The NLP Index

Updated: 05/08/21 - Total repos: 4,244
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5/7/2021 A Concise Model for Multi-Criteria Chinese Word Segmentation with Transformer Encoder
Multi-criteria Chinese word segmentation (MCCWS) aims to exploit the relations among the multiple heterogeneous segmentation criteria and further improve the performance of each single criterion. Previous work usually regards MCCWS as different tasks, which are learned together under the multi-task learning framework. In this paper, we propose a concise but effective unified model for MCCWS, which is fully-shared for all the criteria. By leveraging the powerful ability of the Transformer encoder, the proposed unified model can segment Chinese text according to a unique criterion-token indicating the output criterion. Besides, the proposed unified model can segment both simplified and traditional Chinese and has an excellent transfer capability. Experiments on eight datasets with different criteria show that our model outperforms our single-criterion baseline model and other multi-criteria models. Source codes of this paper are available on Github this https URL.
Xipeng Qiu, Hengzhi Pei, Hang Yan, Xuanjing Huang
5
Python
5/7/2021 GCDT: A Global Context Enhanced Deep Transition Architecture for Sequence Labeling
Current state-of-the-art systems for sequence labeling are typically based on the family of Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs). However, the shallow connections between consecutive hidden states of RNNs and insufficient modeling of global information restrict the potential performance of those models. In this paper, we try to address these issues, and thus propose a Global Context enhanced Deep Transition architecture for sequence labeling named GCDT. We deepen the state transition path at each position in a sentence, and further assign every token with a global representation learned from the entire sentence. Experiments on two standard sequence labeling tasks show that, given only training data and the ubiquitous word embeddings (Glove), our GCDT achieves 91.96 F1 on the CoNLL03 NER task and 95.43 F1 on the CoNLL2000 Chunking task, which outperforms the best reported results under the same settings. Furthermore, by leveraging BERT as an additional resource, we establish new state-of-the-art results with 93.47 F1 on NER and 97.30 F1 on Chunking.
Yijin Liu, Fandong Meng, Jinchao Zhang, Jinan Xu, Yufeng Chen, Jie Zhou
64
PLSQL
5/7/2021 Expressing Visual Relationships via Language
Describing images with text is a fundamental problem in vision-language research. Current studies in this domain mostly focus on single image captioning. However, in various real applications (e.g., image editing, difference interpretation, and retrieval), generating relational captions for two images, can also be very useful. This important problem has not been explored mostly due to lack of datasets and effective models. To push forward the research in this direction, we first introduce a new language-guided image editing dataset that contains a large number of real image pairs with corresponding editing instructions. We then propose a new relational speaker model based on an encoder-decoder architecture with static relational attention and sequential multi-head attention. We also extend the model with dynamic relational attention, which calculates visual alignment while decoding. Our models are evaluated on our newly collected and two public datasets consisting of image pairs annotated with relationship sentences. Experimental results, based on both automatic and human evaluation, demonstrate that our model outperforms all baselines and existing methods on all the datasets.
Hao Tan, Franck Dernoncourt, Zhe Lin, Trung Bui, Mohit Bansal
46
Jupyter NB
5/7/2021 A Resource-Free Evaluation Metric for Cross-Lingual Word Embeddings Based on Graph Modularity
Cross-lingual word embeddings encode the meaning of words from different languages into a shared low-dimensional space. An important requirement for many downstream tasks is that word similarity should be independent of language - i.e., word vectors within one language should not be more similar to each other than to words in another language. We measure this characteristic using modularity, a network measurement that measures the strength of clusters in a graph. Modularity has a moderate to strong correlation with three downstream tasks, even though modularity is based only on the structure of embeddings and does not require any external resources. We show through experiments that modularity can serve as an intrinsic validation metric to improve unsupervised cross-lingual word embeddings, particularly on distant language pairs in low-resource settings.
Yoshinari Fujinuma, Jordan Boyd-Graber, Michael J. Paul
4
Python
5/7/2021 Multi-News: a Large-Scale Multi-Document Summarization Dataset and Abstractive Hierarchical Model
Automatic generation of summaries from multiple news articles is a valuable tool as the number of online publications grows rapidly. Single document summarization (SDS) systems have benefited from advances in neural encoder-decoder model thanks to the availability of large datasets. However, multi-document summarization (MDS) of news articles has been limited to datasets of a couple of hundred examples. In this paper, we introduce Multi-News, the first large-scale MDS news dataset. Additionally, we propose an end-to-end model which incorporates a traditional extractive summarization model with a standard SDS model and achieves competitive results on MDS datasets. We benchmark several methods on Multi-News and release our data and code in hope that this work will promote advances in summarization in the multi-document setting.
Alexander R. Fabbri, Irene Li, Tianwei She, Suyi Li, Dragomir R. Radev
164
Python
5/7/2021 Be Consistent! Improving Procedural Text Comprehension using Label Consistency
Our goal is procedural text comprehension, namely tracking how the properties of entities (e.g., their location) change with time given a procedural text (e.g., a paragraph about photosynthesis, a recipe). This task is challenging as the world is changing throughout the text, and despite recent advances, current systems still struggle with this task. Our approach is to leverage the fact that, for many procedural texts, multiple independent descriptions are readily available, and that predictions from them should be consistent (label consistency). We present a new learning framework that leverages label consistency during training, allowing consistency bias to be built into the model. Evaluation on a standard benchmark dataset for procedural text, ProPara (Dalvi et al., 2018), shows that our approach significantly improves prediction performance (F1) over prior state-of-the-art systems.
Xinya Du, Bhavana Dalvi Mishra, Niket Tandon, Antoine Bosselut, Wen-tau Yih, Peter Clark, Claire Cardie
74
Python
5/7/2021 Question Answering as Global Reasoning over Semantic Abstractions
We propose a novel method for exploiting the semantic structure of text to answer multiple-choice questions. The approach is especially suitable for domains that require reasoning over a diverse set of linguistic constructs but have limited training data. To address these challenges, we present the first system, to the best of our knowledge, that reasons over a wide range of semantic abstractions of the text, which are derived using off-the-shelf, general-purpose, pre-trained natural language modules such as semantic role labelers, coreference resolvers, and dependency parsers. Representing multiple abstractions as a family of graphs, we translate question answering (QA) into a search for an optimal subgraph that satisfies certain global and local properties. This formulation generalizes several prior structured QA systems. Our system, SEMANTICILP, demonstrates strong performance on two domains simultaneously. In particular, on a collection of challenging science QA datasets, it outperforms various state-of-the-art approaches, including neural models, broad coverage information retrieval, and specialized techniques using structured knowledge bases, by 2%-6%.
Daniel Khashabi, Tushar Khot, Ashish Sabharwal, Dan Roth
29
Scala
5/7/2021 Variational Pretraining for Semi-supervised Text Classification
We introduce VAMPIRE, a lightweight pretraining framework for effective text classification when data and computing resources are limited. We pretrain a unigram document model as a variational autoencoder on in-domain, unlabeled data and use its internal states as features in a downstream classifier. Empirically, we show the relative strength of VAMPIRE against computationally expensive contextual embeddings and other popular semi-supervised baselines under low resource settings. We also find that fine-tuning to in-domain data is crucial to achieving decent performance from contextual embeddings when working with limited supervision. We accompany this paper with code to pretrain and use VAMPIRE embeddings in downstream tasks.
