# The NLP Index

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11/20/2022 On Analyzing the Role of Image for Visual-enhanced Relation Extraction
Multimodal relation extraction is an essential task for knowledge graph construction. In this paper, we take an in-depth empirical analysis that indicates the inaccurate information in the visual scene graph leads to poor modal alignment weights, further degrading performance. Moreover, the visual shuffle experiments illustrate that the current approaches may not take full advantage of visual information. Based on the above observation, we further propose a strong baseline with an implicit fine-grained multimodal alignment based on Transformer for multimodal relation extraction. Experimental results demonstrate the better performance of our method. Codes are available at this https URL.
Lei Li, Xiang Chen, Shuofei Qiao, Feiyu Xiong, Huajun Chen, Ningyu Zhang
1482
Python
11/20/2022 Galactica: A Large Language Model for Science
Information overload is a major obstacle to scientific progress. The explosive growth in scientific literature and data has made it ever harder to discover useful insights in a large mass of information. Today scientific knowledge is accessed through search engines, but they are unable to organize scientific knowledge alone. In this paper we introduce Galactica: a large language model that can store, combine and reason about scientific knowledge. We train on a large scientific corpus of papers, reference material, knowledge bases and many other sources. We outperform existing models on a range of scientific tasks. On technical knowledge probes such as LaTeX equations, Galactica outperforms the latest GPT-3 by 68.2% versus 49.0%. Galactica also performs well on reasoning, outperforming Chinchilla on mathematical MMLU by 41.3% to 35.7%, and PaLM 540B on MATH with a score of 20.4% versus 8.8%. It also sets a new state-of-the-art on downstream tasks such as PubMedQA and MedMCQA dev of 77.6% and 52.9%. And despite not being trained on a general corpus, Galactica outperforms BLOOM and OPT-175B on BIG-bench. We believe these results demonstrate the potential for language models as a new interface for science. We open source the model for the benefit of the scientific community.
Ross Taylor, Marcin Kardas, Guillem Cucurull, Thomas Scialom, Anthony Hartshorn, Elvis Saravia, Andrew Poulton, Viktor Kerkez, Robert Stojnic
1346
Python
11/20/2022 AltCLIP: Altering the Language Encoder in CLIP for Extended Language Capabilities
In this work, we present a conceptually simple and effective method to train a strong bilingual multimodal representation model. Starting from the pretrained multimodal representation model CLIP released by OpenAI, we switched its text encoder with a pretrained multilingual text encoder XLM-R, and aligned both languages and image representations by a two-stage training schema consisting of teacher learning and contrastive learning. We validate our method through evaluations of a wide range of tasks. We set new state-of-the-art performances on a bunch of tasks including ImageNet-CN, Flicker30k- CN, and COCO-CN. Further, we obtain very close performances with CLIP on almost all tasks, suggesting that one can simply alter the text encoder in CLIP for extended capabilities such as multilingual understanding. Our models and code are available at this https URL.
Zhongzhi Chen, Guang Liu, Bo-Wen Zhang, Fulong Ye, Qinghong Yang, Ledell Wu
305
Python
11/20/2022 EVA: Exploring the Limits of Masked Visual Representation Learning at Scale
We launch EVA, a vision-centric foundation model to explore the limits of visual representation at scale using only publicly accessible data. EVA is a vanilla ViT pre-trained to reconstruct the masked out image-text aligned vision features conditioned on visible image patches. Via this pretext task, we can efficiently scale up EVA to one billion parameters, and sets new records on a broad range of representative vision downstream tasks, such as image recognition, video action recognition, object detection, instance segmentation and semantic segmentation without heavy supervised training. Moreover, we observe quantitative changes in scaling EVA result in qualitative changes in transfer learning performance that are not present in other models. For instance, EVA takes a great leap in the challenging large vocabulary instance segmentation task: our model achieves almost the same state-of-the-art performance on LVISv1.0 dataset with over a thousand categories and COCO dataset with only eighty categories. Beyond a pure vision encoder, EVA can also serve as a vision-centric, multi-modal pivot to connect images and text. We find initializing the vision tower of a giant CLIP from EVA can greatly stabilize the training and outperform the training from scratch counterpart with much fewer samples and less compute, providing a new direction for scaling up and accelerating the costly training of multi-modal foundation models. To facilitate future research, we will release all the code and models at \url{this https URL}.
Yuxin Fang, Wen Wang, Binhui Xie, Quan Sun, Ledell Wu, Xinggang Wang, Tiejun Huang, Xinlong Wang, Yue Cao
94
Python
11/20/2022 Pseudo-Q: Generating Pseudo Language Queries for Visual Grounding
Visual grounding, i.e., localizing objects in images according to natural language queries, is an important topic in visual language understanding. The most effective approaches for this task are based on deep learning, which generally require expensive manually labeled image-query or patch-query pairs. To eliminate the heavy dependence on human annotations, we present a novel method, named Pseudo-Q, to automatically generate pseudo language queries for supervised training. Our method leverages an off-the-shelf object detector to identify visual objects from unlabeled images, and then language queries for these objects are obtained in an unsupervised fashion with a pseudo-query generation module. Then, we design a task-related query prompt module to specifically tailor generated pseudo language queries for visual grounding tasks. Further, in order to fully capture the contextual relationships between images and language queries, we develop a visual-language model equipped with multi-level cross-modality attention mechanism. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that our method has two notable benefits: (1) it can reduce human annotation costs significantly, e.g., 31% on RefCOCO without degrading original model's performance under the fully supervised setting, and (2) without bells and whistles, it achieves superior or comparable performance compared to state-of-the-art weakly-supervised visual grounding methods on all the five datasets we have experimented. Code is available at this https URL.
Haojun Jiang, Yuanze Lin, Dongchen Han, Shiji Song, Gao Huang
82
Python
11/20/2022 Easy Guided Decoding in Providing Suggestions for Interactive Machine Translation
Fully machine translation scarcely guarantees error-free results. Humans perform post-editing on machine generated translations to correct errors in the scenario of computer aided translation. In favor of expediting the post-editing process, recent works have investigated machine translation in an interactive mode, where machines can automatically refine the rest of translations constrained on human's edits. In this paper, we utilize the parameterized objective function of neural machine translation and propose an easy constrained decoding algorithm to improve the translation quality without additional training. We demonstrate its capability and time efficiency on a benchmark dataset, WeTS, where it conditions on humans' guidelines by selecting spans with potential errors. In the experimental results, our algorithm is significantly superior to state-of-the-art lexically constrained decoding method by an increase of 10.37 BLEU in translation quality and a decrease of 63.4% in time cost on average. It even outperforms the benchmark systems trained with a large amount of annotated data on WeTS in English-German and German-English.
Ke Wang, Xin Ge, Yuqi Zhang, Yu Zhao, Jiayi Wang
53
11/20/2022 Holistic Evaluation of Language Models
Language models (LMs) are becoming the foundation for almost all major language technologies, but their capabilities, limitations, and risks are not well understood. We present Holistic Evaluation of Language Models (HELM) to improve the transparency of language models. First, we taxonomize the vast space of potential scenarios (i.e. use cases) and metrics (i.e. desiderata) that are of interest for LMs. Then we select a broad subset based on coverage and feasibility, noting what's missing or underrepresented (e.g. question answering for neglected English dialects, metrics for trustworthiness). Second, we adopt a multi-metric approach: We measure 7 metrics (accuracy, calibration, robustness, fairness, bias, toxicity, and efficiency) for each of 16 core scenarios when possible (87.5% of the time). This ensures metrics beyond accuracy don't fall to the wayside, and that trade-offs are clearly exposed. We also perform 7 targeted evaluations, based on 26 targeted scenarios, to analyze specific aspects (e.g. reasoning, disinformation). Third, we conduct a large-scale evaluation of 30 prominent language models (spanning open, limited-access, and closed models) on all 42 scenarios, 21 of which were not previously used in mainstream LM evaluation. Prior to HELM, models on average were evaluated on just 17.9% of the core HELM scenarios, with some prominent models not sharing a single scenario in common. We improve this to 96.0%: now all 30 models have been densely benchmarked on the same core scenarios and metrics under standardized conditions. Our evaluation surfaces 25 top-level findings. For full transparency, we release all raw model prompts and completions publicly for further analysis, as well as a general modular toolkit. We intend for HELM to be a living benchmark for the community, continuously updated with new scenarios, metrics, and models.
Percy Liang, Rishi Bommasani, Tony Lee, Dimitris Tsipras, Dilara Soylu, Michihiro Yasunaga, Yian Zhang, Deepak Narayanan, Yuhuai Wu, Ananya Kumar, Benjamin Newman, Binhang Yuan, Bobby Yan, Ce Zhang, Christian Cosgrove, Christopher D. Manning, Christopher Re, Diana Acosta-Navas, Drew A. Hudson, Eric Zelikman, Esin Durmus, Faisal Ladhak, Frieda Rong, Hongyu Ren, Huaxiu Yao, Jue Wang, Keshav Santhanam, Laurel Orr, Lucia Zheng, Mert Yuksekgonul, Mirac Suzgun, Nathan Kim, Neel Guha, Niladri Chatterji, Omar Khattab, Peter Henderson, Qian Huang, Ryan Chi, Sang Michael Xie, Shibani Santurkar, Surya Ganguli, Tatsunori Hashimoto, Thomas Icard, Tianyi Zhang, Vishrav Chaudhary, William Wang, Xuechen Li, Yifan Mai, Yuhui Zhang, Yuta Koreeda
48
Python
11/20/2022 Toward expanding the scope of radiology report summarization to multiple anatomies and modalities
Radiology report summarization is a growing area of research. Given the Findings and/or Background sections of a radiology report, the goal is to generate a summary (called an Impression section) that highlights the key observations and conclusions of the radiology study. Recent efforts have released systems that achieve promising performance as measured by widely used summarization metrics such as BLEU and ROUGE. However, the research area of radiology report summarization currently faces important limitations. First, most of the results are reported on private datasets. This limitation prevents the ability to reproduce results and fairly compare different systems and solutions. Secondly, to the best of our knowledge, most research is carried out on chest X-rays. Sometimes, studies even omit to mention the concerned modality and anatomy in the radiology reports used for their experiments. To palliate these limitations, we propose a new dataset of six different modalities and anatomies based on the MIMIC-III database. We further release our results and the data splits used to carry out our experiments. Finally, we propose a simple report summarization system that outperforms the previous replicable research on the existing dataset.
Jean-Benoit Delbrouck, Maya Varma, Curtis P. Langlotz
36
Python
11/20/2022 A unified one-shot prosody and speaker conversion system with self-supervised discrete speech units
We present a unified system to realize one-shot voice conversion (VC) on the pitch, rhythm, and speaker attributes. Existing works generally ignore the correlation between prosody and language content, leading to the degradation of naturalness in converted speech. Additionally, the lack of proper language features prevents these systems from accurately preserving language content after conversion. To address these issues, we devise a cascaded modular system leveraging self-supervised discrete speech units as language representation. These discrete units provide duration information essential for rhythm modeling. Our system first extracts utterance-level prosody and speaker representations from the raw waveform. Given the prosody representation, a prosody predictor estimates pitch, energy, and duration for each discrete unit in the utterance. A synthesizer further reconstructs speech based on the predicted prosody, speaker representation, and discrete units. Experiments show that our system outperforms previous approaches in naturalness, intelligibility, speaker transferability, and prosody transferability. Code and samples are publicly available.
Li-Wei Chen, Shinji Watanabe, Alexander Rudnicky
30
Python
11/20/2022 RetroMAE v2: Duplex Masked Auto-Encoder For Pre-Training Retrieval-Oriented Language Models
To better support retrieval applications such as web search and question answering, growing effort is made to develop retrieval-oriented language models. Most of the existing works focus on improving the semantic representation capability for the contextualized embedding of [CLS] token. However, recent study shows that the ordinary tokens besides [CLS] may provide extra information, which helps to produce a better representation effect. As such, it's necessary to extend the current methods where all contextualized embeddings can be jointly pre-trained for the retrieval tasks. With this motivation, we propose a new pre-training method: duplex masked auto-encoder, a.k.a. DupMAE, which targets on improving the semantic representation capacity for the contextualized embeddings of both [CLS] and ordinary tokens. It introduces two decoding tasks: one is to reconstruct the original input sentence based on the [CLS] embedding, the other one is to minimize the bag-of-words loss (BoW) about the input sentence based on the entire ordinary tokens' embeddings. The two decoding losses are added up to train a unified encoding model. The embeddings from [CLS] and ordinary tokens, after dimension reduction and aggregation, are concatenated as one unified semantic representation for the input. DupMAE is simple but empirically competitive: with a small decoding cost, it substantially contributes to the model's representation capability and transferability, where remarkable improvements are achieved on MS MARCO and BEIR benchmarks.
Shitao Xiao, Zheng Liu
22
Python
11/20/2022 MT4SSL: Boosting Self-Supervised Speech Representation Learning by Integrating Multiple Targets
In this paper, we provide a new perspective on self-supervised speech models from how the self-training targets are obtained. We generalize the targets extractor into Offline Targets Extractor (Off-TE) and Online Targets Extractor (On-TE), without caring about specific pretext tasks. Based on this, we propose a new multi-tasking learning framework for self-supervised learning, MT4SSL, which stands for Boosting Self-Supervised Speech Representation Learning by Integrating Multiple Targets. MT4SSL refers to two typical models, HuBERT and data2vec, which use the K-means algorithm as an Off-TE and a teacher network without gradients as an On-TE, respectively. Our model outperforms previous SSL methods by nontrivial margins on the LibriSpeech benchmark, and is comparable to or even better than the best-performing models with no need for that much data. Furthermore, we find that using both Off-TE and On-TE results in better convergence in the pre-training phase. With both effectiveness and efficiency, we think that doing multi-task learning on self-supervised speech models from our perspective is a promising trend.
