 20x larger than the SOTA baseline, the required amount of data for instruction tuning is 1200x smaller, illustrating the potential of open-source LLMs on native CGEC. Our GrammarGPT ranks $3^{rd}$ on NLPCC2023 SharedTask1, demonstrating our approach's effectiveness. The code and data are available at \url{this https URL}.
Yaxin Fan, Feng Jiang, Peifeng Li, Haizhou Li
9/5/2023 3HAN: A Deep Neural Network for Fake News Detection
The rapid spread of fake news is a serious problem calling for AI solutions. We employ a deep learning based automated detector through a three level hierarchical attention network (3HAN) for fast, accurate detection of fake news. 3HAN has three levels, one each for words, sentences, and the headline, and constructs a news vector: an effective representation of an input news article, by processing an article in an hierarchical bottom-up manner. The headline is known to be a distinguishing feature of fake news, and furthermore, relatively few words and sentences in an article are more important than the rest. 3HAN gives a differential importance to parts of an article, on account of its three layers of attention. By experiments on a large real-world data set, we observe the effectiveness of 3HAN with an accuracy of 96.77%. Unlike some other deep learning models, 3HAN provides an understandable output through the attention weights given to different parts of an article, which can be visualized through a heatmap to enable further manual fact checking.
Sneha Singhania, Nigel Fernandez, Shrisha Rao
9/5/2023 Simple synthetic data reduces sycophancy in large language models
Sycophancy is an undesirable behavior where models tailor their responses to follow a human user's view even when that view is not objectively correct (e.g., adapting liberal views once a user reveals that they are liberal). In this paper, we study the prevalence of sycophancy in language models and propose a simple synthetic-data intervention to reduce this behavior. First, on a set of three sycophancy tasks (Perez et al., 2022) where models are asked for an opinion on statements with no correct answers (e.g., politics), we observe that both model scaling and instruction tuning significantly increase sycophancy for PaLM models up to 540B parameters. Second, we extend sycophancy evaluations to simple addition statements that are objectively incorrect, finding that despite knowing that these statements are wrong, language models will still agree with them if the user does as well. To reduce sycophancy, we present a straightforward synthetic-data intervention that takes public NLP tasks and encourages models to be robust to user opinions on these tasks. Adding these data in a lightweight finetuning step can significantly reduce sycophantic behavior on held-out prompts. Code for generating synthetic data for intervention can be found at this https URL.
Jerry Wei, Da Huang, Yifeng Lu, Denny Zhou, Quoc V. Le
9/5/2023 Large Language Models for Information Retrieval: A Survey
As a primary means of information acquisition, information retrieval (IR) systems, such as search engines, have integrated themselves into our daily lives. These systems also serve as components of dialogue, question-answering, and recommender systems. The trajectory of IR has evolved dynamically from its origins in term-based methods to its integration with advanced neural models. While the neural models excel at capturing complex contextual signals and semantic nuances, thereby reshaping the IR landscape, they still face challenges such as data scarcity, interpretability, and the generation of contextually plausible yet potentially inaccurate responses. This evolution requires a combination of both traditional methods (such as term-based sparse retrieval methods with rapid response) and modern neural architectures (such as language models with powerful language understanding capacity). Meanwhile, the emergence of large language models (LLMs), typified by ChatGPT and GPT-4, has revolutionized natural language processing due to their remarkable language understanding, generation, generalization, and reasoning abilities. Consequently, recent research has sought to leverage LLMs to improve IR systems. Given the rapid evolution of this research trajectory, it is necessary to consolidate existing methodologies and provide nuanced insights through a comprehensive overview. In this survey, we delve into the confluence of LLMs and IR systems, including crucial aspects such as query rewriters, retrievers, rerankers, and readers. Additionally, we explore promising directions within this expanding field.