Suchin Gururangan, Tam Dang, Dallas Card, Noah A. Smith
154
Python
5/7/2021 Exploring Diseases and Syndromes in Neurology Case Reports from 1955 to 2017 with Text Mining
Background: A large number of neurology case reports have been published, but it is a challenging task for human medical experts to explore all of these publications. Text mining offers a computational approach to investigate neurology literature and capture meaningful patterns. The overarching goal of this study is to provide a new perspective on case reports of neurological disease and syndrome analysis over the last six decades using text mining. Methods: We extracted diseases and syndromes (DsSs) from more than 65,000 neurology case reports from 66 journals in PubMed over the last six decades from 1955 to 2017. Text mining was applied to reports on the detected DsSs to investigate high-frequency DsSs, categorize them, and explore the linear trends over the 63-year time frame. Results: The text mining methods explored high-frequency neurologic DsSs and their trends and the relationships between them from 1955 to 2017. We detected more than 18,000 unique DsSs and found 10 categories of neurologic DsSs. While the trend analysis showed the increasing trends in the case reports for top-10 high-frequency DsSs, the categories had mixed trends. Conclusion: Our study provided new insights into the application of text mining methods to investigate DsSs in a large number of medical case reports that occur over several decades. The proposed approach can be used to provide a macro level analysis of medical literature by discovering interesting patterns and tracking them over several years to help physicians explore these case reports more efficiently.
Amir Karami, Mehdi Ghasemi, Souvik Sen, Marcos Moraes, Vishal Shah
0
5/7/2021 Putting words in context: LSTM language models and lexical ambiguity
In neural network models of language, words are commonly represented using context-invariant representations (word embeddings) which are then put in context in the hidden layers. Since words are often ambiguous, representing the contextually relevant information is not trivial. We investigate how an LSTM language model deals with lexical ambiguity in English, designing a method to probe its hidden representations for lexical and contextual information about words. We find that both types of information are represented to a large extent, but also that there is room for improvement for contextual information.
Laura Aina, Kristina Gulordava, Gemma Boleda
3
Python
5/7/2021 Efficient Adaptation of Pretrained Transformers for Abstractive Summarization
Large-scale learning of transformer language models has yielded improvements on a variety of natural language understanding tasks. Whether they can be effectively adapted for summarization, however, has been less explored, as the learned representations are less seamlessly integrated into existing neural text production architectures. In this work, we propose two solutions for efficiently adapting pretrained transformer language models as text summarizers: source embeddings and domain-adaptive training. We test these solutions on three abstractive summarization datasets, achieving new state of the art performance on two of them. Finally, we show that these improvements are achieved by producing more focused summaries with fewer superfluous and that performance improvements are more pronounced on more abstractive datasets.
Andrew Hoang, Antoine Bosselut, Asli Celikyilmaz, Yejin Choi
57
Python
5/7/2021 FIESTA: Fast IdEntification of State-of-The-Art models using adaptive bandit algorithms
We present FIESTA, a model selection approach that significantly reduces the computational resources required to reliably identify state-of-the-art performance from large collections of candidate models. Despite being known to produce unreliable comparisons, it is still common practice to compare model evaluations based on single choices of random seeds. We show that reliable model selection also requires evaluations based on multiple train-test splits (contrary to common practice in many shared tasks). Using bandit theory from the statistics literature, we are able to adaptively determine appropriate numbers of data splits and random seeds used to evaluate each model, focusing computational resources on the evaluation of promising models whilst avoiding wasting evaluations on models with lower performance. Furthermore, our user-friendly Python implementation produces confidence guarantees of correctly selecting the optimal model. We evaluate our algorithms by selecting between 8 target-dependent sentiment analysis methods using dramatically fewer model evaluations than current model selection approaches.
Henry B. Moss, Andrew Moore, David S. Leslie, Paul Rayson
11
Jupyter NB
5/7/2021 Supervised Contextual Embeddings for Transfer Learning in Natural Language Processing Tasks
Pre-trained word embeddings are the primary method for transfer learning in several Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks. Recent works have focused on using unsupervised techniques such as language modeling to obtain these embeddings. In contrast, this work focuses on extracting representations from multiple pre-trained supervised models, which enriches word embeddings with task and domain specific knowledge. Experiments performed in cross-task, cross-domain and cross-lingual settings indicate that such supervised embeddings are helpful, especially in the low-resource setting, but the extent of gains is dependent on the nature of the task and domain. We make our code publicly available.
Mihir Kale, Aditya Siddhant, Sreyashi Nag, Radhika Parik, Matthias Grabmair, Anthony Tomasic
0
Python
5/7/2021 Approximating Interactive Human Evaluation with Self-Play for Open-Domain Dialog Systems
Building an open-domain conversational agent is a challenging problem. Current evaluation methods, mostly post-hoc judgments of static conversation, do not capture conversation quality in a realistic interactive context. In this paper, we investigate interactive human evaluation and provide evidence for its necessity; we then introduce a novel, model-agnostic, and dataset-agnostic method to approximate it. In particular, we propose a self-play scenario where the dialog system talks to itself and we calculate a combination of proxies such as sentiment and semantic coherence on the conversation trajectory. We show that this metric is capable of capturing the human-rated quality of a dialog model better than any automated metric known to-date, achieving a significant Pearson correlation (r>.7, p<.05). To investigate the strengths of this novel metric and interactive evaluation in comparison to state-of-the-art metrics and human evaluation of static conversations, we perform extended experiments with a set of models, including several that make novel improvements to recent hierarchical dialog generation architectures through sentiment and semantic knowledge distillation on the utterance level. Finally, we open-source the interactive evaluation platform we built and the dataset we collected to allow researchers to efficiently deploy and evaluate dialog models.
Asma Ghandeharioun, Judy Hanwen Shen, Natasha Jaques, Craig Ferguson, Noah Jones, Agata Lapedriza, Rosalind Picard
21
Python
5/7/2021 Sparse Parallel Training of Hierarchical Dirichlet Process Topic Models
To scale non-parametric extensions of probabilistic topic models such as Latent Dirichlet allocation to larger data sets, practitioners rely increasingly on parallel and distributed systems. In this work, we study data-parallel training for the hierarchical Dirichlet process (HDP) topic model. Based upon a representation of certain conditional distributions within an HDP, we propose a doubly sparse data-parallel sampler for the HDP topic model. This sampler utilizes all available sources of sparsity found in natural language - an important way to make computation efficient. We benchmark our method on a well-known corpus (PubMed) with 8m documents and 768m tokens, using a single multi-core machine in under four days.