Ziyang Ma, Zhisheng Zhen, Changli Tang, Yujin Wang, Xie Chen
21
Python
11/20/2022 Cross-Modal Adapter for Text-Video Retrieval
Text-video retrieval is an important multi-modal learning task, where the goal is to retrieve the most relevant video for a given text query. Recently, pre-trained models, e.g., CLIP, show great potential on this task. However, as pre-trained models are scaling up, fully fine-tuning them on text-video retrieval datasets has a high risk of overfitting. Moreover, in practice, it would be costly to train and store a large model for each task. To overcome the above issues, we present a novel $\textbf{Cross-Modal Adapter}$ for parameter-efficient fine-tuning. Inspired by adapter-based methods, we adjust the pre-trained model with a few parameterization layers. However, there are two notable differences. First, our method is designed for the multi-modal domain. Secondly, it allows early cross-modal interactions between CLIP's two encoders. Although surprisingly simple, our approach has three notable benefits: (1) reduces $\textbf{99.6}\%$ of fine-tuned parameters, and alleviates the problem of overfitting, (2) saves approximately 30% of training time, and (3) allows all the pre-trained parameters to be fixed, enabling the pre-trained model to be shared across datasets. Extensive experiments demonstrate that, without bells and whistles, it achieves superior or comparable performance compared to fully fine-tuned methods on MSR-VTT, MSVD, VATEX, ActivityNet, and DiDeMo datasets. The code will be available at \url{this https URL}.
Haojun Jiang, Jianke Zhang, Rui Huang, Chunjiang Ge, Zanlin Ni, Jiwen Lu, Jie Zhou, Shiji Song, Gao Huang
21
11/20/2022 MAVEN-ERE: A Unified Large-scale Dataset for Event Coreference, Temporal, Causal, and Subevent Relation Extraction
The diverse relationships among real-world events, including coreference, temporal, causal, and subevent relations, are fundamental to understanding natural languages. However, two drawbacks of existing datasets limit event relation extraction (ERE) tasks: (1) Small scale. Due to the annotation complexity, the data scale of existing datasets is limited, which cannot well train and evaluate data-hungry models. (2) Absence of unified annotation. Different types of event relations naturally interact with each other, but existing datasets only cover limited relation types at once, which prevents models from taking full advantage of relation interactions. To address these issues, we construct a unified large-scale human-annotated ERE dataset MAVEN-ERE with improved annotation schemes. It contains 103,193 event coreference chains, 1,216,217 temporal relations, 57,992 causal relations, and 15,841 subevent relations, which is larger than existing datasets of all the ERE tasks by at least an order of magnitude. Experiments show that ERE on MAVEN-ERE is quite challenging, and considering relation interactions with joint learning can improve performances. The dataset and source codes can be obtained from this https URL.
Xiaozhi Wang, Yulin Chen, Ning Ding, Hao Peng, Zimu Wang, Yankai Lin, Xu Han, Lei Hou, Juanzi Li, Zhiyuan Liu, Peng Li, Jie Zhou
18
Python
11/20/2022 What would Harry say? Building Dialogue Agents for Characters in a Story
We present HPD: Harry Potter Dialogue Dataset to facilitate the study of building dialogue agents for characters in a story. It differs from existing dialogue datasets in two aspects: 1) HPD provides rich background information about the novel Harry Potter, including scene, character attributes, and character relations; 2) All these background information will change as the story goes on. In other words, each dialogue session in HPD correlates to a different background, and the storyline determines how the background changes. We evaluate some baselines (e.g., GPT-2, BOB) on both automatic and human metrics to determine how well they can generate Harry Potter-like responses. Experimental results indicate that although the generated responses are fluent and relevant to the dialogue history, they are remained to sound out of character for Harry, indicating there is a large headroom for future studies. Our dataset is available.
Nuo Chen, Yan Wang, Haiyun Jiang, Deng Cai, Ziyang Chen, Jia Li
17
11/20/2022 UniSumm: Unified Few-shot Summarization with Multi-Task Pre-Training and Prefix-Tuning
The diverse demands of different summarization tasks and their high annotation costs are driving a need for few-shot summarization. However, despite the emergence of many summarization tasks and datasets, the current training paradigm for few-shot summarization systems ignores potentially shareable knowledge in heterogeneous datasets. To this end, we propose \textsc{UniSumm}, a unified few-shot summarization model pre-trained with multiple summarization tasks and can be prefix-tuned to excel at any few-shot summarization datasets. Meanwhile, to better evaluate few-shot summarization systems, under the principles of diversity and robustness, we assemble and publicize a new benchmark \textsc{SummZoo}. It consists of $8$ diverse summarization tasks with multiple sets of few-shot samples for each task, covering both monologue and dialogue domains. Experimental results and ablation studies show that \textsc{UniSumm} outperforms strong baseline systems by a large margin across all tasks in \textsc{SummZoo} under both automatic and human evaluations. We release our code and benchmark at \url{this https URL}.
Yulong Chen, Yang Liu, Ruochen Xu, Ziyi Yang, Chenguang Zhu, Michael Zeng, Yue Zhang
14
11/20/2022 Ignore Previous Prompt: Attack Techniques For Language Models
Transformer-based large language models (LLMs) provide a powerful foundation for natural language tasks in large-scale customer-facing applications. However, studies that explore their vulnerabilities emerging from malicious user interaction are scarce. By proposing PromptInject, a prosaic alignment framework for mask-based iterative adversarial prompt composition, we examine how GPT-3, the most widely deployed language model in production, can be easily misaligned by simple handcrafted inputs. In particular, we investigate two types of attacks -- goal hijacking and prompt leaking -- and demonstrate that even low-aptitude, but sufficiently ill-intentioned agents, can easily exploit GPT-3's stochastic nature, creating long-tail risks. The code for PromptInject is available at this https URL.
Fabio Perez, Ian Ribeiro
12
Python
11/20/2022 kogito: A Commonsense Knowledge Inference Toolkit
In this paper, we present kogito, an open-source tool for generating commonsense inferences about situations described in text. kogito provides an intuitive and extensible interface to interact with natural language generation models that can be used for hypothesizing commonsense knowledge inference from a textual input. In particular, kogito offers several features for targeted, multi-granularity knowledge generation. These include a standardized API for training and evaluating knowledge models, and generating and filtering inferences from them. We also include helper functions for converting natural language texts into a format ingestible by knowledge models - intermediate pipeline stages such as knowledge head extraction from text, heuristic and model-based knowledge head-relation matching, and an ability to define and use custom knowledge relations. We make the code for kogito available at this https URL along with thorough documentation at this https URL.
12
Python
11/20/2022 CST5: Data Augmentation for Code-Switched Semantic Parsing
Extending semantic parsers to code-switched input has been a challenging problem, primarily due to a lack of supervised training data. In this work, we introduce CST5, a new data augmentation technique that finetunes a T5 model using a small seed set ($\approx$100 utterances) to generate code-switched utterances from English utterances. We show that CST5 generates high quality code-switched data, both intrinsically (per human evaluation) and extrinsically by comparing baseline models which are trained without data augmentation to models which are trained with augmented data. Empirically we observe that using CST5, one can achieve the same semantic parsing performance by using up to 20x less labeled data. To aid further research in this area, we are also releasing (a) Hinglish-TOP, the largest human annotated code-switched semantic parsing dataset to date, containing 10k human annotated Hindi-English (Hinglish) code-switched utterances, and (b) Over 170K CST5 generated code-switched utterances from the TOPv2 dataset. Human evaluation shows that both the human annotated data as well as the CST5 generated data is of good quality.
Anmol Agarwal, Jigar Gupta, Rahul Goel, Shyam Upadhyay, Pankaj Joshi, Rengarajan Aravamudhan
12
11/20/2022 Efficient Transformers with Dynamic Token Pooling
Transformers achieve unrivalled performance in modelling language, but remain inefficient in terms of memory and time complexity. A possible remedy is to reduce the sequence length in the intermediate layers by pooling fixed-length segments of tokens. Nevertheless, natural units of meaning, such as words or phrases, display varying sizes. To address this mismatch, we equip language models with a dynamic-pooling mechanism, which predicts segment boundaries in an autoregressive fashion. We compare several methods to infer boundaries, including end-to-end learning through stochastic re-parameterisation, supervised learning (based on segmentations from subword tokenizers or spikes in conditional entropy), as well as linguistically motivated boundaries. We perform character-level evaluation on texts from multiple datasets and morphologically diverse languages. The results demonstrate that dynamic pooling, which jointly segments and models language, is often both faster and more accurate than vanilla Transformers and fixed-length pooling within the same computational budget.
Piotr Nawrot, Jan Chorowski, Adrian Lanucki, Edoardo M. Ponti
10
Python
11/20/2022 Follow the Wisdom of the Crowd: Effective Text Generation via Minimum Bayes Risk Decoding
In open-ended natural-language generation, existing text decoding methods typically struggle to produce text which is both diverse and high-quality. Greedy and beam search are known to suffer from text degeneration and linguistic diversity issues, while temperature, top-k, and nucleus sampling often yield diverse but low-quality outputs. In this work, we present crowd sampling, a family of decoding methods based on Bayesian risk minimization, to address this diversity-quality trade-off. Inspired by the principle of "the wisdom of the crowd," crowd sampling seeks to select a candidate from a pool of candidates that has the least expected risk (i.e., highest expected reward) under a generative model according to a given utility function. Crowd sampling can be seen as a generalization of numerous existing methods, including majority voting, and in practice, it can be used as a drop-in replacement for existing sampling methods. Extensive experiments show that crowd sampling delivers improvements of 3-7 ROUGE and BLEU points across a wide range of tasks, including summarization, data-to-text, translation, and textual style transfer, while achieving new state-of-the-art results on WebNLG and WMT'16.
Mirac Suzgun, Luke Melas-Kyriazi, Dan Jurafsky
8
Python
11/20/2022 Hierarchical Phrase-based Sequence-to-Sequence Learning
We describe a neural transducer that maintains the flexibility of standard sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) models while incorporating hierarchical phrases as a source of inductive bias during training and as explicit constraints during inference. Our approach trains two models: a discriminative parser based on a bracketing transduction grammar whose derivation tree hierarchically aligns source and target phrases, and a neural seq2seq model that learns to translate the aligned phrases one-by-one. We use the same seq2seq model to translate at all phrase scales, which results in two inference modes: one mode in which the parser is discarded and only the seq2seq component is used at the sequence-level, and another in which the parser is combined with the seq2seq model. Decoding in the latter mode is done with the cube-pruned CKY algorithm, which is more involved but can make use of new translation rules during inference. We formalize our model as a source-conditioned synchronous grammar and develop an efficient variational inference algorithm for training. When applied on top of both randomly initialized and pretrained seq2seq models, we find that both inference modes performs well compared to baselines on small scale machine translation benchmarks.
Bailin Wang, Ivan Titov, Jacob Andreas, Yoon Kim
7
Python
11/20/2022 Navigating Connected Memories with a Task-oriented Dialog System
Recent years have seen an increasing trend in the volume of personal media captured by users, thanks to the advent of smartphones and smart glasses, resulting in large media collections. Despite conversation being an intuitive human-computer interface, current efforts focus mostly on single-shot natural language based media retrieval to aid users query their media and re-live their memories. This severely limits the search functionality as users can neither ask follow-up queries nor obtain information without first formulating a single-turn query. In this work, we propose dialogs for connected memories as a powerful tool to empower users to search their media collection through a multi-turn, interactive conversation. Towards this, we collect a new task-oriented dialog dataset COMET, which contains $11.5k$ user<->assistant dialogs (totaling $103k$ utterances), grounded in simulated personal memory graphs. We employ a resource-efficient, two-phase data collection pipeline that uses: (1) a novel multimodal dialog simulator that generates synthetic dialog flows grounded in memory graphs, and, (2) manual paraphrasing to obtain natural language utterances. We analyze COMET, formulate four main tasks to benchmark meaningful progress, and adopt state-of-the-art language models as strong baselines, in order to highlight the multimodal challenges captured by our dataset.
Seungwhan Moon, Satwik Kottur, Alborz Geramifard, Babak Damavandi
7
Python
11/20/2022 ALIGN-MLM: Word Embedding Alignment is Crucial for Multilingual Pre-training
Multilingual pre-trained models exhibit zero-shot cross-lingual transfer, where a model fine-tuned on a source language achieves surprisingly good performance on a target language. While studies have attempted to understand transfer, they focus only on MLM, and the large number of differences between natural languages makes it hard to disentangle the importance of different properties. In this work, we specifically highlight the importance of word embedding alignment by proposing a pre-training objective (ALIGN-MLM) whose auxiliary loss guides similar words in different languages to have similar word embeddings. ALIGN-MLM either outperforms or matches three widely adopted objectives (MLM, XLM, DICT-MLM) when we evaluate transfer between pairs of natural languages and their counterparts created by systematically modifying specific properties like the script. In particular, ALIGN-MLM outperforms XLM and MLM by 35 and 30 F1 points on POS-tagging for transfer between languages that differ both in their script and word order (left-to-right v.s. right-to-left). We also show a strong correlation between alignment and transfer for all objectives (e.g., rho=0.727 for XNLI), which together with ALIGN-MLM's strong performance calls for explicitly aligning word embeddings for multilingual models.