Yutao Zhu, Huaying Yuan, Shuting Wang, Jiongnan Liu, Wenhan Liu, Chenlong Deng, Zhicheng Dou, Ji-Rong Wen
9/5/2023 Scaling Relationship on Learning Mathematical Reasoning with Large Language Models
Mathematical reasoning is a challenging task for large language models (LLMs), while the scaling relationship of it with respect to LLM capacity is under-explored. In this paper, we investigate how the pre-training loss, supervised data amount, and augmented data amount influence the reasoning performances of a supervised LLM. We find that pre-training loss is a better indicator of the model's performance than the model's parameter count. We apply supervised fine-tuning (SFT) with different amounts of supervised data and empirically find a log-linear relation between data amount and model performance, and we find better models improve less with enlarged supervised datasets. To augment more data samples for improving model performances without any human effort, we propose to apply Rejection sampling Fine-Tuning (RFT). RFT uses supervised models to generate and collect correct reasoning paths as augmented fine-tuning datasets. We find with augmented samples containing more distinct reasoning paths, RFT improves mathematical reasoning performance more for LLMs. We also find RFT brings more improvement for less performant LLMs. Furthermore, we combine rejection samples from multiple models which push LLaMA-7B to an accuracy of 49.3% and outperforms the supervised fine-tuning (SFT) accuracy of 35.9% significantly.
Zheng Yuan, Hongyi Yuan, Chengpeng Li, Guanting Dong, Chuanqi Tan, Chang Zhou
9/5/2023 Mol-Instructions: A Large-Scale Biomolecular Instruction Dataset for Large Language Models
Large Language Models (LLMs), with their remarkable task-handling capabilities and innovative outputs, have catalyzed significant advancements across a spectrum of fields. However, their proficiency within specialized domains such as biomolecular studies remains limited. To address this challenge, we introduce Mol-Instructions, a meticulously curated, comprehensive instruction dataset expressly designed for the biomolecular realm. Mol-Instructions is composed of three pivotal components: molecule-oriented instructions, protein-oriented instructions, and biomolecular text instructions, each curated to enhance the understanding and prediction capabilities of LLMs concerning biomolecular features and behaviors. Through extensive instruction tuning experiments on the representative LLM, we underscore the potency of Mol-Instructions to enhance the adaptability and cognitive acuity of large models within the complex sphere of biomolecular studies, thereby promoting advancements in the biomolecular research community. Mol-Instructions is made publicly accessible for future research endeavors and will be subjected to continual updates for enhanced applicability.
Yin Fang, Xiaozhuan Liang, Ningyu Zhang, Kangwei Liu, Rui Huang, Zhuo Chen, Xiaohui Fan, Huajun Chen
9/5/2023 Towards Generalist Foundation Model for Radiology
In this study, we aim to initiate the development of Radiology Foundation Model, termed as RadFM.We consider the construction of foundational models from the perspectives of data, model design, and evaluation thoroughly. Our contribution can be concluded as follows: (i), we construct a large-scale Medical Multi-modal Dataset, MedMD, consisting of 16M 2D and 3D medical scans. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first multi-modal dataset containing 3D medical scans. (ii), We propose an architecture that enables visually conditioned generative pre-training, allowing for the integration of text input interleaved with 2D or 3D medical scans to generate response for diverse radiologic tasks. The model was initially pre-trained on MedMD and subsequently domain-specific fine-tuned on RadMD, a radiologic cleaned version of MedMD, containing 3M radiologic visual-language pairs. (iii), we propose a new evaluation benchmark that comprises five tasks, aiming to comprehensively assess the capability of foundation models in handling practical clinical problems. Our experimental results confirm that RadFM significantly outperforms existing multi-modal foundation models. The codes, data, and model checkpoint will all be made publicly available to promote further research and development in the field.
Chaoyi Wu, Xiaoman Zhang, Ya Zhang, Yanfeng Wang, Weidi Xie
9/5/2023 RLTF: Reinforcement Learning from Unit Test Feedback
The goal of program synthesis, or code generation, is to generate executable code based on given descriptions. Recently, there has been an increasing number of studies employing reinforcement learning (RL) to improve the performance of large language models (LLMs) for code. However, these RL methods have only used offline frameworks, limiting their exploration of new sample spaces. Additionally, current approaches that utilize unit test signals are rather simple, not accounting for specific error locations within the code. To address these issues, we proposed RLTF, i.e., Reinforcement Learning from Unit Test Feedback, a novel online RL framework with unit test feedback of multi-granularity for refining code LLMs. Our approach generates data in real-time during training and simultaneously utilizes fine-grained feedback signals to guide the model towards producing higher-quality code. Extensive experiments show that RLTF achieves state-of-the-art performance on the APPS and the MBPP benchmarks. Our code can be found at: this https URL.