Alexander Terenin, Mans Magnusson, Leif Jonsson
0
MATLAB
5/7/2021 Assessing the Ability of Self-Attention Networks to Learn Word Order
Self-attention networks (SAN) have attracted a lot of interests due to their high parallelization and strong performance on a variety of NLP tasks, e.g. machine translation. Due to the lack of recurrence structure such as recurrent neural networks (RNN), SAN is ascribed to be weak at learning positional information of words for sequence modeling. However, neither this speculation has been empirically confirmed, nor explanations for their strong performances on machine translation tasks when "lacking positional information" have been explored. To this end, we propose a novel word reordering detection task to quantify how well the word order information learned by SAN and RNN. Specifically, we randomly move one word to another position, and examine whether a trained model can detect both the original and inserted positions. Experimental results reveal that: 1) SAN trained on word reordering detection indeed has difficulty learning the positional information even with the position embedding; and 2) SAN trained on machine translation learns better positional information than its RNN counterpart, in which position embedding plays a critical role. Although recurrence structure make the model more universally-effective on learning word order, learning objectives matter more in the downstream tasks such as machine translation.
Baosong Yang, Longyue Wang, Derek F. Wong, Lidia S. Chao, Zhaopeng Tu
8
Logos
5/7/2021 RankQA: Neural Question Answering with Answer Re-Ranking
The conventional paradigm in neural question answering (QA) for narrative content is limited to a two-stage process: first, relevant text passages are retrieved and, subsequently, a neural network for machine comprehension extracts the likeliest answer. However, both stages are largely isolated in the status quo and, hence, information from the two phases is never properly fused. In contrast, this work proposes RankQA: RankQA extends the conventional two-stage process in neural QA with a third stage that performs an additional answer re-ranking. The re-ranking leverages different features that are directly extracted from the QA pipeline, i.e., a combination of retrieval and comprehension features. While our intentionally simple design allows for an efficient, data-sparse estimation, it nevertheless outperforms more complex QA systems by a significant margin: in fact, RankQA achieves state-of-the-art performance on 3 out of 4 benchmark datasets. Furthermore, its performance is especially superior in settings where the size of the corpus is dynamic. Here the answer re-ranking provides an effective remedy against the underlying noise-information trade-off due to a variable corpus size. As a consequence, RankQA represents a novel, powerful, and thus challenging baseline for future research in content-based QA.
Bernhard Kratzwald, Anna Eigenmann, Stefan Feuerriegel
73
Python
5/7/2021 Sequence Tagging with Contextual and Non-Contextual Subword Representations: A Multilingual Evaluation
Pretrained contextual and non-contextual subword embeddings have become available in over 250 languages, allowing massively multilingual NLP. However, while there is no dearth of pretrained embeddings, the distinct lack of systematic evaluations makes it difficult for practitioners to choose between them. In this work, we conduct an extensive evaluation comparing non-contextual subword embeddings, namely FastText and BPEmb, and a contextual representation method, namely BERT, on multilingual named entity recognition and part-of-speech tagging. We find that overall, a combination of BERT, BPEmb, and character representations works best across languages and tasks. A more detailed analysis reveals different strengths and weaknesses: Multilingual BERT performs well in medium- to high-resource languages, but is outperformed by non-contextual subword embeddings in a low-resource setting.
Benjamin Heinzerling, Michael Strube
5
Python
5/7/2021 A Deep Generative Model for Code-Switched Text
Code-switching, the interleaving of two or more languages within a sentence or discourse is pervasive in multilingual societies. Accurate language models for code-switched text are critical for NLP tasks. State-of-the-art data-intensive neural language models are difficult to train well from scarce language-labeled code-switched text. A potential solution is to use deep generative models to synthesize large volumes of realistic code-switched text. Although generative adversarial networks and variational autoencoders can synthesize plausible monolingual text from continuous latent space, they cannot adequately address code-switched text, owing to their informal style and complex interplay between the constituent languages. We introduce VACS, a novel variational autoencoder architecture specifically tailored to code-switching phenomena. VACS encodes to and decodes from a two-level hierarchical representation, which models syntactic contextual signals in the lower level, and language switching signals in the upper layer. Sampling representations from the prior and decoding them produced well-formed, diverse code-switched sentences. Extensive experiments show that using synthetic code-switched text with natural monolingual data results in significant (33.06%) drop in perplexity.
Bidisha Samanta, Sharmila Reddy, Hussain Jagirdar, Niloy Ganguly, Soumen Chakrabarti
12
Python
5/7/2021 Compositional generalization through meta sequence-to-sequence learning
People can learn a new concept and use it compositionally, understanding how to "blicket twice" after learning how to "blicket." In contrast, powerful sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) neural networks fail such tests of compositionality, especially when composing new concepts together with existing concepts. In this paper, I show how memory-augmented neural networks can be trained to generalize compositionally through meta seq2seq learning. In this approach, models train on a series of seq2seq problems to acquire the compositional skills needed to solve new seq2seq problems. Meta se2seq learning solves several of the SCAN tests for compositional learning and can learn to apply implicit rules to variables.
Brenden M. Lake
41
5/7/2021 Attention Guided Graph Convolutional Networks for Relation Extraction
Dependency trees convey rich structural information that is proven useful for extracting relations among entities in text. However, how to effectively make use of relevant information while ignoring irrelevant information from the dependency trees remains a challenging research question. Existing approaches employing rule based hard-pruning strategies for selecting relevant partial dependency structures may not always yield optimal results. In this work, we propose Attention Guided Graph Convolutional Networks (AGGCNs), a novel model which directly takes full dependency trees as inputs. Our model can be understood as a soft-pruning approach that automatically learns how to selectively attend to the relevant sub-structures useful for the relation extraction task. Extensive results on various tasks including cross-sentence n-ary relation extraction and large-scale sentence-level relation extraction show that our model is able to better leverage the structural information of the full dependency trees, giving significantly better results than previous approaches.
Zhijiang Guo, Yan Zhang, Wei Lu
327
Python
5/7/2021 Contextually Propagated Term Weights for Document Representation
Word embeddings predict a word from its neighbours by learning small, dense embedding vectors. In practice, this prediction corresponds to a semantic score given to the predicted word (or term weight). We present a novel model that, given a target word, redistributes part of that word's weight (that has been computed with word embeddings) across words occurring in similar contexts as the target word. Thus, our model aims to simulate how semantic meaning is shared by words occurring in similar contexts, which is incorporated into bag-of-words document representations. Experimental evaluation in an unsupervised setting against 8 state of the art baselines shows that our model yields the best micro and macro F1 scores across datasets of increasing difficulty.