Henry Tang, Ameet Deshpande, Karthik Narasimhan
7
Python
11/20/2022 AdaptKeyBERT: An Attention-Based approach towards Few-Shot & Zero-Shot Domain Adaptation of KeyBERT
Keyword extraction has been an important topic for modern natural language processing. With its applications ranging from ontology generation, fact verification in summarized text, and recommendation systems. While it has had significant data-intensive applications, it is often hampered when the data set is small. Downstream training for keyword extractors is a lengthy process and requires a significant amount of data. Recently, Few-shot Learning (FSL) and Zero-Shot Learning (ZSL) have been proposed to tackle this problem. Therefore, we propose AdaptKeyBERT, a pipeline for training keyword extractors with LLM bases by incorporating the concept of regularized attention into a pre-training phase for downstream domain adaptation. As we believe our work has implications to be utilized in the pipeline of FSL/ZSL and keyword extraction, we open-source our code as well as provide the fine-tuning library of the same name AdaptKeyBERT at this https URL.
Aman Priyanshu, Supriti Vijay
6
Jupyter Notebook
11/20/2022 Addressing Segmentation Ambiguity in Neural Linguistic Steganography
Previous studies on neural linguistic steganography, except Ueoka et al. (2021), overlook the fact that the sender must detokenize cover texts to avoid arousing the eavesdropper's suspicion. In this paper, we demonstrate that segmentation ambiguity indeed causes occasional decoding failures at the receiver's side. With the near-ubiquity of subwords, this problem now affects any language. We propose simple tricks to overcome this problem, which are even applicable to languages without explicit word boundaries.
Jumon Nozaki, Yugo Murawaki
6
Python
11/20/2022 Large Language Models Struggle to Learn Long-Tail Knowledge
The internet contains a wealth of knowledge -- from the birthdays of historical figures to tutorials on how to code -- all of which may be learned by language models. However, there is a huge variability in the number of times a given piece of information appears on the web. In this paper, we study the relationship between the knowledge memorized by large language models and the information in their pre-training datasets. In particular, we show that a language model's ability to answer a fact-based question relates to how many documents associated with that question were seen during pre-training. We identify these relevant documents by entity linking pre-training datasets and counting documents that contain the same entities as a given question-answer pair. Our results demonstrate strong correlational and causal relationships between accuracy and relevant document count for numerous question answering datasets (e.g., TriviaQA), pre-training corpora (e.g., ROOTS), and model sizes (e.g., 176B parameters). Moreover, we find that while larger models are better at learning long-tail knowledge, we estimate that today's models must be scaled by many orders of magnitude to reach competitive QA performance on questions with little support in the pre-training data. Finally, we show that retrieval-augmentation can reduce the dependence on relevant document count, presenting a promising approach for capturing the long-tail.
Nikhil Kandpal, Haikang Deng, Adam Roberts, Eric Wallace, Colin Raffel
6
11/20/2022 Evaluating the Factual Consistency of Large Language Models Through Summarization
While large language models (LLMs) have proven to be effective on a large variety of tasks, they are also known to hallucinate information. To measure whether an LLM prefers factually consistent continuations of its input, we propose a new benchmark called FIB(Factual Inconsistency Benchmark) that focuses on the task of summarization. Specifically, our benchmark involves comparing the scores an LLM assigns to a factually consistent versus a factually inconsistent summary for an input news article. For factually consistent summaries, we use human-written reference summaries that we manually verify as factually consistent. To generate summaries that are factually inconsistent, we generate summaries from a suite of summarization models that we have manually annotated as factually inconsistent. A model's factual consistency is then measured according to its accuracy, i.e.\ the proportion of documents where it assigns a higher score to the factually consistent summary. To validate the usefulness of FIB, we evaluate 23 large language models ranging from 1B to 176B parameters from six different model families including BLOOM and OPT. We find that existing LLMs generally assign a higher score to factually consistent summaries than to factually inconsistent summaries. However, if the factually inconsistent summaries occur verbatim in the document, then LLMs assign a higher score to these factually inconsistent summaries than factually consistent summaries. We validate design choices in our benchmark including the scoring method and source of distractor summaries. Our code and benchmark data can be found at this https URL.
Derek Tam, Anisha Mascarenhas, Shiyue Zhang, Sarah Kwan, Mohit Bansal, Colin Raffel
5
Python
11/20/2022 FPT: Improving Prompt Tuning Efficiency via Progressive Training
Recently, prompt tuning (PT) has gained increasing attention as a parameter-efficient way of tuning pre-trained language models (PLMs). Despite extensively reducing the number of tunable parameters and achieving satisfying performance, PT is training-inefficient due to its slow convergence. To improve PT's training efficiency, we first make some novel observations about the prompt transferability of "partial PLMs", which are defined by compressing a PLM in depth or width. We observe that the soft prompts learned by different partial PLMs of various sizes are similar in the parameter space, implying that these soft prompts could potentially be transferred among partial PLMs. Inspired by these observations, we propose Fast Prompt Tuning (FPT), which starts by conducting PT using a small-scale partial PLM, and then progressively expands its depth and width until the full-model size. After each expansion, we recycle the previously learned soft prompts as initialization for the enlarged partial PLM and then proceed PT. We demonstrate the feasibility of FPT on 5 tasks and show that FPT could save over 30% training computations while achieving comparable performance.
Yufei Huang, Yujia Qin, Huadong Wang, Yichun Yin, Maosong Sun, Zhiyuan Liu, Qun Liu
5
Python
11/20/2022 Breakpoint Transformers for Modeling and Tracking Intermediate Beliefs
Can we teach natural language understanding models to track their beliefs through intermediate points in text? We propose a representation learning framework called breakpoint modeling that allows for learning of this type. Given any text encoder and data marked with intermediate states (breakpoints) along with corresponding textual queries viewed as true/false propositions (i.e., the candidate beliefs of a model, consisting of information changing through time) our approach trains models in an efficient and end-to-end fashion to build intermediate representations that facilitate teaching and direct querying of beliefs at arbitrary points alongside solving other end tasks. To show the benefit of our approach, we experiment with a diverse set of NLU tasks including relational reasoning on CLUTRR and narrative understanding on bAbI. Using novel belief prediction tasks for both tasks, we show the benefit of our main breakpoint transformer, based on T5, over conventional representation learning approaches in terms of processing efficiency, prediction accuracy and prediction consistency, all with minimal to no effect on corresponding QA end tasks. To show the feasibility of incorporating our belief tracker into more complex reasoning pipelines, we also obtain SOTA performance on the three-tiered reasoning challenge for the TRIP benchmark (around 23-32% absolute improvement on Tasks 2-3).
Kyle Richardson, Ronen Tamari, Oren Sultan, Reut Tsarfaty, Dafna Shahaf, Ashish Sabharwal
4
Python
11/20/2022 Multilingual and Multimodal Topic Modelling with Pretrained Embeddings
This paper presents M3L-Contrast -- a novel multimodal multilingual (M3L) neural topic model for comparable data that maps texts from multiple languages and images into a shared topic space. Our model is trained jointly on texts and images and takes advantage of pretrained document and image embeddings to abstract the complexities between different languages and modalities. As a multilingual topic model, it produces aligned language-specific topics and as multimodal model, it infers textual representations of semantic concepts in images. We demonstrate that our model is competitive with a zero-shot topic model in predicting topic distributions for comparable multilingual data and significantly outperforms a zero-shot model in predicting topic distributions for comparable texts and images. We also show that our model performs almost as well on unaligned embeddings as it does on aligned embeddings.
Elaine Zosa, Lidia Pivovarova
4
HTML
11/20/2022 How Much Hate with #china? A Preliminary Analysis on China-related Hateful Tweets Two Years After the Covid Pandemic Began
Following the outbreak of a global pandemic, online content is filled with hate speech. Donald Trump's ''Chinese Virus'' tweet shifted the blame for the spread of the Covid-19 virus to China and the Chinese people, which triggered a new round of anti-China hate both online and offline. This research intends to examine China-related hate speech on Twitter during the two years following the burst of the pandemic (2020 and 2021). Through Twitter's API, in total 2,172,333 tweets hashtagged #china posted during the time were collected. By employing multiple state-of-the-art pretrained language models for hate speech detection, we identify a wide range of hate of various types, resulting in an automatically labeled anti-China hate speech dataset. We identify a hateful rate in #china tweets of 2.5% in 2020 and 1.9% in 2021. This is well above the average rate of online hate speech on Twitter at 0.6% identified in Gao et al., 2017. We further analyzed the longitudinal development of #china tweets and those identified as hateful in 2020 and 2021 through visualizing the daily number and hate rate over the two years. Our keyword analysis of hate speech in #china tweets reveals the most frequently mentioned terms in the hateful #china tweets, which can be used for further social science studies.
Jinghua Xu, Zarah Weiss
4
Jupyter Notebook
11/20/2022 A Comparative Study of Question Answering over Knowledge Bases
Question answering over knowledge bases (KBQA) has become a popular approach to help users extract information from knowledge bases. Although several systems exist, choosing one suitable for a particular application scenario is difficult. In this article, we provide a comparative study of six representative KBQA systems on eight benchmark datasets. In that, we study various question types, properties, languages, and domains to provide insights on where existing systems struggle. On top of that, we propose an advanced mapping algorithm to aid existing models in achieving superior results. Moreover, we also develop a multilingual corpus COVID-KGQA, which encourages COVID-19 research and multilingualism for the diversity of future AI. Finally, we discuss the key findings and their implications as well as performance guidelines and some future improvements. Our source code is available at \url{this https URL}.
Khiem Vinh Tran, Hao Phu Phan, Khang Nguyen Duc Quach, Ngan Luu-Thuy Nguyen, Jun Jo, Thanh Tam Nguyen
4
Python
11/20/2022 Finding Skill Neurons in Pre-trained Transformer-based Language Models
Transformer-based pre-trained language models have demonstrated superior performance on various natural language processing tasks. However, it remains unclear how the skills required to handle these tasks distribute among model parameters. In this paper, we find that after prompt tuning for specific tasks, the activations of some neurons within pre-trained Transformers are highly predictive of the task labels. We dub these neurons skill neurons and confirm they encode task-specific skills by finding that: (1) Skill neurons are crucial for handling tasks. Performances of pre-trained Transformers on a task significantly drop when corresponding skill neurons are perturbed. (2) Skill neurons are task-specific. Similar tasks tend to have similar distributions of skill neurons. Furthermore, we demonstrate the skill neurons are most likely generated in pre-training rather than fine-tuning by showing that the skill neurons found with prompt tuning are also crucial for other fine-tuning methods freezing neuron weights, such as the adapter-based tuning and BitFit. We also explore the applications of skill neurons, including accelerating Transformers with network pruning and building better transferability indicators. These findings may promote further research on understanding Transformers. The source code can be obtained from this https URL.
Xiaozhi Wang, Kaiyue Wen, Zhengyan Zhang, Lei Hou, Zhiyuan Liu, Juanzi Li
4
Python
11/20/2022 UniRel: Unified Representation and Interaction for Joint Relational Triple Extraction
Relational triple extraction is challenging for its difficulty in capturing rich correlations between entities and relations. Existing works suffer from 1) heterogeneous representations of entities and relations, and 2) heterogeneous modeling of entity-entity interactions and entity-relation interactions. Therefore, the rich correlations are not fully exploited by existing works. In this paper, we propose UniRel to address these challenges. Specifically, we unify the representations of entities and relations by jointly encoding them within a concatenated natural language sequence, and unify the modeling of interactions with a proposed Interaction Map, which is built upon the off-the-shelf self-attention mechanism within any Transformer block. With comprehensive experiments on two popular relational triple extraction datasets, we demonstrate that UniRel is more effective and computationally efficient. The source code is available at this https URL.
Wei Tang, Benfeng Xu, Yuyue Zhao, Zhendong Mao, Yifeng Liu, Yong Liao, Haiyong Xie
4
Python
11/20/2022 Generating Textual Adversaries with Minimal Perturbation
Many word-level adversarial attack approaches for textual data have been proposed in recent studies. However, due to the massive search space consisting of combinations of candidate words, the existing approaches face the problem of preserving the semantics of texts when crafting adversarial counterparts. In this paper, we develop a novel attack strategy to find adversarial texts with high similarity to the original texts while introducing minimal perturbation. The rationale is that we expect the adversarial texts with small perturbation can better preserve the semantic meaning of original texts. Experiments show that, compared with state-of-the-art attack approaches, our approach achieves higher success rates and lower perturbation rates in four benchmark datasets.
Xingyi Zhao, Lu Zhang, Depeng Xu, Shuhan Yuan
4
Python
11/20/2022 Retrieval-Augmented Generative Question Answering for Event Argument Extraction
Event argument extraction has long been studied as a sequential prediction problem with extractive-based methods, tackling each argument in isolation. Although recent work proposes generation-based methods to capture cross-argument dependency, they require generating and post-processing a complicated target sequence (template). Motivated by these observations and recent pretrained language models' capabilities of learning from demonstrations. We propose a retrieval-augmented generative QA model (R-GQA) for event argument extraction. It retrieves the most similar QA pair and augments it as prompt to the current example's context, then decodes the arguments as answers. Our approach outperforms substantially prior methods across various settings (i.e. fully supervised, domain transfer, and fewshot learning). Finally, we propose a clustering-based sampling strategy (JointEnc) and conduct a thorough analysis of how different strategies influence the few-shot learning performance. The implementations are available at https:// this http URL
Xinya Du, Heng Ji
4
Python
11/20/2022 English Contrastive Learning Can Learn Universal Cross-lingual Sentence Embeddings
Universal cross-lingual sentence embeddings map semantically similar cross-lingual sentences into a shared embedding space. Aligning cross-lingual sentence embeddings usually requires supervised cross-lingual parallel sentences. In this work, we propose mSimCSE, which extends SimCSE to multilingual settings and reveal that contrastive learning on English data can surprisingly learn high-quality universal cross-lingual sentence embeddings without any parallel data. In unsupervised and weakly supervised settings, mSimCSE significantly improves previous sentence embedding methods on cross-lingual retrieval and multilingual STS tasks. The performance of unsupervised mSimCSE is comparable to fully supervised methods in retrieving low-resource languages and multilingual STS. The performance can be further enhanced when cross-lingual NLI data is available. Our code is publicly available at this https URL.