Jiate Liu, Yiqin Zhu, Kaiwen Xiao, Qiang Fu, Xiao Han, Wei Yang, Deheng Ye
9/5/2023 SeqGPT: An Out-of-the-box Large Language Model for Open Domain Sequence Understanding
Large language models (LLMs) have shown impressive ability for open-domain NLP tasks. However, LLMs are sometimes too footloose for natural language understanding (NLU) tasks which always have restricted output and input format. Their performances on NLU tasks are highly related to prompts or demonstrations and are shown to be poor at performing several representative NLU tasks, such as event extraction and entity typing. To this end, we present SeqGPT, a bilingual (i.e., English and Chinese) open-source autoregressive model specially enhanced for open-domain natural language understanding. We express all NLU tasks with two atomic tasks, which define fixed instructions to restrict the input and output format but still ``open'' for arbitrarily varied label sets. The model is first instruction-tuned with extremely fine-grained labeled data synthesized by ChatGPT and then further fine-tuned by 233 different atomic tasks from 152 datasets across various domains. The experimental results show that SeqGPT has decent classification and extraction ability, and is capable of performing language understanding tasks on unseen domains. We also conduct empirical studies on the scaling of data and model size as well as on the transfer across tasks. Our model is accessible at this https URL.
Tianyu Yu, Chengyue Jiang, Chao Lou, Shen Huang, Xiaobin Wang, Wei Liu, Jiong Cai, Yangning Li, Yinghui Li, Kewei Tu, Hai-Tao Zheng, Ningyu Zhang, Pengjun Xie, Fei Huang, Yong Jiang
9/5/2023 mBLIP: Efficient Bootstrapping of Multilingual Vision-LLMs
Modular vision-language models (Vision-LLMs) align pretrained image encoders with (pretrained) large language models (LLMs), representing a computationally much more efficient alternative to end-to-end training of large vision-language models from scratch, which is prohibitively expensive for most. Vision-LLMs instead post-hoc condition LLMs to `understand' the output of an image encoder. With the abundance of readily available high-quality English image-text data as well as monolingual English LLMs, the research focus has been on English-only Vision-LLMs. Multilingual vision-language models are still predominantly obtained via expensive end-to-end pretraining, resulting in comparatively smaller models, trained on limited multilingual image data supplemented with text-only multilingual corpora. In this work, we present mBLIP, the first multilingual Vision-LLM, which we obtain in a computationally efficient manner -- on consumer hardware using only a few million training examples -- by leveraging a pretrained multilingual LLM. To this end, we \textit{re-align} an image encoder previously tuned to an English LLM to a new, multilingual LLM -- for this, we leverage multilingual data from a mix of vision-and-language tasks, which we obtain by machine-translating high-quality English data to 95 languages. On the IGLUE benchmark, mBLIP yields results competitive with state-of-the-art models. Moreover, in image captioning on XM3600, mBLIP (zero-shot) even outperforms PaLI-X (a model with 55B parameters). Compared to these very large multilingual vision-language models trained from scratch, we obtain mBLIP by training orders of magnitude fewer parameters on magnitudes less data. We release our model and code at \url{this https URL}.
Gregor Geigle, Abhay Jain, Radu Timofte, Goran Glavaš
9/5/2023 MM-Vet: Evaluating Large Multimodal Models for Integrated Capabilities
We propose MM-Vet, an evaluation benchmark that examines large multimodal models (LMMs) on complicated multimodal tasks. Recent LMMs have shown various intriguing abilities, such as solving math problems written on the blackboard, reasoning about events and celebrities in news images, and explaining visual jokes. Rapid model advancements pose challenges to evaluation benchmark development. Problems include: (1) How to systematically structure and evaluate the complicated multimodal tasks; (2) How to design evaluation metrics that work well across question and answer types; and (3) How to give model insights beyond a simple performance ranking. To this end, we present MM-Vet, designed based on the insight that the intriguing ability to solve complicated tasks is often achieved by a generalist model being able to integrate different core vision-language (VL) capabilities. MM-Vet defines 6 core VL capabilities and examines the 16 integrations of interest derived from the capability combination. For evaluation metrics, we propose an LLM-based evaluator for open-ended outputs. The evaluator enables the evaluation across different question types and answer styles, resulting in a unified scoring metric. We evaluate representative LMMs on MM-Vet, providing insights into the capabilities of different LMM system paradigms and models. Code and data are available at this https URL.
Weihao Yu, Zhengyuan Yang, Linjie Li, Jianfeng Wang, Kevin Lin, Zicheng Liu, Xinchao Wang, Lijuan Wang
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