Casper Hansen, Christian Hansen, Stephen Alstrup, Jakob Grue Simonsen, Christina Lioma
3
Python
5/7/2021 RUBi: Reducing Unimodal Biases in Visual Question Answering
Visual Question Answering (VQA) is the task of answering questions about an image. Some VQA models often exploit unimodal biases to provide the correct answer without using the image information. As a result, they suffer from a huge drop in performance when evaluated on data outside their training set distribution. This critical issue makes them unsuitable for real-world settings. We propose RUBi, a new learning strategy to reduce biases in any VQA model. It reduces the importance of the most biased examples, i.e. examples that can be correctly classified without looking at the image. It implicitly forces the VQA model to use the two input modalities instead of relying on statistical regularities between the question and the answer. We leverage a question-only model that captures the language biases by identifying when these unwanted regularities are used. It prevents the base VQA model from learning them by influencing its predictions. This leads to dynamically adjusting the loss in order to compensate for biases. We validate our contributions by surpassing the current state-of-the-art results on VQA-CP v2. This dataset is specifically designed to assess the robustness of VQA models when exposed to different question biases at test time than what was seen during training. Our code is available: this http URL
Remi Cadene, Corentin Dancette, Hedi Ben-younes, Matthieu Cord, Devi Parikh
51
Python
5/7/2021 Improving Neural Language Modeling via Adversarial Training
Recently, substantial progress has been made in language modeling by using deep neural networks. However, in practice, large scale neural language models have been shown to be prone to overfitting. In this paper, we present a simple yet highly effective adversarial training mechanism for regularizing neural language models. The idea is to introduce adversarial noise to the output embedding layer while training the models. We show that the optimal adversarial noise yields a simple closed-form solution, thus allowing us to develop a simple and time efficient algorithm. Theoretically, we show that our adversarial mechanism effectively encourages the diversity of the embedding vectors, helping to increase the robustness of models. Empirically, we show that our method improves on the single model state-of-the-art results for language modeling on Penn Treebank (PTB) and Wikitext-2, achieving test perplexity scores of 46.01 and 38.07, respectively. When applied to machine translation, our method improves over various transformer-based translation baselines in BLEU scores on the WMT14 English-German and IWSLT14 German-English tasks.
Dilin Wang, Chengyue Gong, Qiang Liu
32
Python
5/7/2021 Canonicalizing Knowledge Base Literals
Ontology-based knowledge bases (KBs) like DBpedia are very valuable resources, but their usefulness and usability is limited by various quality issues. One such issue is the use of string literals instead of semantically typed entities. In this paper we study the automated canonicalization of such literals, i.e., replacing the literal with an existing entity from the KB or with a new entity that is typed using classes from the KB. We propose a framework that combines both reasoning and machine learning in order to predict the relevant entities and types, and we evaluate this framework against state-of-the-art baselines for both semantic typing and entity matching.
Jiaoyan Chen, Ernesto Jimenez-Ruiz, Ian Horrocks
4
Python
5/7/2021 Learning to Generate Grounded Visual Captions without Localization Supervision
When automatically generating a sentence description for an image or video, it often remains unclear how well the generated caption is grounded, that is whether the model uses the correct image regions to output particular words, or if the model is hallucinating based on priors in the dataset and/or the language model. The most common way of relating image regions with words in caption models is through an attention mechanism over the regions that are used as input to predict the next word. The model must therefore learn to predict the attentional weights without knowing the word it should localize. This is difficult to train without grounding supervision since recurrent models can propagate past information and there is no explicit signal to force the captioning model to properly ground the individual decoded words. In this work, we help the model to achieve this via a novel cyclical training regimen that forces the model to localize each word in the image after the sentence decoder generates it, and then reconstruct the sentence from the localized image region(s) to match the ground-truth. Our proposed framework only requires learning one extra fully-connected layer (the localizer), a layer that can be removed at test time. We show that our model significantly improves grounding accuracy without relying on grounding supervision or introducing extra computation during inference, for both image and video captioning tasks. Code is available at this https URL .
Chih-Yao Ma, Yannis Kalantidis, Ghassan AlRegib, Peter Vajda, Marcus Rohrbach, Zsolt Kira
36
Python
5/7/2021 Do Neural Dialog Systems Use the Conversation History Effectively? An Empirical Study
Neural generative models have been become increasingly popular when building conversational agents. They offer flexibility, can be easily adapted to new domains, and require minimal domain engineering. A common criticism of these systems is that they seldom understand or use the available dialog history effectively. In this paper, we take an empirical approach to understanding how these models use the available dialog history by studying the sensitivity of the models to artificially introduced unnatural changes or perturbations to their context at test time. We experiment with 10 different types of perturbations on 4 multi-turn dialog datasets and find that commonly used neural dialog architectures like recurrent and transformer-based seq2seq models are rarely sensitive to most perturbations such as missing or reordering utterances, shuffling words, etc. Also, by open-sourcing our code, we believe that it will serve as a useful diagnostic tool for evaluating dialog systems in the future.
Chinnadhurai Sankar, Sandeep Subramanian, Christopher Pal, Sarath Chandar, Yoshua Bengio
35
Python
5/7/2021 ChID: A Large-scale Chinese IDiom Dataset for Cloze Test
Cloze-style reading comprehension in Chinese is still limited due to the lack of various corpora. In this paper we propose a large-scale Chinese cloze test dataset ChID, which studies the comprehension of idiom, a unique language phenomenon in Chinese. In this corpus, the idioms in a passage are replaced by blank symbols and the correct answer needs to be chosen from well-designed candidate idioms. We carefully study how the design of candidate idioms and the representation of idioms affect the performance of state-of-the-art models. Results show that the machine accuracy is substantially worse than that of human, indicating a large space for further research.
Chujie Zheng, Minlie Huang, Aixin Sun
89
Python
5/7/2021 What Does BERT Look At? An Analysis of BERT's Attention
Large pre-trained neural networks such as BERT have had great recent success in NLP, motivating a growing body of research investigating what aspects of language they are able to learn from unlabeled data. Most recent analysis has focused on model outputs (e.g., language model surprisal) or internal vector representations (e.g., probing classifiers). Complementary to these works, we propose methods for analyzing the attention mechanisms of pre-trained models and apply them to BERT. BERT's attention heads exhibit patterns such as attending to delimiter tokens, specific positional offsets, or broadly attending over the whole sentence, with heads in the same layer often exhibiting similar behaviors. We further show that certain attention heads correspond well to linguistic notions of syntax and coreference. For example, we find heads that attend to the direct objects of verbs, determiners of nouns, objects of prepositions, and coreferent mentions with remarkably high accuracy. Lastly, we propose an attention-based probing classifier and use it to further demonstrate that substantial syntactic information is captured in BERT's attention.
Kevin Clark, Urvashi Khandelwal, Omer Levy, Christopher D. Manning
314
Jupyter NB
5/7/2021 Eliciting Knowledge from Experts:Automatic Transcript Parsing for Cognitive Task Analysis
Cognitive task analysis (CTA) is a type of analysis in applied psychology aimed at eliciting and representing the knowledge and thought processes of domain experts. In CTA, often heavy human labor is involved to parse the interview transcript into structured knowledge (e.g., flowchart for different actions). To reduce human efforts and scale the process, automated CTA transcript parsing is desirable. However, this task has unique challenges as (1) it requires the understanding of long-range context information in conversational text; and (2) the amount of labeled data is limited and indirect---i.e., context-aware, noisy, and low-resource. In this paper, we propose a weakly-supervised information extraction framework for automated CTA transcript parsing. We partition the parsing process into a sequence labeling task and a text span-pair relation extraction task, with distant supervision from human-curated protocol files. To model long-range context information for extracting sentence relations, neighbor sentences are involved as a part of input. Different types of models for capturing context dependency are then applied. We manually annotate real-world CTA transcripts to facilitate the evaluation of the parsing tasks
Junyi Du, He Jiang, Jiaming Shen, Xiang Ren
4
Python
5/7/2021 PerspectroScope: A Window to the World of Diverse Perspectives
This work presents PerspectroScope, a web-based system which lets users query a discussion-worthy natural language claim, and extract and visualize various perspectives in support or against the claim, along with evidence supporting each perspective. The system thus lets users explore various perspectives that could touch upon aspects of the issue at hand.The system is built as a combination of retrieval engines and learned textual-entailment-like classifiers built using a few recent developments in natural language understanding. To make the system more adaptive, expand its coverage, and improve its decisions over time, our platform employs various mechanisms to get corrections from the users. PerspectroScope is available at this http URL.