Yau-Shian Wang, Ashley Wu, Graham Neubig
4
Python
11/20/2022 Abstractive Summarization Guided by Latent Hierarchical Document Structure
Sequential abstractive neural summarizers often do not use the underlying structure in the input article or dependencies between the input sentences. This structure is essential to integrate and consolidate information from different parts of the text. To address this shortcoming, we propose a hierarchy-aware graph neural network (HierGNN) which captures such dependencies through three main steps: 1) learning a hierarchical document structure through a latent structure tree learned by a sparse matrix-tree computation; 2) propagating sentence information over this structure using a novel message-passing node propagation mechanism to identify salient information; 3) using graph-level attention to concentrate the decoder on salient information. Experiments confirm HierGNN improves strong sequence models such as BART, with a 0.55 and 0.75 margin in average ROUGE-1/2/L for CNN/DM and XSum. Further human evaluation demonstrates that summaries produced by our model are more relevant and less redundant than the baselines, into which HierGNN is incorporated. We also find HierGNN synthesizes summaries by fusing multiple source sentences more, rather than compressing a single source sentence, and that it processes long inputs more effectively.
Yifu Qiu, Shay B. Cohen
4
Python
11/20/2022 Improving word mover's distance by leveraging self-attention matrix
Measuring the semantic similarity between two sentences is still an important task. The word mover's distance (WMD) computes the similarity via the optimal alignment between the sets of word embeddings. However, WMD does not utilize word order, making it difficult to distinguish sentences with large overlaps of similar words, even if they are semantically very different. Here, we attempt to improve WMD by incorporating the sentence structure represented by BERT's self-attention matrix (SAM). The proposed method is based on the Fused Gromov-Wasserstein distance, which simultaneously considers the similarity of the word embedding and the SAM for calculating the optimal transport between two sentences. Experiments on paraphrase identification and semantic textual similarity show that the proposed method improves WMD and its variants. Our code is available at this https URL.
Hiroaki Yamagiwa, Sho Yokoi, Hidetoshi Shimodaira
4
11/20/2022 A Benchmark and Dataset for Post-OCR text correction in Sanskrit
Sanskrit is a classical language with about 30 million extant manuscripts fit for digitisation, available in written, printed or scannedimage forms. However, it is still considered to be a low-resource language when it comes to available digital resources. In this work, we release a post-OCR text correction dataset containing around 218,000 sentences, with 1.5 million words, from 30 different books. Texts in Sanskrit are known to be diverse in terms of their linguistic and stylistic usage since Sanskrit was the 'lingua franca' for discourse in the Indian subcontinent for about 3 millennia. Keeping this in mind, we release a multi-domain dataset, from areas as diverse as astronomy, medicine and mathematics, with some of them as old as 18 centuries. Further, we release multiple strong baselines as benchmarks for the task, based on pre-trained Seq2Seq language models. We find that our best-performing model, consisting of byte level tokenization in conjunction with phonetic encoding (Byt5+SLP1), yields a 23% point increase over the OCR output in terms of word and character error rates. Moreover, we perform extensive experiments in evaluating these models on their performance and analyse common causes of mispredictions both at the graphemic and lexical levels. Our code and dataset is publicly available at this https URL.
Ayush Maheshwari, Nikhil Singh, Amrith Krishna, Ganesh Ramakrishnan
3
Python
11/20/2022 How Long Is Enough? Exploring the Optimal Intervals of Long-Range Clinical Note Language Modeling
Large pre-trained language models (LMs) have been widely adopted in biomedical and clinical domains, introducing many powerful LMs such as bio-lm and BioELECTRA. However, the applicability of these methods to real clinical use cases is hindered, due to the limitation of pre-trained LMs in processing long textual data with thousands of words, which is a common length for a clinical note. In this work, we explore long-range adaptation from such LMs with Longformer, allowing the LMs to capture longer clinical notes context. We conduct experiments on three n2c2 challenges datasets and a longitudinal clinical dataset from Hong Kong Hospital Authority electronic health record (EHR) system to show the effectiveness and generalizability of this concept, achieving 10\% F1-score improvement. Based on our experiments, we conclude that capturing a longer clinical note interval is beneficial to the model performance, but there are different cut-off intervals to achieve the optimal performance for different target variables. Our code is available at this https URL.
Samuel Cahyawijaya, Bryan Wilie, Holy Lovenia, Huan Zhong, MingQian Zhong, Yuk-Yu Nancy Ip, Pascale Fung
3
Python
11/20/2022 Improving Factual Consistency in Summarization with Compression-Based Post-Editing
State-of-the-art summarization models still struggle to be factually consistent with the input text. A model-agnostic way to address this problem is post-editing the generated summaries. However, existing approaches typically fail to remove entity errors if a suitable input entity replacement is not available or may insert erroneous content. In our work, we focus on removing extrinsic entity errors, or entities not in the source, to improve consistency while retaining the summary's essential information and form. We propose to use sentence-compression data to train the post-editing model to take a summary with extrinsic entity errors marked with special tokens and output a compressed, well-formed summary with those errors removed. We show that this model improves factual consistency while maintaining ROUGE, improving entity precision by up to 30% on XSum, and that this model can be applied on top of another post-editor, improving entity precision by up to a total of 38%. We perform an extensive comparison of post-editing approaches that demonstrate trade-offs between factual consistency, informativeness, and grammaticality, and we analyze settings where post-editors show the largest improvements.
Alexander R. Fabbri, Prafulla Kumar Choubey, Jesse Vig, Chien-Sheng Wu, Caiming Xiong
3
Python
11/20/2022 Investigating Fairness Disparities in Peer Review: A Language Model Enhanced Approach
Double-blind peer review mechanism has become the skeleton of academic research across multiple disciplines including computer science, yet several studies have questioned the quality of peer reviews and raised concerns on potential biases in the process. In this paper, we conduct a thorough and rigorous study on fairness disparities in peer review with the help of large language models (LMs). We collect, assemble, and maintain a comprehensive relational database for the International Conference on Learning Representations (ICLR) conference from 2017 to date by aggregating data from OpenReview, Google Scholar, arXiv, and CSRanking, and extracting high-level features using language models. We postulate and study fairness disparities on multiple protective attributes of interest, including author gender, geography, author, and institutional prestige. We observe that the level of disparity differs and textual features are essential in reducing biases in the predictive modeling. We distill several insights from our analysis on study the peer review process with the help of large LMs. Our database also provides avenues for studying new natural language processing (NLP) methods that facilitate the understanding of the peer review mechanism. We study a concrete example towards automatic machine review systems and provide baseline models for the review generation and scoring tasks such that the database can be used as a benchmark.
Jiayao Zhang, Hongming Zhang, Zhun Deng, Dan Roth
2
Jupyter Notebook
11/20/2022 On Measuring the Intrinsic Few-Shot Hardness of Datasets
While advances in pre-training have led to dramatic improvements in few-shot learning of NLP tasks, there is limited understanding of what drives successful few-shot adaptation in datasets. In particular, given a new dataset and a pre-trained model, what properties of the dataset make it \emph{few-shot learnable} and are these properties independent of the specific adaptation techniques used? We consider an extensive set of recent few-shot learning methods, and show that their performance across a large number of datasets is highly correlated, showing that few-shot hardness may be intrinsic to datasets, for a given pre-trained model. To estimate intrinsic few-shot hardness, we then propose a simple and lightweight metric called "Spread" that captures the intuition that few-shot learning is made possible by exploiting feature-space invariances between training and test samples. Our metric better accounts for few-shot hardness compared to existing notions of hardness, and is ~8-100x faster to compute.
Xinran Zhao, Shikhar Murty, Christopher D. Manning
2
Jupyter Notebook
11/20/2022 Why Did the Chicken Cross the Road? Rephrasing and Analyzing Ambiguous Questions in VQA
Resolving ambiguities in questions is key to successfully answering them. Focusing on questions about images, we create a dataset of ambiguous examples; we annotate these examples, grouping the answers by the underlying question they address and rephrasing the question for each group to reduce ambiguity. An analysis of our data reveals a linguistically-aligned ontology of reasons for ambiguity in visual questions. We then develop an English question-generation model which we demonstrate via automatic and human evaluation produces less ambiguous questions. We further show that the question generation objective we use allows the model to integrate answer group information without any direct supervision.
Elias Stengel-Eskin, Jimena Guallar-Blasco, Yi Zhou, Benjamin Van Durme
2
Python
11/20/2022 Calibrated Interpretation: Confidence Estimation in Semantic Parsing
Task-oriented semantic parsing is increasingly being used in user-facing applications, making measuring the calibration of parsing models especially important. We examine the calibration characteristics of six models across three model families on two common English semantic parsing datasets, finding that many models are reasonably well-calibrated and that there is a trade-off between calibration and performance. Based on confidence scores across three models, we propose and release new challenge splits of the two datasets we examine. We then illustrate the ways a calibrated model can be useful in balancing common trade-offs in task-oriented parsing. In a simulated annotator-in-the-loop experiment, we show that using model confidence allows us to improve performance by 9.6% (absolute) with interactions on only 2.2% of tokens. Using sequence-level confidence scores, we then examine how we can optimize trade-off between a parser's usability and safety. We show that confidence-based thresholding can reduce the number of incorrect low-confidence programs executed by 76%; however, this comes at a cost to usability. We propose the DidYouMean system which balances usability and safety. We conclude by calling for calibration to be included in the evaluation of semantic parsing systems, and release a library for computing calibration metrics.
Elias Stengel-Eskin, Benjamin Van Durme
2
Jsonnet
11/20/2022 CSCD-IME: Correcting Spelling Errors Generated by Pinyin IME
Chinese Spelling Correction (CSC) is a task to detect and correct spelling mistakes in texts. In fact, most of Chinese input is based on pinyin input method, so the study of spelling errors in this process is more practical and valuable. However, there is still no research dedicated to this essential scenario. In this paper, we first present a Chinese Spelling Correction Dataset for errors generated by pinyin IME (CSCD-IME), including 40,000 annotated sentences from real posts of official media on Sina Weibo. Furthermore, we propose a novel method to automatically construct large-scale and high-quality pseudo data by simulating the input through pinyin IME. A series of analyses and experiments on CSCD-IME show that spelling errors produced by pinyin IME hold a particular distribution at pinyin level and semantic level and are challenging enough. Meanwhile, our proposed pseudo-data construction method can better fit this error distribution and improve the performance of CSC systems. Finally, we also provide a useful guide to using pseudo data, including the data scale, the data source, and the training strategy
Yong Hu, Fandong Meng, Jie Zhou
2
Python
11/20/2022 Language Model Classifier Aligns Better with Physician Word Sensitivity than XGBoost on Readmission Prediction
Traditional evaluation metrics for classification in natural language processing such as accuracy and area under the curve fail to differentiate between models with different predictive behaviors despite their similar performance metrics. We introduce sensitivity score, a metric that scrutinizes models' behaviors at the vocabulary level to provide insights into disparities in their decision-making logic. We assess the sensitivity score on a set of representative words in the test set using two classifiers trained for hospital readmission classification with similar performance statistics. Our experiments compare the decision-making logic of clinicians and classifiers based on rank correlations of sensitivity scores. The results indicate that the language model's sensitivity score aligns better with the professionals than the xgboost classifier on tf-idf embeddings, which suggests that xgboost uses some spurious features. Overall, this metric offers a novel perspective on assessing models' robustness by quantifying their discrepancy with professional opinions. Our code is available on GitHub (this https URL).
Grace Yang, Ming Cao, Lavender Y. Jiang, Xujin C. Liu, Alexander T.M. Cheung, Hannah Weiss, David Kurland, Kyunghyun Cho, Eric K. Oermann
2
Python
11/20/2022 Evade the Trap of Mediocrity: Promoting Diversity and Novelty in Text Generation via Concentrating Attention
Recently, powerful Transformer architectures have proven superior in generating high-quality sentences. Nevertheless, these models tend to produce dull high-frequency phrases, severely hurting the diversity and novelty of generated text. In this work, we dig into the intrinsic mechanism of this problem and found that sparser attention values in Transformer could improve diversity. To understand such a phenomenon, we first conduct both empirical and theoretical analysis and then attribute it to representation degeneration caused by the attentive mixture of the hidden states during training. We term this process the Trap of Mediocrity. To escape from such a trap, we introduce a novel attention regularization loss to control the sharpness of the attention distribution, which is transparent to model structures and can be easily implemented within 20 lines of python code. We prove that this method could be mathematically regarded as learning a Bayesian approximation of posterior attention. Experiments show that our method improved the diversity and novelty of the generated text while maintaining comparable quality on a variety of conditional and unconditional generation tasks.
Wenhao Li, Xiaoyuan Yi, Jinyi Hu, Maosong Sun, Xing Xie
2
11/20/2022 Large-Scale Bidirectional Training for Zero-Shot Image Captioning
When trained on large-scale datasets, image captioning models can understand the content of images from a general domain but often fail to generate accurate, detailed captions. To improve performance, pretraining-and-finetuning has been a key strategy for image captioning. However, we find that large-scale bidirectional training between image and text enables zero-shot image captioning. In this paper, we introduce Bidirectional Image Text Training in largER Scale, BITTERS, an efficient training and inference framework for zero-shot image captioning. We also propose a new evaluation benchmark which comprises of high quality datasets and an extensive set of metrics to properly evaluate zero-shot captioning accuracy and societal bias. We additionally provide an efficient finetuning approach for keyword extraction. We show that careful selection of large-scale training set and model architecture is the key to achieving zero-shot image captioning.
Taehoon Kim, Mark Marsden, Pyunghwan Ahn, Sangyun Kim, Sihaeng Lee, Alessandra Sala, Seung Hwan Kim
2
Python
11/20/2022 A Federated Approach to Predicting Emojis in Hindi Tweets
The use of emojis affords a visual modality to, often private, textual communication. The task of predicting emojis however provides a challenge for machine learning as emoji use tends to cluster into the frequently used and the rarely used emojis. Much of the machine learning research on emoji use has focused on high resource languages and has conceptualised the task of predicting emojis around traditional server-side machine learning approaches. However, traditional machine learning approaches for private communication can introduce privacy concerns, as these approaches require all data to be transmitted to a central storage. In this paper, we seek to address the dual concerns of emphasising high resource languages for emoji prediction and risking the privacy of people's data. We introduce a new dataset of $118$k tweets (augmented from $25$k unique tweets) for emoji prediction in Hindi, and propose a modification to the federated learning algorithm, CausalFedGSD, which aims to strike a balance between model performance and user privacy. We show that our approach obtains comparative scores with more complex centralised models while reducing the amount of data required to optimise the models and minimising risks to user privacy.
Deep Gandhi, Jash Mehta, Nirali Parekh, Karan Waghela, Lynette D'Mello, Zeerak Talat
1
Python
11/20/2022 Evaluating How Fine-tuning on Bimodal Data Effects Code Generation
Despite the increase in popularity of language models for code generation, it is still unknown how training on bimodal coding forums affects a model's code generation performance and reliability. We, therefore, collect a dataset of over 2.2M StackOverflow questions with answers for finetuning. These fine-tuned models have average $pass@k$ improvements of 54.64% and 85.35% on the HumanEval (Chen et al., 2021) and Mostly Basic Program Problems (Austin et al., 2021) tasks, respectively. This regime further decreases the number of generated programs with both syntax and runtime errors. However, we find that at higher temperatures, there are significant decreases to the model's ability to generate runnable programs despite higher $pass@k$ scores, underscoring the need for better methods of incorporating such data that mitigate these side effects. The code can be found this https URL
Gabriel Orlanski, Seonhye Yang, Michael Healy
1
Python
11/20/2022 A Machine Learning Approach to Classifying Construction Cost Documents into the International Construction Measurement Standard
We introduce the first automated models for classifying natural language descriptions provided in cost documents called "Bills of Quantities" (BoQs) popular in the infrastructure construction industry, into the International Construction Measurement Standard (ICMS). The models we deployed and systematically evaluated for multi-class text classification are learnt from a dataset of more than 50 thousand descriptions of items retrieved from 24 large infrastructure construction projects across the United Kingdom. We describe our approach to language representation and subsequent modelling to examine the strength of contextual semantics and temporal dependency of language used in construction project documentation. To do that we evaluate two experimental pipelines to inferring ICMS codes from text, on the basis of two different language representation models and a range of state-of-the-art sequence-based classification methods, including recurrent and convolutional neural network architectures. The findings indicate a highly effective and accurate ICMS automation model is within reach, with reported accuracy results above 90% F1 score on average, on 32 ICMS categories. Furthermore, due to the specific nature of language use in the BoQs text; short, largely descriptive and technical, we find that simpler models compare favourably to achieving higher accuracy results. Our analysis suggest that information is more likely embedded in local key features in the descriptive text, which explains why a simpler generic temporal convolutional network (TCN) exhibits comparable memory to recurrent architectures with the same capacity, and subsequently outperforms these at this task.
J. Ignacio Deza, Hisham Ihshaish, Lamine Mahdjoubi
1
Jupyter Notebook
11/20/2022 Temporal Modeling Matters: A Novel Temporal Emotional Modeling Approach for Speech Emotion Recognition
Speech emotion recognition (SER) plays a vital role in improving the interactions between humans and machines by inferring human emotion and affective states from speech signals. Whereas recent works primarily focus on mining spatiotemporal information from hand-crafted features, we explore how to model the temporal patterns of speech emotions from dynamic temporal scales. Towards that goal, we introduce a novel temporal emotional modeling approach for SER, termed Temporal-aware bI-direction Multi-scale Network (TIM-Net), which learns multi-scale contextual affective representations from various time scales. Specifically, TIM-Net first employs temporal-aware blocks to learn temporal affective representation, then integrates complementary information from the past and the future to enrich contextual representations, and finally, fuses multiple time scale features for better adaptation to the emotional variation. Extensive experimental results on six benchmark SER datasets demonstrate the superior performance of TIM-Net, gaining 2.34% and 2.61% improvements of the average UAR and WAR over the second-best on each corpus. Remarkably, TIM-Net outperforms the latest domain-adaptation method on the cross-corpus SER tasks, demonstrating strong generalizability.
Jiaxin Ye, Xincheng Wen, Yujie Wei, Yong Xu, Kunhong Liu, Hongming Shan
1
11/20/2022 Lesion Guided Explainable Few Weak-shot Medical Report Generation
Medical images are widely used in clinical practice for diagnosis. Automatically generating interpretable medical reports can reduce radiologists' burden and facilitate timely care. However, most existing approaches to automatic report generation require sufficient labeled data for training. In addition, the learned model can only generate reports for the training classes, lacking the ability to adapt to previously unseen novel diseases. To this end, we propose a lesion guided explainable few weak-shot medical report generation framework that learns correlation between seen and novel classes through visual and semantic feature alignment, aiming to generate medical reports for diseases not observed in training. It integrates a lesion-centric feature extractor and a Transformer-based report generation module. Concretely, the lesion-centric feature extractor detects the abnormal regions and learns correlations between seen and novel classes with multi-view (visual and lexical) embeddings. Then, features of the detected regions and corresponding embeddings are concatenated as multi-view input to the report generation module for explainable report generation, including text descriptions and corresponding abnormal regions detected in the images. We conduct experiments on FFA-IR, a dataset providing explainable annotations, showing that our framework outperforms others on report generation for novel diseases.
Jinghan Sun, Dong Wei, Liansheng Wang, Yefeng Zheng
1
Python
11/20/2022 Xu at SemEval-2022 Task 4: Pre-BERT Neural Network Methods vs Post-BERT RoBERTa Approach for Patronizing and Condescending Language Detection
This paper describes my participation in the SemEval-2022 Task 4: Patronizing and Condescending Language Detection. I participate in both subtasks: Patronizing and Condescending Language (PCL) Identification and Patronizing and Condescending Language Categorization, with the main focus put on subtask 1. The experiments compare pre-BERT neural network (NN) based systems against post-BERT pretrained language model RoBERTa. This research finds NN-based systems in the experiments perform worse on the task compared to the pretrained language models. The top-performing RoBERTa system is ranked 26 out of 78 teams (F1-score: 54.64) in subtask 1, and 23 out of 49 teams (F1-score: 30.03) in subtask 2.
Jinghua Xu
1
Jupyter Notebook
11/20/2022 Unified Question Answering in Slovene
Question answering is one of the most challenging tasks in language understanding. Most approaches are developed for English, while less-resourced languages are much less researched. We adapt a successful English question-answering approach, called UnifiedQA, to the less-resourced Slovene language. Our adaptation uses the encoder-decoder transformer SloT5 and mT5 models to handle four question-answering formats: yes/no, multiple-choice, abstractive, and extractive. We use existing Slovene adaptations of four datasets, and machine translate the MCTest dataset. We show that a general model can answer questions in different formats at least as well as specialized models. The results are further improved using cross-lingual transfer from English. While we produce state-of-the-art results for Slovene, the performance still lags behind English.
Katja Logar, Marko Robnik-Siikonja
1
Python
11/20/2022 The Far Side of Failure: Investigating the Impact of Speech Recognition Errors on Subsequent Dementia Classification
Linguistic anomalies detectable in spontaneous speech have shown promise for various clinical applications including screening for dementia and other forms of cognitive impairment. The feasibility of deploying automated tools that can classify language samples obtained from speech in large-scale clinical settings depends on the ability to capture and automatically transcribe the speech for subsequent analysis. However, the impressive performance of self-supervised learning (SSL) automatic speech recognition (ASR) models with curated speech data is not apparent with challenging speech samples from clinical settings. One of the key questions for successfully applying ASR models for clinical applications is whether imperfect transcripts they generate provide sufficient information for downstream tasks to operate at an acceptable level of accuracy. In this study, we examine the relationship between the errors produced by several deep learning ASR systems and their impact on the downstream task of dementia classification. One of our key findings is that, paradoxically, ASR systems with relatively high error rates can produce transcripts that result in better downstream classification accuracy than classification based on verbatim transcripts.
Changye Li, Trevor Cohen, Serguei Pakhomov
1
Python
11/20/2022 Improving Children's Speech Recognition by Fine-tuning Self-supervised Adult Speech Representations
Children's speech recognition is a vital, yet largely overlooked domain when building inclusive speech technologies. The major challenge impeding progress in this domain is the lack of adequate child speech corpora; however, recent advances in self-supervised learning have created a new opportunity for overcoming this problem of data scarcity. In this paper, we leverage self-supervised adult speech representations and use three well-known child speech corpora to build models for children's speech recognition. We assess the performance of fine-tuning on both native and non-native children's speech, examine the effect of cross-domain child corpora, and investigate the minimum amount of child speech required to fine-tune a model which outperforms a state-of-the-art adult model. We also analyze speech recognition performance across children's ages. Our results demonstrate that fine-tuning with cross-domain child corpora leads to relative improvements of up to 46.08% and 45.53% for native and non-native child speech respectively, and absolute improvements of 14.70% and 31.10%. We also show that with as little as 5 hours of transcribed children's speech, it is possible to fine-tune a children's speech recognition system that outperforms a state-of-the-art adult model fine-tuned on 960 hours of adult speech.
Renee Lu, Mostafa Shahin, Beena Ahmed
1
Python
11/20/2022 Using Developer Discussions to Guide Fixing Bugs in Software
Automatically fixing software bugs is a challenging task. While recent work showed that natural language context is useful in guiding bug-fixing models, the approach required prompting developers to provide this context, which was simulated through commit messages written after the bug-fixing code changes were made. We instead propose using bug report discussions, which are available before the task is performed and are also naturally occurring, avoiding the need for any additional information from developers. For this, we augment standard bug-fixing datasets with bug report discussions. Using these newly compiled datasets, we demonstrate that various forms of natural language context derived from such discussions can aid bug-fixing, even leading to improved performance over using commit messages corresponding to the oracle bug-fixing commits.
Sheena Panthaplackel, Milos Gligoric, Junyi Jessy Li, Raymond J. Mooney
1
11/20/2022 An FNet based Auto Encoder for Long Sequence News Story Generation
In this paper, we design an auto encoder based off of Google's FNet Architecture in order to generate text from a subset of news stories contained in Google's C4 dataset. We discuss previous attempts and methods to generate text from autoencoders and non LLM Models. FNET poses multiple advantages to BERT based encoders in the realm of efficiency which train 80% faster on GPUs and 70% faster on TPUs. We then compare outputs of how this autencoder perfroms on different epochs. Finally, we analyze what outputs the encoder produces with different seed text.
Paul K. Mandal, Rakeshkumar Mahto
1
Jupyter Notebook
11/20/2022 Quantifying syntax similarity with a polynomial representation of dependency trees
We introduce a graph polynomial that distinguishes tree structures to represent dependency grammar and a measure based on the polynomial representation to quantify syntax similarity. The polynomial encodes accurate and comprehensive information about the dependency structure and dependency relations of words in a sentence. We apply the polynomial-based methods to analyze sentences in the Parallel Universal Dependencies treebanks. Specifically, we compare the syntax of sentences and their translations in different languages, and we perform a syntactic typology study of available languages in the Parallel Universal Dependencies treebanks. We also demonstrate and discuss the potential of the methods in measuring syntax diversity of corpora.
Pengyu Liu, Tinghao Feng, Rui Liu
1
MATLAB
11/20/2022 Mind Your Bias: A Critical Review of Bias Detection Methods for Contextual Language Models
The awareness and mitigation of biases are of fundamental importance for the fair and transparent use of contextual language models, yet they crucially depend on the accurate detection of biases as a precursor. Consequently, numerous bias detection methods have been proposed, which vary in their approach, the considered type of bias, and the data used for evaluation. However, while most detection methods are derived from the word embedding association test for static word embeddings, the reported results are heterogeneous, inconsistent, and ultimately inconclusive. To address this issue, we conduct a rigorous analysis and comparison of bias detection methods for contextual language models. Our results show that minor design and implementation decisions (or errors) have a substantial and often significant impact on the derived bias scores. Overall, we find the state of the field to be both worse than previously acknowledged due to systematic and propagated errors in implementations, yet better than anticipated since divergent results in the literature homogenize after accounting for implementation errors. Based on our findings, we conclude with a discussion of paths towards more robust and consistent bias detection methods.