Sihao Chen, Daniel Khashabi, Chris Callison-Burch, Dan Roth
6
JavaScript
5/7/2021 Seeing Things from a Different Angle: Discovering Diverse Perspectives about Claims
One key consequence of the information revolution is a significant increase and a contamination of our information supply. The practice of fact checking won't suffice to eliminate the biases in text data we observe, as the degree of factuality alone does not determine whether biases exist in the spectrum of opinions visible to us. To better understand controversial issues, one needs to view them from a diverse yet comprehensive set of perspectives. For example, there are many ways to respond to a claim such as "animals should have lawful rights", and these responses form a spectrum of perspectives, each with a stance relative to this claim and, ideally, with evidence supporting it. Inherently, this is a natural language understanding task, and we propose to address it as such. Specifically, we propose the task of substantiated perspective discovery where, given a claim, a system is expected to discover a diverse set of well-corroborated perspectives that take a stance with respect to the claim. Each perspective should be substantiated by evidence paragraphs which summarize pertinent results and facts. We construct PERSPECTRUM, a dataset of claims, perspectives and evidence, making use of online debate websites to create the initial data collection, and augmenting it using search engines in order to expand and diversify our dataset. We use crowd-sourcing to filter out noise and ensure high-quality data. Our dataset contains 1k claims, accompanied with pools of 10k and 8k perspective sentences and evidence paragraphs, respectively. We provide a thorough analysis of the dataset to highlight key underlying language understanding challenges, and show that human baselines across multiple subtasks far outperform ma-chine baselines built upon state-of-the-art NLP techniques. This poses a challenge and opportunity for the NLP community to address.
Sihao Chen, Daniel Khashabi, Wenpeng Yin, Chris Callison-Burch, Dan Roth
20
Jupyter NB
5/7/2021 Compositional Semantic Parsing Across Graphbanks
Most semantic parsers that map sentences to graph-based meaning representations are hand-designed for specific graphbanks. We present a compositional neural semantic parser which achieves, for the first time, competitive accuracies across a diverse range of graphbanks. Incorporating BERT embeddings and multi-task learning improves the accuracy further, setting new states of the art on DM, PAS, PSD, AMR 2015 and EDS.
Matthias Lindemann, Jonas Groschwitz, Alexander Koller
16
Python
5/7/2021 Sentiment Tagging with Partial Labels using Modular Architectures
Many NLP learning tasks can be decomposed into several distinct sub-tasks, each associated with a partial label. In this paper we focus on a popular class of learning problems, sequence prediction applied to several sentiment analysis tasks, and suggest a modular learning approach in which different sub-tasks are learned using separate functional modules, combined to perform the final task while sharing information. Our experiments show this approach helps constrain the learning process and can alleviate some of the supervision efforts.
Xiao Zhang, Dan Goldwasser
6
Python
5/7/2021 Global Textual Relation Embedding for Relational Understanding
Pre-trained embeddings such as word embeddings and sentence embeddings are fundamental tools facilitating a wide range of downstream NLP tasks. In this work, we investigate how to learn a general-purpose embedding of textual relations, defined as the shortest dependency path between entities. Textual relation embedding provides a level of knowledge between word/phrase level and sentence level, and we show that it can facilitate downstream tasks requiring relational understanding of the text. To learn such an embedding, we create the largest distant supervision dataset by linking the entire English ClueWeb09 corpus to Freebase. We use global co-occurrence statistics between textual and knowledge base relations as the supervision signal to train the embedding. Evaluation on two relational understanding tasks demonstrates the usefulness of the learned textual relation embedding. The data and code can be found at this https URL
Zhiyu Chen, Hanwen Zha, Honglei Liu, Wenhu Chen, Xifeng Yan, Yu Su
18
Python
5/7/2021 Automatically Identifying Complaints in Social Media
Complaining is a basic speech act regularly used in human and computer mediated communication to express a negative mismatch between reality and expectations in a particular situation. Automatically identifying complaints in social media is of utmost importance for organizations or brands to improve the customer experience or in developing dialogue systems for handling and responding to complaints. In this paper, we introduce the first systematic analysis of complaints in computational linguistics. We collect a new annotated data set of written complaints expressed in English on Twitter.\footnote{Data and code is available here: \url{this https URL}} We present an extensive linguistic analysis of complaining as a speech act in social media and train strong feature-based and neural models of complaints across nine domains achieving a predictive performance of up to 79 F1 using distant supervision.
Daniel Preotiuc-Pietro, Mihaela Gaman, Nikolaos Aletras
6
5/7/2021 LIAAD at SemDeep-5 Challenge: Word-in-Context (WiC)
This paper describes the LIAAD system that was ranked second place in the Word-in-Context challenge (WiC) featured in SemDeep-5. Our solution is based on a novel system for Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) using contextual embeddings and full-inventory sense embeddings. We adapt this WSD system, in a straightforward manner, for the present task of detecting whether the same sense occurs in a pair of sentences. Additionally, we show that our solution is able to achieve competitive performance even without using the provided training or development sets, mitigating potential concerns related to task overfitting
Daniel Loureiro, Alipio Jorge
52
Python
5/7/2021 Language Modelling Makes Sense: Propagating Representations through WordNet for Full-Coverage Word Sense Disambiguation
Contextual embeddings represent a new generation of semantic representations learned from Neural Language Modelling (NLM) that addresses the issue of meaning conflation hampering traditional word embeddings. In this work, we show that contextual embeddings can be used to achieve unprecedented gains in Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) tasks. Our approach focuses on creating sense-level embeddings with full-coverage of WordNet, and without recourse to explicit knowledge of sense distributions or task-specific modelling. As a result, a simple Nearest Neighbors (k-NN) method using our representations is able to consistently surpass the performance of previous systems using powerful neural sequencing models. We also analyse the robustness of our approach when ignoring part-of-speech and lemma features, requiring disambiguation against the full sense inventory, and revealing shortcomings to be improved. Finally, we explore applications of our sense embeddings for concept-level analyses of contextual embeddings and their respective NLMs.