Silke Husse, Andreas Spitz
1
Python
11/20/2022 Are Hard Examples also Harder to Explain? A Study with Human and Model-Generated Explanations
Recent work on explainable NLP has shown that few-shot prompting can enable large pretrained language models (LLMs) to generate grammatical and factual natural language explanations for data labels. In this work, we study the connection between explainability and sample hardness by investigating the following research question - "Are LLMs and humans equally good at explaining data labels for both easy and hard samples?" We answer this question by first collecting human-written explanations in the form of generalizable commonsense rules on the task of Winograd Schema Challenge (Winogrande dataset). We compare these explanations with those generated by GPT-3 while varying the hardness of the test samples as well as the in-context samples. We observe that (1) GPT-3 explanations are as grammatical as human explanations regardless of the hardness of the test samples, (2) for easy examples, GPT-3 generates highly supportive explanations but human explanations are more generalizable, and (3) for hard examples, human explanations are significantly better than GPT-3 explanations both in terms of label-supportiveness and generalizability judgements. We also find that hardness of the in-context examples impacts the quality of GPT-3 explanations. Finally, we show that the supportiveness and generalizability aspects of human explanations are also impacted by sample hardness, although by a much smaller margin than models. Supporting code and data are available at this https URL
Swarnadeep Saha, Peter Hase, Nazneen Rajani, Mohit Bansal
1
Python
11/20/2022 Efficient Adversarial Training with Robust Early-Bird Tickets
Adversarial training is one of the most powerful methods to improve the robustness of pre-trained language models (PLMs). However, this approach is typically more expensive than traditional fine-tuning because of the necessity to generate adversarial examples via gradient descent. Delving into the optimization process of adversarial training, we find that robust connectivity patterns emerge in the early training phase (typically $0.15\sim0.3$ epochs), far before parameters converge. Inspired by this finding, we dig out robust early-bird tickets (i.e., subnetworks) to develop an efficient adversarial training method: (1) searching for robust tickets with structured sparsity in the early stage; (2) fine-tuning robust tickets in the remaining time. To extract the robust tickets as early as possible, we design a ticket convergence metric to automatically terminate the searching process. Experiments show that the proposed efficient adversarial training method can achieve up to $7\times \sim 13 \times$ training speedups while maintaining comparable or even better robustness compared to the most competitive state-of-the-art adversarial training methods.
Zhiheng Xi, Rui Zheng, Tao Gui, Qi Zhang, Xuanjing Huang
1
Python
11/20/2022 Visually Grounded VQA by Lattice-based Retrieval
Visual Grounding (VG) in Visual Question Answering (VQA) systems describes how well a system manages to tie a question and its answer to relevant image regions. Systems with strong VG are considered intuitively interpretable and suggest an improved scene understanding. While VQA accuracy performances have seen impressive gains over the past few years, explicit improvements to VG performance and evaluation thereof have often taken a back seat on the road to overall accuracy improvements. A cause of this originates in the predominant choice of learning paradigm for VQA systems, which consists of training a discriminative classifier over a predetermined set of answer options. In this work, we break with the dominant VQA modeling paradigm of classification and investigate VQA from the standpoint of an information retrieval task. As such, the developed system directly ties VG into its core search procedure. Our system operates over a weighted, directed, acyclic graph, a.k.a. "lattice", which is derived from the scene graph of a given image in conjunction with region-referring expressions extracted from the question. We give a detailed analysis of our approach and discuss its distinctive properties and limitations. Our approach achieves the strongest VG performance among examined systems and exhibits exceptional generalization capabilities in a number of scenarios.
Daniel Reich, Felix Putze, Tanja Schultz
0
11/20/2022 Towards Building Text-To-Speech Systems for the Next Billion Users
Deep learning based text-to-speech (TTS) systems have been evolving rapidly with advances in model architectures, training methodologies, and generalization across speakers and languages. However, these advances have not been thoroughly investigated for Indian language speech synthesis. Such investigation is computationally expensive given the number and diversity of Indian languages, relatively lower resource availability, and the diverse set of advances in neural TTS that remain untested. In this paper, we evaluate the choice of acoustic models, vocoders, supplementary loss functions, training schedules, and speaker and language diversity for Dravidian and Indo-Aryan languages. Based on this, we identify monolingual models with FastPitch and HiFi-GAN V1, trained jointly on male and female speakers to perform the best. With this setup, we train and evaluate TTS models for 13 languages and find our models to significantly improve upon existing models in all languages as measured by mean opinion scores. We open-source all models on the Bhashini platform.
Gokul Karthik Kumar, Praveen S V, Pratyush Kumar, Mitesh M. Khapra, Karthik Nandakumar
0
Jupyter Notebook
11/7/2022 Helpful Neighbors: Leveraging Neighbors in Geographic Feature Pronunciation
If one sees the place name Houston Mercer Dog Run in New York, how does one know how to pronounce it? Assuming one knows that Houston in New York is pronounced "how-ston" and not like the Texas city, then one can probably guess that "how-ston" is also used in the name of the dog park. We present a novel architecture that learns to use the pronunciations of neighboring names in order to guess the pronunciation of a given target feature. Applied to Japanese place names, we demonstrate the utility of the model to finding and proposing corrections for errors in Google Maps. To demonstrate the utility of this approach to structurally similar problems, we also report on an application to a totally different task: Cognate reflex prediction in comparative historical linguistics. A version of the code has been open-sourced (this https URL).
Llion Jones, Richard Sproat, Haruko Ishikawa, Alexander Gutkin
26103
Jupyter Notebook
11/7/2022 ERNIE-Layout: Layout Knowledge Enhanced Pre-training for Visually-rich Document Understanding
Recent years have witnessed the rise and success of pre-training techniques in visually-rich document understanding. However, most existing methods lack the systematic mining and utilization of layout-centered knowledge, leading to sub-optimal performances. In this paper, we propose ERNIE-Layout, a novel document pre-training solution with layout knowledge enhancement in the whole workflow, to learn better representations that combine the features from text, layout, and image. Specifically, we first rearrange input sequences in the serialization stage, and then present a correlative pre-training task, reading order prediction, to learn the proper reading order of documents. To improve the layout awareness of the model, we integrate a spatial-aware disentangled attention into the multi-modal transformer and a replaced regions prediction task into the pre-training phase. Experimental results show that ERNIE-Layout achieves superior performance on various downstream tasks, setting new state-of-the-art on key information extraction, document image classification, and document question answering datasets. The code and models are publicly available at this http URL.
Qiming Peng, Yinxu Pan, Wenjin Wang, Bin Luo, Zhenyu Zhang, Zhengjie Huang, Teng Hu, Weichong Yin, Yongfeng Chen, Yin Zhang, Shikun Feng, Yu Sun, Hao Tian, Hua Wu, Haifeng Wang
6547
Python
11/7/2022 Token-level Sequence Labeling for Spoken Language Understanding using Compositional End-to-End Models
End-to-end spoken language understanding (SLU) systems are gaining popularity over cascaded approaches due to their simplicity and ability to avoid error propagation. However, these systems model sequence labeling as a sequence prediction task causing a divergence from its well-established token-level tagging formulation. We build compositional end-to-end SLU systems that explicitly separate the added complexity of recognizing spoken mentions in SLU from the NLU task of sequence labeling. By relying on intermediate decoders trained for ASR, our end-to-end systems transform the input modality from speech to token-level representations that can be used in the traditional sequence labeling framework. This composition of ASR and NLU formulations in our end-to-end SLU system offers direct compatibility with pre-trained ASR and NLU systems, allows performance monitoring of individual components and enables the use of globally normalized losses like CRF, making them attractive in practical scenarios. Our models outperform both cascaded and direct end-to-end models on a labeling task of named entity recognition across SLU benchmarks.
Siddhant Arora, Siddharth Dalmia, Brian Yan, Florian Metze, Alan W Black, Shinji Watanabe
5728
Python
11/7/2022 Cross-Domain Aspect Extraction using Transformers Augmented with Knowledge Graphs
The extraction of aspect terms is a critical step in fine-grained sentiment analysis of text. Existing approaches for this task have yielded impressive results when the training and testing data are from the same domain. However, these methods show a drastic decrease in performance when applied to cross-domain settings where the domain of the testing data differs from that of the training data. To address this lack of extensibility and robustness, we propose a novel approach for automatically constructing domain-specific knowledge graphs that contain information relevant to the identification of aspect terms. We introduce a methodology for injecting information from these knowledge graphs into Transformer models, including two alternative mechanisms for knowledge insertion: via query enrichment and via manipulation of attention patterns. We demonstrate state-of-the-art performance on benchmark datasets for cross-domain aspect term extraction using our approach and investigate how the amount of external knowledge available to the Transformer impacts model performance.
Phillip Howard, Arden Ma, Vasudev Lal, Ana Paula Simoes, Daniel Korat, Oren Pereg, Moshe Wasserblat, Gadi Singer
2883
Python
11/7/2022 Museformer: Transformer with Fine- and Coarse-Grained Attention for Music Generation
Symbolic music generation aims to generate music scores automatically. A recent trend is to use Transformer or its variants in music generation, which is, however, suboptimal, because the full attention cannot efficiently model the typically long music sequences (e.g., over 10,000 tokens), and the existing models have shortcomings in generating musical repetition structures. In this paper, we propose Museformer, a Transformer with a novel fine- and coarse-grained attention for music generation. Specifically, with the fine-grained attention, a token of a specific bar directly attends to all the tokens of the bars that are most relevant to music structures (e.g., the previous 1st, 2nd, 4th and 8th bars, selected via similarity statistics); with the coarse-grained attention, a token only attends to the summarization of the other bars rather than each token of them so as to reduce the computational cost. The advantages are two-fold. First, it can capture both music structure-related correlations via the fine-grained attention, and other contextual information via the coarse-grained attention. Second, it is efficient and can model over 3X longer music sequences compared to its full-attention counterpart. Both objective and subjective experimental results demonstrate its ability to generate long music sequences with high quality and better structures.
Botao Yu, Peiling Lu, Rui Wang, Wei Hu, Xu Tan, Wei Ye, Shikun Zhang, Tao Qin, Tie-Yan Liu
2468
Python
11/7/2022 Bird-Eye Transformers for Text Generation Models
Transformers have become an indispensable module for text generation models since their great success in machine translation. Previous works attribute the~success of transformers to the query-key-value dot-product attention, which provides a robust inductive bias by the fully connected token graphs. However, we found that self-attention has a severe limitation. When predicting the (i+1)-th token, self-attention only takes the i-th token as an information collector, and it tends to give a high attention weight to those tokens similar to itself. Therefore, most of the historical information that occurred before the i-th token is not taken into consideration. Based on this observation, in this paper, we propose a new architecture, called bird-eye transformer(BET), which goes one step further to improve the performance of transformers by reweighting self-attention to encourage it to focus more on important historical information. We have conducted experiments on multiple text generation tasks, including machine translation (2 datasets) and language models (3 datasets). These experimental~results show that our proposed model achieves a better performance than the baseline transformer architectures on~all~datasets. The code is released at: \url{this https URL}.
Lei Sha, Yuhang Song, Yordan Yordanov, Tommaso Salvatori, Thomas Lukasiewicz
1398
Python
11/7/2022 Scaling Instruction-Finetuned Language Models
Finetuning language models on a collection of datasets phrased as instructions has been shown to improve model performance and generalization to unseen tasks. In this paper we explore instruction finetuning with a particular focus on (1) scaling the number of tasks, (2) scaling the model size, and (3) finetuning on chain-of-thought data. We find that instruction finetuning with the above aspects dramatically improves performance on a variety of model classes (PaLM, T5, U-PaLM), prompting setups (zero-shot, few-shot, CoT), and evaluation benchmarks (MMLU, BBH, TyDiQA, MGSM, open-ended generation). For instance, Flan-PaLM 540B instruction-finetuned on 1.8K tasks outperforms PALM 540B by a large margin (+9.4% on average). Flan-PaLM 540B achieves state-of-the-art performance on several benchmarks, such as 75.2% on five-shot MMLU. We also publicly release Flan-T5 checkpoints, which achieve strong few-shot performance even compared to much larger models, such as PaLM 62B. Overall, instruction finetuning is a general method for improving the performance and usability of pretrained language models.
Hyung Won Chung, Le Hou, Shayne Longpre, Barret Zoph, Yi Tay, William Fedus, Eric Li, Xuezhi Wang, Mostafa Dehghani, Siddhartha Brahma, Albert Webson, Shixiang Shane Gu, Zhuyun Dai, Mirac Suzgun, Xinyun Chen, Aakanksha Chowdhery, Sharan Narang, Gaurav Mishra, Adams Yu, Vincent Zhao, Yanping Huang, Andrew Dai, Hongkun Yu, Slav Petrov, Ed H. Chi, Jeff Dean, Jacob Devlin, Adam Roberts, Denny Zhou, Quoc V. Le, Jason Wei
926
Python
11/7/2022 Zero-Shot Learners for Natural Language Understanding via a Unified Multiple Choice Perspective
We propose a new paradigm for zero-shot learners that is format agnostic, i.e., it is compatible with any format and applicable to a list of language tasks, such as text classification, commonsense reasoning, coreference resolution, and sentiment analysis. Zero-shot learning aims to train a model on a given task such that it can address new learning tasks without any additional training. Our approach converts zero-shot learning into multiple-choice tasks, avoiding problems in commonly used large-scale generative models such as FLAN. It not only adds generalization ability to models but also significantly reduces the number of parameters. Our method shares the merits of efficient training and deployment. Our approach shows state-of-the-art performance on several benchmarks and produces satisfactory results on tasks such as natural language inference and text classification. Our model achieves this success with only 235M parameters, which is substantially smaller than state-of-the-art models with billions of parameters. The code and pre-trained models are available at this https URL .
Ping Yang, Junjie Wang, Ruyi Gan, Xinyu Zhu, Lin Zhang, Ziwei Wu, Xinyu Gao, Jiaxing Zhang, Tetsuya Sakai
910
Python
11/7/2022 Delay-penalized transducer for low-latency streaming ASR
In streaming automatic speech recognition (ASR), it is desirable to reduce latency as much as possible while having minimum impact on recognition accuracy. Although a few existing methods are able to achieve this goal, they are difficult to implement due to their dependency on external alignments. In this paper, we propose a simple way to penalize symbol delay in transducer model, so that we can balance the trade-off between symbol delay and accuracy for streaming models without external alignments. Specifically, our method adds a small constant times (T/2 - t), where T is the number of frames and t is the current frame, to all the non-blank log-probabilities (after normalization) that are fed into the two dimensional transducer recursion. For both streaming Conformer models and unidirectional long short-term memory (LSTM) models, experimental results show that it can significantly reduce the symbol delay with an acceptable performance degradation. Our method achieves similar delay-accuracy trade-off to the previously published FastEmit, but we believe our method is preferable because it has a better justification: it is equivalent to penalizing the average symbol delay. Our work is open-sourced and publicly available (this https URL).
Wei Kang, Zengwei Yao, Fangjun Kuang, Liyong Guo, Xiaoyu Yang, Long lin, Piotr ?elasko, Daniel Povey
778
Cuda
11/7/2022 Training Dynamics for Curriculum Learning: A Study on Monolingual and Cross-lingual NLU
Curriculum Learning (CL) is a technique of training models via ranking examples in a typically increasing difficulty trend with the aim of accelerating convergence and improving generalisability. Current approaches for Natural Language Understanding (NLU) tasks use CL to improve in-distribution data performance often via heuristic-oriented or task-agnostic difficulties. In this work, instead, we employ CL for NLU by taking advantage of training dynamics as difficulty metrics, i.e., statistics that measure the behavior of the model at hand on specific task-data instances during training and propose modifications of existing CL schedulers based on these statistics. Differently from existing works, we focus on evaluating models on in-distribution (ID), out-of-distribution (OOD) as well as zero-shot (ZS) cross-lingual transfer datasets. We show across several NLU tasks that CL with training dynamics can result in better performance mostly on zero-shot cross-lingual transfer and OOD settings with improvements up by 8.5% in certain cases. Overall, experiments indicate that training dynamics can lead to better performing models with smoother training compared to other difficulty metrics while being 20% faster on average. In addition, through analysis we shed light on the correlations of task-specific versus task-agnostic metrics.
Fenia Christopoulou, Gerasimos Lampouras, Ignacio Iacobacci
616
Python
11/7/2022 LightEA: A Scalable, Robust, and Interpretable Entity Alignment Framework via Three-view Label Propagation
Entity Alignment (EA) aims to find equivalent entity pairs between KGs, which is the core step of bridging and integrating multi-source KGs. In this paper, we argue that existing GNN-based EA methods inherit the inborn defects from their neural network lineage: weak scalability and poor interpretability. Inspired by recent studies, we reinvent the Label Propagation algorithm to effectively run on KGs and propose a non-neural EA framework -- LightEA, consisting of three efficient components: (i) Random Orthogonal Label Generation, (ii) Three-view Label Propagation, and (iii) Sparse Sinkhorn Iteration. According to the extensive experiments on public datasets, LightEA has impressive scalability, robustness, and interpretability. With a mere tenth of time consumption, LightEA achieves comparable results to state-of-the-art methods across all datasets and even surpasses them on many.
Xin Mao, Wenting Wang, Yuanbin Wu, Man Lan
418
11/7/2022 Predicting Multi-Codebook Vector Quantization Indexes for Knowledge Distillation
Knowledge distillation(KD) is a common approach to improve model performance in automatic speech recognition (ASR), where a student model is trained to imitate the output behaviour of a teacher model. However, traditional KD methods suffer from teacher label storage issue, especially when the training corpora are large. Although on-the-fly teacher label generation tackles this issue, the training speed is significantly slower as the teacher model has to be evaluated every batch. In this paper, we reformulate the generation of teacher label as a codec problem. We propose a novel Multi-codebook Vector Quantization (MVQ) approach that compresses teacher embeddings to codebook indexes (CI). Based on this, a KD training framework (MVQ-KD) is proposed where a student model predicts the CI generated from the embeddings of a self-supervised pre-trained teacher model. Experiments on the LibriSpeech clean-100 hour show that MVQ-KD framework achieves comparable performance as traditional KD methods (l1, l2), while requiring 256 times less storage. When the full LibriSpeech dataset is used, MVQ-KD framework results in 13.8% and 8.2% relative word error rate reductions (WERRs) for non -streaming transducer on test-clean and test-other and 4.0% and 4.9% for streaming transducer. The implementation of this work is already released as a part of the open-source project icefall.
Liyong Guo, Xiaoyu Yang, Quandong Wang, Yuxiang Kong, Zengwei Yao, Fan Cui, Fangjun Kuang, Wei Kang, Long Lin, Mingshuang Luo, Piotr Zelasko, Daniel Povey
381
Python
11/7/2022 Fast and parallel decoding for transducer
The transducer architecture is becoming increasingly popular in the field of speech recognition, because it is naturally streaming as well as high in accuracy. One of the drawbacks of transducer is that it is difficult to decode in a fast and parallel way due to an unconstrained number of symbols that can be emitted per time step. In this work, we introduce a constrained version of transducer loss to learn strictly monotonic alignments between the sequences; we also improve the standard greedy search and beam search algorithms by limiting the number of symbols that can be emitted per time step in transducer decoding, making it more efficient to decode in parallel with batches. Furthermore, we propose an finite state automaton-based (FSA) parallel beam search algorithm that can run with graphs on GPU efficiently. The experiment results show that we achieve slight word error rate (WER) improvement as well as significant speedup in decoding. Our work is open-sourced and publicly available\footnote{this https URL}.
Wei Kang, Liyong Guo, Fangjun Kuang, Long Lin, Mingshuang Luo, Zengwei Yao, Xiaoyu Yang, Piotr ?elasko, Daniel Povey
381
Python
11/7/2022 What Language Model to Train if You Have One Million GPU Hours?
The crystallization of modeling methods around the Transformer architecture has been a boon for practitioners. Simple, well-motivated architectural variations can transfer across tasks and scale, increasing the impact of modeling research. However, with the emergence of state-of-the-art 100B+ parameters models, large language models are increasingly expensive to accurately design and train. Notably, it can be difficult to evaluate how modeling decisions may impact emergent capabilities, given that these capabilities arise mainly from sheer scale alone. In the process of building BLOOM--the Big Science Large Open-science Open-access Multilingual language model--our goal is to identify an architecture and training setup that makes the best use of our 1,000,000 A100-GPU-hours budget. Specifically, we perform an ablation study at the billion-parameter scale comparing different modeling practices and their impact on zero-shot generalization. In addition, we study the impact of various popular pre-training corpora on zero-shot generalization. We also study the performance of a multilingual model and how it compares to the English-only one. Finally, we consider the scaling behaviour of Transformers to choose the target model size, shape, and training setup. All our models and code are open-sourced at this https URL .
Teven Le Scao, Thomas Wang, Daniel Hesslow, Lucile Saulnier, Stas Bekman, M Saiful Bari, Stella Bideman, Hady Elsahar, Niklas Muennighoff, Jason Phang, Ofir Press, Colin Raffel, Victor Sanh, Sheng Shen, Lintang Sutawika, Jaesung Tae, Zheng Xin Yong, Julien Launay, Iz Beltagy
283
Python
11/7/2022 Named Entity Recognition in Twitter: A Dataset and Analysis on Short-Term Temporal Shifts
Recent progress in language model pre-training has led to important improvements in Named Entity Recognition (NER). Nonetheless, this progress has been mainly tested in well-formatted documents such as news, Wikipedia, or scientific articles. In social media the landscape is different, in which it adds another layer of complexity due to its noisy and dynamic nature. In this paper, we focus on NER in Twitter, one of the largest social media platforms, and construct a new NER dataset, TweetNER7, which contains seven entity types annotated over 11,382 tweets from September 2019 to August 2021. The dataset was constructed by carefully distributing the tweets over time and taking representative trends as a basis. Along with the dataset, we provide a set of language model baselines and perform an analysis on the language model performance on the task, especially analyzing the impact of different time periods. In particular, we focus on three important temporal aspects in our analysis: short-term degradation of NER models over time, strategies to fine-tune a language model over different periods, and self-labeling as an alternative to lack of recently-labeled data. TweetNER7 is released publicly (this https URL) along with the models fine-tuned on it (NER models have been integrated into TweetNLP and can be found athttps://github.com/asahi417/tner/tree/master/examples/tweetner7_paper).
Asahi Ushio, Leonardo Neves, Vitor Silva, Francesco Barbieri, Jose Camacho-Collados
233
Python
11/7/2022 Low-Resource Multilingual and Zero-Shot Multispeaker TTS
While neural methods for text-to-speech (TTS) have shown great advances in modeling multiple speakers, even in zero-shot settings, the amount of data needed for those approaches is generally not feasible for the vast majority of the world's over 6,000 spoken languages. In this work, we bring together the tasks of zero-shot voice cloning and multilingual low-resource TTS. Using the language agnostic meta learning (LAML) procedure and modifications to a TTS encoder, we show that it is possible for a system to learn speaking a new language using just 5 minutes of training data while retaining the ability to infer the voice of even unseen speakers in the newly learned language. We show the success of our proposed approach in terms of intelligibility, naturalness and similarity to target speaker using objective metrics as well as human studies and provide our code and trained models open source.
Florian Lux, Julia Koch, Ngoc Thang Vu
219
Python
11/7/2022 SpeechUT: Bridging Speech and Text with Hidden-Unit for Encoder-Decoder Based Speech-Text Pre-training
The rapid development of single-modal pre-training has prompted researchers to pay more attention to cross-modal pre-training methods. In this paper, we propose a unified-modal speech-unit-text pre-training model, SpeechUT, to connect the representations of a speech encoder and a text decoder with a shared unit encoder. Leveraging hidden-unit as an interface to align speech and text, we can decompose the speech-to-text model into a speech-to-unit model and a unit-to-text model, which can be jointly pre-trained with unpaired speech and text data respectively. Our proposed SpeechUT is fine-tuned and evaluated on automatic speech recognition (ASR) and speech translation (ST) tasks. Experimental results show that SpeechUT gets substantial improvements over strong baselines, and achieves state-of-the-art performance on both the LibriSpeech ASR and MuST-C ST tasks. To better understand the proposed SpeechUT, detailed analyses are conducted. The code and pre-trained models are available at this https URL.
Ziqiang Zhang, Long Zhou, Junyi Ao, Shujie Liu, Lirong Dai, Jinyu Li, Furu Wei
208
Python
11/7/2022 Joint Pre-Training with Speech and Bilingual Text for Direct Speech to Speech Translation
Direct speech-to-speech translation (S2ST) is an attractive research topic with many advantages compared to cascaded S2ST. However, direct S2ST suffers from the data scarcity problem because the corpora from speech of the source language to speech of the target language are very rare. To address this issue, we propose in this paper a Speech2S model, which is jointly pre-trained with unpaired speech and bilingual text data for direct speech-to-speech translation tasks. By effectively leveraging the paired text data, Speech2S is capable of modeling the cross-lingual speech conversion from source to target language. We verify the performance of the proposed Speech2S on Europarl-ST and VoxPopuli datasets. Experimental results demonstrate that Speech2S gets an improvement of about 5 BLEU scores compared to encoder-only pre-training models, and achieves a competitive or even better performance than existing state-of-the-art models1.
Kun Wei, Long Zhou, Ziqiang Zhang, Liping Chen, Shujie Liu, Lei He, Jinyu Li, Furu Wei
208
Python
11/7/2022 Fine-Tuning Language Models via Epistemic Neural Networks
Large language models are now part of a powerful new paradigm in machine learning. These models learn a wide range of capabilities from training on large unsupervised text corpora. In many applications, these capabilities are then fine-tuned through additional training on specialized data to improve performance in that setting. In this paper, we augment these models with an epinet: a small additional network architecture that helps to estimate model uncertainty and form an epistemic neural network (ENN). ENNs are neural networks that can know what they don't know. We show that, using an epinet to prioritize uncertain data, we can fine-tune BERT on GLUE tasks to the same performance while using 2x less data. We also investigate performance in synthetic neural network generative models designed to build understanding. In each setting, using an epinet outperforms heuristic active learning schemes.
Ian Osband, Seyed Mohammad Asghari, Benjamin Van Roy, Nat McAleese, John Aslanides, Geoffrey Irving
175
Jupyter Notebook
11/7/2022 PARAGEN : A Parallel Generation Toolkit
PARAGEN is a PyTorch-based NLP toolkit for further development on parallel generation. PARAGEN provides thirteen types of customizable plugins, helping users to experiment quickly with novel ideas across model architectures, optimization, and learning strategies. We implement various features, such as unlimited data loading and automatic model selection, to enhance its industrial usage. ParaGen is now deployed to support various research and industry applications at ByteDance. PARAGEN is available at this https URL.