Daniel Loureiro, Alipio Jorge
52
Python
5/7/2021 Learning Attention-based Embeddings for Relation Prediction in Knowledge Graphs
The recent proliferation of knowledge graphs (KGs) coupled with incomplete or partial information, in the form of missing relations (links) between entities, has fueled a lot of research on knowledge base completion (also known as relation prediction). Several recent works suggest that convolutional neural network (CNN) based models generate richer and more expressive feature embeddings and hence also perform well on relation prediction. However, we observe that these KG embeddings treat triples independently and thus fail to cover the complex and hidden information that is inherently implicit in the local neighborhood surrounding a triple. To this effect, our paper proposes a novel attention based feature embedding that captures both entity and relation features in any given entity's neighborhood. Additionally, we also encapsulate relation clusters and multihop relations in our model. Our empirical study offers insights into the efficacy of our attention based model and we show marked performance gains in comparison to state of the art methods on all datasets.
Deepak Nathani, Jatin Chauhan, Charu Sharma, Manohar Kaul
339
Python
5/7/2021 Progressive Self-Supervised Attention Learning for Aspect-Level Sentiment Analysis
In aspect-level sentiment classification (ASC), it is prevalent to equip dominant neural models with attention mechanisms, for the sake of acquiring the importance of each context word on the given aspect. However, such a mechanism tends to excessively focus on a few frequent words with sentiment polarities, while ignoring infrequent ones. In this paper, we propose a progressive self-supervised attention learning approach for neural ASC models, which automatically mines useful attention supervision information from a training corpus to refine attention mechanisms. Specifically, we iteratively conduct sentiment predictions on all training instances. Particularly, at each iteration, the context word with the maximum attention weight is extracted as the one with active/misleading influence on the correct/incorrect prediction of every instance, and then the word itself is masked for subsequent iterations. Finally, we augment the conventional training objective with a regularization term, which enables ASC models to continue equally focusing on the extracted active context words while decreasing weights of those misleading ones. Experimental results on multiple datasets show that our proposed approach yields better attention mechanisms, leading to substantial improvements over the two state-of-the-art neural ASC models. Source code and trained models are available at this https URL.
Jialong Tang, Ziyao Lu, Jinsong Su, Yubin Ge, Linfeng Song, Le Sun, Jiebo Luo
45
Python
5/7/2021 Neural Collective Entity Linking Based on Recurrent Random Walk Network Learning
Benefiting from the excellent ability of neural networks on learning semantic representations, existing studies for entity linking (EL) have resorted to neural networks to exploit both the local mention-to-entity compatibility and the global interdependence between different EL decisions for target entity disambiguation. However, most neural collective EL methods depend entirely upon neural networks to automatically model the semantic dependencies between different EL decisions, which lack of the guidance from external knowledge. In this paper, we propose a novel end-to-end neural network with recurrent random-walk layers for collective EL, which introduces external knowledge to model the semantic interdependence between different EL decisions. Specifically, we first establish a model based on local context features, and then stack random-walk layers to reinforce the evidence for related EL decisions into high-probability decisions, where the semantic interdependence between candidate entities is mainly induced from an external knowledge base. Finally, a semantic regularizer that preserves the collective EL decisions consistency is incorporated into the conventional objective function, so that the external knowledge base can be fully exploited in collective EL decisions. Experimental results and in-depth analysis on various datasets show that our model achieves better performance than other state-of-the-art models. Our code and data are released at \url{this https URL}.
Mengge Xue, Weiming Cai, Jinsong Su, Linfeng Song, Yubin Ge, Yubao Liu, Bin Wang
28
Python
5/7/2021 A Simple and Effective Approach to Automatic Post-Editing with Transfer Learning
Automatic post-editing (APE) seeks to automatically refine the output of a black-box machine translation (MT) system through human post-edits. APE systems are usually trained by complementing human post-edited data with large, artificial data generated through back-translations, a time-consuming process often no easier than training an MT system from scratch. In this paper, we propose an alternative where we fine-tune pre-trained BERT models on both the encoder and decoder of an APE system, exploring several parameter sharing strategies. By only training on a dataset of 23K sentences for 3 hours on a single GPU, we obtain results that are competitive with systems that were trained on 5M artificial sentences. When we add this artificial data, our method obtains state-of-the-art results.
Goncalo M. Correia, Andre F. T. Martins
23
Python
5/7/2021 Widening the Representation Bottleneck in Neural Machine Translation with Lexical Shortcuts
The transformer is a state-of-the-art neural translation model that uses attention to iteratively refine lexical representations with information drawn from the surrounding context. Lexical features are fed into the first layer and propagated through a deep network of hidden layers. We argue that the need to represent and propagate lexical features in each layer limits the model's capacity for learning and representing other information relevant to the task. To alleviate this bottleneck, we introduce gated shortcut connections between the embedding layer and each subsequent layer within the encoder and decoder. This enables the model to access relevant lexical content dynamically, without expending limited resources on storing it within intermediate states. We show that the proposed modification yields consistent improvements over a baseline transformer on standard WMT translation tasks in 5 translation directions (0.9 BLEU on average) and reduces the amount of lexical information passed along the hidden layers. We furthermore evaluate different ways to integrate lexical connections into the transformer architecture and present ablation experiments exploring the effect of proposed shortcuts on model behavior.
Denis Emelin, Ivan Titov, Rico Sennrich
12
Python
5/7/2021 Fine-tuning Pre-Trained Transformer Language Models to Distantly Supervised Relation Extraction
Distantly supervised relation extraction is widely used to extract relational facts from text, but suffers from noisy labels. Current relation extraction methods try to alleviate the noise by multi-instance learning and by providing supporting linguistic and contextual information to more efficiently guide the relation classification. While achieving state-of-the-art results, we observed these models to be biased towards recognizing a limited set of relations with high precision, while ignoring those in the long tail. To address this gap, we utilize a pre-trained language model, the OpenAI Generative Pre-trained Transformer (GPT) [Radford et al., 2018]. The GPT and similar models have been shown to capture semantic and syntactic features, and also a notable amount of "common-sense" knowledge, which we hypothesize are important features for recognizing a more diverse set of relations. By extending the GPT to the distantly supervised setting, and fine-tuning it on the NYT10 dataset, we show that it predicts a larger set of distinct relation types with high confidence. Manual and automated evaluation of our model shows that it achieves a state-of-the-art AUC score of 0.422 on the NYT10 dataset, and performs especially well at higher recall levels.
Christoph Alt, Marc Hubner, Leonhard Hennig
77
Python
5/7/2021 Improving Relation Extraction by Pre-trained Language Representations
Current state-of-the-art relation extraction methods typically rely on a set of lexical, syntactic, and semantic features, explicitly computed in a pre-processing step. Training feature extraction models requires additional annotated language resources, which severely restricts the applicability and portability of relation extraction to novel languages. Similarly, pre-processing introduces an additional source of error. To address these limitations, we introduce TRE, a Transformer for Relation Extraction, extending the OpenAI Generative Pre-trained Transformer [Radford et al., 2018]. Unlike previous relation extraction models, TRE uses pre-trained deep language representations instead of explicit linguistic features to inform the relation classification and combines it with the self-attentive Transformer architecture to effectively model long-range dependencies between entity mentions. TRE allows us to learn implicit linguistic features solely from plain text corpora by unsupervised pre-training, before fine-tuning the learned language representations on the relation extraction task. TRE obtains a new state-of-the-art result on the TACRED and SemEval 2010 Task 8 datasets, achieving a test F1 of 67.4 and 87.1, respectively. Furthermore, we observe a significant increase in sample efficiency. With only 20% of the training examples, TRE matches the performance of our baselines and our model trained from scratch on 100% of the TACRED dataset. We open-source our trained models, experiments, and source code.