Jiangtao Feng, Yi Zhou, Jun Zhang, Xian Qian, Liwei Wu, Zhexi Zhang, Yanming Liu, Mingxuan Wang, Lei Li, Hao Zhou
168
Python
11/7/2022 DiffuSeq: Sequence to Sequence Text Generation with Diffusion Models
Recently, diffusion models have emerged as a new paradigm for generative models. Despite the success in domains using continuous signals such as vision and audio, adapting diffusion models to natural language is difficult due to the discrete nature of text. We tackle this challenge by proposing DiffuSeq: a diffusion model designed for sequence-to-sequence (Seq2Seq) text generation tasks. Upon extensive evaluation over a wide range of Seq2Seq tasks, we find DiffuSeq achieving comparable or even better performance than six established baselines, including a state-of-the-art model that is based on pre-trained language models. Apart from quality, an intriguing property of DiffuSeq is its high diversity during generation, which is desired in many Seq2Seq tasks. We further include a theoretical analysis revealing the connection between DiffuSeq and autoregressive/non-autoregressive models. Bringing together theoretical analysis and empirical evidence, we demonstrate the great potential of diffusion models in complex conditional language generation tasks.
Shansan Gong, Mukai Li, Jiangtao Feng, Zhiyong Wu, LingPeng Kong
169
11/7/2022 TPU-MLIR: A Compiler For TPU Using MLIR
Multi-level intermediate representations (MLIR) show great promise for reducing the cost of building domain-specific compilers by providing a reusable and extensible compiler infrastructure. This work presents TPU-MLIR, an end-to-end compiler based on MLIR that deploys pre-trained neural network (NN) models to a custom ASIC called a Tensor Processing Unit (TPU). TPU-MLIR defines two new dialects to implement its functionality: 1. a Tensor operation (TOP) dialect that encodes the deep learning graph semantics and independent of the deep learning framework and 2. a TPU kernel dialect to provide a standard kernel computation on TPU. A NN model is translated to the TOP dialect and then lowered to the TPU dialect for different TPUs according to the chip's configuration. We demonstrate how to use the MLIR pass pipeline to organize and perform optimization on TPU to generate machine code. The paper also presents a verification procedure to ensure the correctness of each transform stage.
Pengchao Hu, Man Lu, Lei Wang, Guoyue Jiang
147
C++
11/7/2022 Monotonic segmental attention for automatic speech recognition
We introduce a novel segmental-attention model for automatic speech recognition. We restrict the decoder attention to segments to avoid quadratic runtime of global attention, better generalize to long sequences, and eventually enable streaming. We directly compare global-attention and different segmental-attention modeling variants. We develop and compare two separate time-synchronous decoders, one specifically taking the segmental nature into account, yielding further improvements. Using time-synchronous decoding for segmental models is novel and a step towards streaming applications. Our experiments show the importance of a length model to predict the segment boundaries. The final best segmental-attention model using segmental decoding performs better than global-attention, in contrast to other monotonic attention approaches in the literature. Further, we observe that the segmental model generalizes much better to long sequences of up to several minutes.
Albert Zeyer, Robin Schmitt, Wei Zhou, Ralf Schluter, Hermann Ney
138
Python
11/7/2022 MTet: Multi-domain Translation for English and Vietnamese
We introduce MTet, the largest publicly available parallel corpus for English-Vietnamese translation. MTet consists of 4.2M high-quality training sentence pairs and a multi-domain test set refined by the Vietnamese research community. Combining with previous works on English-Vietnamese translation, we grow the existing parallel dataset to 6.2M sentence pairs. We also release the first pretrained model EnViT5 for English and Vietnamese languages. Combining both resources, our model significantly outperforms previous state-of-the-art results by up to 2 points in translation BLEU score, while being 1.6 times smaller.
Chinh Ngo, Trieu H. Trinh, Long Phan, Hieu Tran, Tai Dang, Hieu Nguyen, Minh Nguyen, Minh-Thang Luong
136
Python
11/7/2022 Towards Realistic Low-resource Relation Extraction: A Benchmark with Empirical Baseline Study
This paper presents an empirical study to build relation extraction systems in low-resource settings. Based upon recent pre-trained language models, we comprehensively investigate three schemes to evaluate the performance in low-resource settings: (i) different types of prompt-based methods with few-shot labeled data; (ii) diverse balancing methods to address the long-tailed distribution issue; (iii) data augmentation technologies and self-training to generate more labeled in-domain data. We create a benchmark with 8 relation extraction (RE) datasets covering different languages, domains and contexts and perform extensive comparisons over the proposed schemes with combinations. Our experiments illustrate: (i) Though prompt-based tuning is beneficial in low-resource RE, there is still much potential for improvement, especially in extracting relations from cross-sentence contexts with multiple relational triples; (ii) Balancing methods are not always helpful for RE with long-tailed distribution; (iii) Data augmentation complements existing baselines and can bring much performance gain, while self-training may not consistently achieve advancement to low-resource RE. Code and datasets are in this https URL.
Xin Xu, Xiang Chen, Ningyu Zhang, Xin Xie, Xi Chen, Huajun Chen
127
Python
11/7/2022 Open-domain Question Answering via Chain of Reasoning over Heterogeneous Knowledge
We propose a novel open-domain question answering (ODQA) framework for answering single/multi-hop questions across heterogeneous knowledge sources. The key novelty of our method is the introduction of the intermediary modules into the current retriever-reader pipeline. Unlike previous methods that solely rely on the retriever for gathering all evidence in isolation, our intermediary performs a chain of reasoning over the retrieved set. Specifically, our method links the retrieved evidence with its related global context into graphs and organizes them into a candidate list of evidence chains. Built upon pretrained language models, our system achieves competitive performance on two ODQA datasets, OTT-QA and NQ, against tables and passages from Wikipedia. In particular, our model substantially outperforms the previous state-of-the-art on OTT-QA with an exact match score of 47.3 (45 % relative gain).
Kaixin Ma, Hao Cheng, Xiaodong Liu, Eric Nyberg, Jianfeng Gao
119
Python
11/7/2022 Entity Disambiguation with Entity Definitions
Local models have recently attained astounding performances in Entity Disambiguation (ED), with generative and extractive formulations being the most promising research directions. However, previous works limited their studies to using, as the textual representation of each candidate, only its Wikipedia title. Although certainly effective, this strategy presents a few critical issues, especially when titles are not sufficiently informative or distinguishable from one another. In this paper, we address this limitation and investigate to what extent more expressive textual representations can mitigate it. We thoroughly evaluate our approach against standard benchmarks in ED and find extractive formulations to be particularly well-suited to these representations: we report a new state of the art on 2 out of 6 benchmarks we consider and strongly improve the generalization capability over unseen patterns. We release our code, data and model checkpoints at this https URL.
Luigi Procopio, Simone Conia, Edoardo Barba, Roberto Navigli
108
Python
11/7/2022 Towards High-Quality Neural TTS for Low-Resource Languages by Learning Compact Speech Representations
This paper aims to enhance low-resource TTS by reducing training data requirements using compact speech representations. A Multi-Stage Multi-Codebook (MSMC) VQ-GAN is trained to learn the representation, MSMCR, and decode it to waveforms. Subsequently, we train the multi-stage predictor to predict MSMCRs from the text for TTS synthesis. Moreover, we optimize the training strategy by leveraging more audio to learn MSMCRs better for low-resource languages. It selects audio from other languages using speaker similarity metric to augment the training set, and applies transfer learning to improve training quality. In MOS tests, the proposed system significantly outperforms FastSpeech and VITS in standard and low-resource scenarios, showing lower data requirements. The proposed training strategy effectively enhances MSMCRs on waveform reconstruction. It improves TTS performance further, which wins 77% votes in the preference test for the low-resource TTS with only 15 minutes of paired data.
Haohan Guo, Fenglong Xie, Xixin Wu, Hui Lu, Helen Meng
104
Python
11/7/2022 PatternRank: Leveraging Pretrained Language Models and Part of Speech for Unsupervised Keyphrase Extraction
Keyphrase extraction is the process of automatically selecting a small set of most relevant phrases from a given text. Supervised keyphrase extraction approaches need large amounts of labeled training data and perform poorly outside the domain of the training data. In this paper, we present PatternRank, which leverages pretrained language models and part-of-speech for unsupervised keyphrase extraction from single documents. Our experiments show PatternRank achieves higher precision, recall and F1-scores than previous state-of-the-art approaches. In addition, we present the KeyphraseVectorizers package, which allows easy modification of part-of-speech patterns for candidate keyphrase selection, and hence adaptation of our approach to any domain.
Tim Schopf, Simon Klimek, Florian Matthes
112
Python
11/7/2022 Dial2vec: Self-Guided Contrastive Learning of Unsupervised Dialogue Embeddings
In this paper, we introduce the task of learning unsupervised dialogue embeddings. Trivial approaches such as combining pre-trained word or sentence embeddings and encoding through pre-trained language models (PLMs) have been shown to be feasible for this task. However, these approaches typically ignore the conversational interactions between interlocutors, resulting in poor performance. To address this issue, we proposed a self-guided contrastive learning approach named dial2vec. Dial2vec considers a dialogue as an information exchange process. It captures the conversational interaction patterns between interlocutors and leverages them to guide the learning of the embeddings corresponding to each interlocutor. The dialogue embedding is obtained by an aggregation of the embeddings from all interlocutors. To verify our approach, we establish a comprehensive benchmark consisting of six widely-used dialogue datasets. We consider three evaluation tasks: domain categorization, semantic relatedness, and dialogue retrieval. Dial2vec achieves on average 8.7, 9.0, and 13.8 points absolute improvements in terms of purity, Spearman's correlation, and mean average precision (MAP) over the strongest baseline on the three tasks respectively. Further analysis shows that dial2vec obtains informative and discriminative embeddings for both interlocutors under the guidance of the conversational interactions and achieves the best performance when aggregating them through the interlocutor-level pooling strategy. All codes and data are publicly available at this https URL.
Che Liu, Rui Wang, Junfeng Jiang, Yongbin Li, Fei Huang
104
Python
11/7/2022 Towards Generalizable and Robust Text-to-SQL Parsing
Text-to-SQL parsing tackles the problem of mapping natural language questions to executable SQL queries. In practice, text-to-SQL parsers often encounter various challenging scenarios, requiring them to be generalizable and robust. While most existing work addresses a particular generalization or robustness challenge, we aim to study it in a more comprehensive manner. In specific, we believe that text-to-SQL parsers should be (1) generalizable at three levels of generalization, namely i.i.d., zero-shot, and compositional, and (2) robust against input perturbations. To enhance these capabilities of the parser, we propose a novel TKK framework consisting of Task decomposition, Knowledge acquisition, and Knowledge composition to learn text-to-SQL parsing in stages. By dividing the learning process into multiple stages, our framework improves the parser's ability to acquire general SQL knowledge instead of capturing spurious patterns, making it more generalizable and robust. Experimental results under various generalization and robustness settings show that our framework is effective in all scenarios and achieves state-of-the-art performance on the Spider, SParC, and CoSQL datasets. Code can be found at this https URL.
Chang Gao, Bowen Li, Wenxuan Zhang, Wai Lam, Binhua Li, Fei Huang, Luo Si, Yongbin Li
104
Python
11/7/2022 STAR: SQL Guided Pre-Training for Context-dependent Text-to-SQL Parsing
In this paper, we propose a novel SQL guided pre-training framework STAR for context-dependent text-to-SQL parsing, which leverages contextual information to enrich natural language (NL) utterance and table schema representations for text-to-SQL conversations. Concretely, we propose two novel pre-training objectives which respectively explore the context-dependent interactions of NL utterances and SQL queries within each text-to-SQL conversation: (i) schema state tracking (SST) objective that tracks and explores the schema states of context-dependent SQL queries in the form of schema-states by predicting and updating the value of each schema slot during interaction; (ii) utterance dependency tracking (UDT) objective that employs weighted contrastive learning to pull together two semantically similar NL utterances and push away the representations of semantically dissimilar NL utterances within each conversation. In addition, we construct a high-quality large-scale context-dependent text-to-SQL conversation corpus to pre-train STAR. Extensive experiments show that STAR achieves new state-of-the-art performance on two downstream benchmarks (SParC and CoSQL), significantly outperforming previous pre-training methods and ranking first on the leaderboard. We believe the release of the constructed corpus, codebase and pre-trained STAR checkpoints would push forward the research in this area. For reproducibility, we release our code and data at this https URL.
Zefeng Cai, Xiangyu Li, Binyuan Hui, Min Yang, Bowen Li, Binhua Li, Zheng Cao, Weijie Li, Fei Huang, Luo Si, Yongbin Li
104
Python
11/7/2022 AliCG: Fine-grained and Evolvable Conceptual Graph Construction for Semantic Search at Alibaba
Conceptual graphs, which is a particular type of Knowledge Graphs, play an essential role in semantic search. Prior conceptual graph construction approaches typically extract high-frequent, coarse-grained, and time-invariant concepts from formal texts. In real applications, however, it is necessary to extract less-frequent, fine-grained, and time-varying conceptual knowledge and build taxonomy in an evolving manner. In this paper, we introduce an approach to implementing and deploying the conceptual graph at Alibaba. Specifically, We propose a framework called AliCG which is capable of a) extracting fine-grained concepts by a novel bootstrapping with alignment consensus approach, b) mining long-tail concepts with a novel low-resource phrase mining approach, c) updating the graph dynamically via a concept distribution estimation method based on implicit and explicit user behaviors. We have deployed the framework at Alibaba UC Browser. Extensive offline evaluation as well as online A/B testing demonstrate the efficacy of our approach.
Ningyu Zhang, Qianghuai Jia, Shumin Deng, Xiang Chen, Hongbin Ye, Hui Chen, Huaixiao Tou, Gang Huang, Zhao Wang, Nengwei Hua, Huajun Chen
91