Christoph Alt, Marc Hubner, Leonhard Hennig
97
Python
5/7/2021 Labeling, Cutting, Grouping: an Efficient Text Line Segmentation Method for Medieval Manuscripts
This paper introduces a new way for text-line extraction by integrating deep-learning based pre-classification and state-of-the-art segmentation methods. Text-line extraction in complex handwritten documents poses a significant challenge, even to the most modern computer vision algorithms. Historical manuscripts are a particularly hard class of documents as they present several forms of noise, such as degradation, bleed-through, interlinear glosses, and elaborated scripts. In this work, we propose a novel method which uses semantic segmentation at pixel level as intermediate task, followed by a text-line extraction step. We measured the performance of our method on a recent dataset of challenging medieval manuscripts and surpassed state-of-the-art results by reducing the error by 80.7%. Furthermore, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on various other datasets written in different scripts. Hence, our contribution is two-fold. First, we demonstrate that semantic pixel segmentation can be used as strong denoising pre-processing step before performing text line extraction. Second, we introduce a novel, simple and robust algorithm that leverages the high-quality semantic segmentation to achieve a text-line extraction performance of 99.42% line IU on a challenging dataset.
Michele Alberti, Lars Vogtlin, Vinaychandran Pondenkandath, Mathias Seuret, Rolf Ingold, Marcus Liwicki
10
Python
5/7/2021 Leveraging BERT for Extractive Text Summarization on Lectures
In the last two decades, automatic extractive text summarization on lectures has demonstrated to be a useful tool for collecting key phrases and sentences that best represent the content. However, many current approaches utilize dated approaches, producing sub-par outputs or requiring several hours of manual tuning to produce meaningful results. Recently, new machine learning architectures have provided mechanisms for extractive summarization through the clustering of output embeddings from deep learning models. This paper reports on the project called Lecture Summarization Service, a python based RESTful service that utilizes the BERT model for text embeddings and KMeans clustering to identify sentences closes to the centroid for summary selection. The purpose of the service was to provide students a utility that could summarize lecture content, based on their desired number of sentences. On top of the summary work, the service also includes lecture and summary management, storing content on the cloud which can be used for collaboration. While the results of utilizing BERT for extractive summarization were promising, there were still areas where the model struggled, providing feature research opportunities for further improvement.
Derek Miller
95
Python
5/7/2021 Syntactically Supervised Transformers for Faster Neural Machine Translation
Standard decoders for neural machine translation autoregressively generate a single target token per time step, which slows inference especially for long outputs. While architectural advances such as the Transformer fully parallelize the decoder computations at training time, inference still proceeds sequentially. Recent developments in non- and semi- autoregressive decoding produce multiple tokens per time step independently of the others, which improves inference speed but deteriorates translation quality. In this work, we propose the syntactically supervised Transformer (SynST), which first autoregressively predicts a chunked parse tree before generating all of the target tokens in one shot conditioned on the predicted parse. A series of controlled experiments demonstrates that SynST decodes sentences ~ 5x faster than the baseline autoregressive Transformer while achieving higher BLEU scores than most competing methods on En-De and En-Fr datasets.
Nader Akoury, Kalpesh Krishna, Mohit Iyyer
69
Python
5/7/2021 KCAT: A Knowledge-Constraint Typing Annotation Tool
Fine-grained Entity Typing is a tough task which suffers from noise samples extracted from distant supervision. Thousands of manually annotated samples can achieve greater performance than millions of samples generated by the previous distant supervision method. Whereas, it's hard for human beings to differentiate and memorize thousands of types, thus making large-scale human labeling hardly possible. In this paper, we introduce a Knowledge-Constraint Typing Annotation Tool (KCAT), which is efficient for fine-grained entity typing annotation. KCAT reduces the size of candidate types to an acceptable range for human beings through entity linking and provides a Multi-step Typing scheme to revise the entity linking result. Moreover, KCAT provides an efficient Annotator Client to accelerate the annotation process and a comprehensive Manager Module to analyse crowdsourcing annotations. Experiment shows that KCAT can significantly improve annotation efficiency, the time consumption increases slowly as the size of type set expands.
Sheng Lin, Luye Zheng, Bo Chen, Siliang Tang, Yueting Zhuang, Fei Wu, Zhigang Chen, Guoping Hu, Xiang Ren
1
Python
5/7/2021 Estimating Causal Effects of Tone in Online Debates
Statistical methods applied to social media posts shed light on the dynamics of online dialogue. For example, users' wording choices predict their persuasiveness and users adopt the language patterns of other dialogue participants. In this paper, we estimate the causal effect of reply tones in debates on linguistic and sentiment changes in subsequent responses. The challenge for this estimation is that a reply's tone and subsequent responses are confounded by the users' ideologies on the debate topic and their emotions. To overcome this challenge, we learn representations of ideology using generative models of text. We study debates from 4Forums and compare annotated tones of replying such as emotional versus factual, or reasonable versus attacking. We show that our latent confounder representation reduces bias in ATE estimation. Our results suggest that factual and asserting tones affect dialogue and provide a methodology for estimating causal effects from text.
Dhanya Sridhar, Lise Getoor
2
Jupyter NB
5/7/2021 Evaluating Discourse in Structured Text Representations
Discourse structure is integral to understanding a text and is helpful in many NLP tasks. Learning latent representations of discourse is an attractive alternative to acquiring expensive labeled discourse data. Liu and Lapata (2018) propose a structured attention mechanism for text classification that derives a tree over a text, akin to an RST discourse tree. We examine this model in detail, and evaluate on additional discourse-relevant tasks and datasets, in order to assess whether the structured attention improves performance on the end task and whether it captures a text's discourse structure. We find the learned latent trees have little to no structure and instead focus on lexical cues; even after obtaining more structured trees with proposed model modifications, the trees are still far from capturing discourse structure when compared to discourse dependency trees from an existing discourse parser. Finally, ablation studies show the structured attention provides little benefit, sometimes even hurting performance.
Elisa Ferracane, Greg Durrett, Junyi Jessy Li, Katrin Erk
2
Python
5/7/2021 Correlating Twitter Language with Community-Level Health Outcomes
We study how language on social media is linked to diseases such as atherosclerotic heart disease (AHD), diabetes and various types of cancer. Our proposed model leverages state-of-the-art sentence embeddings, followed by a regression model and clustering, without the need of additional labelled data. It allows to predict community-level medical outcomes from language, and thereby potentially translate these to the individual level. The method is applicable to a wide range of target variables and allows us to discover known and potentially novel correlations of medical outcomes with life-style aspects and other socioeconomic risk factors.
Arno Schneuwly, Ralf Grubenmann, Severine Rion Logean, Mark Cieliebak, Martin Jaggi
0
5/7/2021 Interconnected Question Generation with Coreference Alignment and Conversation Flow Modeling
We study the problem of generating interconnected questions in question-answering style conversations. Compared with previous works which generate questions based on a single sentence (or paragraph), this setting is different in two major aspects: (1) Questions are highly conversational. Almost half of them refer back to conversation history using coreferences. (2) In a coherent conversation, questions have smooth transitions between turns. We propose an end-to-end neural model with coreference alignment and conversation flow modeling. The coreference alignment modeling explicitly aligns coreferent mentions in conversation history with corresponding pronominal references in generated questions, which makes generated questions interconnected to conversation history. The conversation flow modeling builds a coherent conversation by starting questioning on the first few sentences in a text passage and smoothly shifting the focus to later parts. Extensive experiments show that our system outperforms several baselines and can generate highly conversational questions. The code implementation is released at this https URL.
Yifan Gao, Piji Li, Irwin King, Michael R. Lyu
72
Python
5/7/2021 Hierarchical Decision Making by Generating and Following Natural Language Instructions
We explore using latent natural language instructions as an expressive and compositional representation of complex actions for hierarchical decision making. Rather than directly selecting micro-actions, our agent first generates a latent plan in natural language, which is then executed by a separate model. We introduce a challenging real-time strategy game environment in which the actions of a large number of units must be coordinated across long time scales. We gather a dataset of 76 thousand pairs of instructions and executions from human play, and train instructor and executor models. Experiments show that models using natural language as a latent variable significantly outperform models that directly imitate human actions. The compositional structure of language proves crucial to its effectiveness for action representation. We also release our code, models and data.
Hengyuan Hu, Denis Yarats, Qucheng Gong, Yuandong Tian, Mike Lewis
135
C++
5/7/2021 Constrained Decoding for Neural NLG from Compositional Representations in Task-Oriented Dialogue
Generating fluent natural language responses from structured semantic representations is a critical step in task-oriented conversational systems. Avenues like the E2E NLG Challenge have encouraged the development of neural approaches, particularly sequence-to-sequence (Seq2Seq) models for this problem. The semantic representations used, however, are often underspecified, which places a higher burden on the generation model for sentence planning, and also limits the extent to which generated responses can be controlled in a live system. In this paper, we (1) propose using tree-structured semantic representations, like those used in traditional rule-based NLG systems, for better discourse-level structuring and sentence-level planning; (2) introduce a challenging dataset using this representation for the weather domain; (3) introduce a constrained decoding approach for Seq2Seq models that leverages this representation to improve semantic correctness; and (4) demonstrate promising results on our dataset and the E2E dataset.
Anusha Balakrishnan, Jinfeng Rao, Kartikeya Upasani, Michael White, Rajen Subba
82
Python
5/7/2021 Unsupervised Question Answering by Cloze Translation
Obtaining training data for Question Answering (QA) is time-consuming and resource-intensive, and existing QA datasets are only available for limited domains and languages. In this work, we explore to what extent high quality training data is actually required for Extractive QA, and investigate the possibility of unsupervised Extractive QA. We approach this problem by first learning to generate context, question and answer triples in an unsupervised manner, which we then use to synthesize Extractive QA training data automatically. To generate such triples, we first sample random context paragraphs from a large corpus of documents and then random noun phrases or named entity mentions from these paragraphs as answers. Next we convert answers in context to "fill-in-the-blank" cloze questions and finally translate them into natural questions. We propose and compare various unsupervised ways to perform cloze-to-natural question translation, including training an unsupervised NMT model using non-aligned corpora of natural questions and cloze questions as well as a rule-based approach. We find that modern QA models can learn to answer human questions surprisingly well using only synthetic training data. We demonstrate that, without using the SQuAD training data at all, our approach achieves 56.4 F1 on SQuAD v1 (64.5 F1 when the answer is a Named entity mention), outperforming early supervised models.
Patrick Lewis, Ludovic Denoyer, Sebastian Riedel
178
Python
5/7/2021 Learning Latent Trees with Stochastic Perturbations and Differentiable Dynamic Programming
We treat projective dependency trees as latent variables in our probabilistic model and induce them in such a way as to be beneficial for a downstream task, without relying on any direct tree supervision. Our approach relies on Gumbel perturbations and differentiable dynamic programming. Unlike previous approaches to latent tree learning, we stochastically sample global structures and our parser is fully differentiable. We illustrate its effectiveness on sentiment analysis and natural language inference tasks. We also study its properties on a synthetic structure induction task. Ablation studies emphasize the importance of both stochasticity and constraining latent structures to be projective trees.
Caio Corro, Ivan Titov
21
C++
5/7/2021 Enriching Neural Models with Targeted Features for Dementia Detection
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible brain disease that can dramatically reduce quality of life, most commonly manifesting in older adults and eventually leading to the need for full-time care. Early detection is fundamental to slowing its progression; however, diagnosis can be expensive, time-consuming, and invasive. In this work we develop a neural model based on a CNN-LSTM architecture that learns to detect AD and related dementias using targeted and implicitly-learned features from conversational transcripts. Our approach establishes the new state of the art on the DementiaBank dataset, achieving an F1 score of 0.929 when classifying participants into AD and control groups.
Flavio Di Palo, Natalie Parde
5
Python
5/7/2021 Ease-of-Teaching and Language Structure from Emergent Communication
Artificial agents have been shown to learn to communicate when needed to complete a cooperative task. Some level of language structure (e.g., compositionality) has been found in the learned communication protocols. This observed structure is often the result of specific environmental pressures during training. By introducing new agents periodically to replace old ones, sequentially and within a population, we explore such a new pressure -- ease of teaching -- and show its impact on the structure of the resulting language.
Fushan Li, Michael Bowling
3
Python
5/7/2021 Adversarial Regularization for Visual Question Answering: Strengths, Shortcomings, and Side Effects
Visual question answering (VQA) models have been shown to over-rely on linguistic biases in VQA datasets, answering questions "blindly" without considering visual context. Adversarial regularization (AdvReg) aims to address this issue via an adversary sub-network that encourages the main model to learn a bias-free representation of the question. In this work, we investigate the strengths and shortcomings of AdvReg with the goal of better understanding how it affects inference in VQA models. Despite achieving a new state-of-the-art on VQA-CP, we find that AdvReg yields several undesirable side-effects, including unstable gradients and sharply reduced performance on in-domain examples. We demonstrate that gradual introduction of regularization during training helps to alleviate, but not completely solve, these issues. Through error analyses, we observe that AdvReg improves generalization to binary questions, but impairs performance on questions with heterogeneous answer distributions. Qualitatively, we also find that regularized models tend to over-rely on visual features, while ignoring important linguistic cues in the question. Our results suggest that AdvReg requires further refinement before it can be considered a viable bias mitigation technique for VQA.
Gabriel Grand, Yonatan Belinkov
8
Jupyter NB
5/7/2021 A Wind of Change: Detecting and Evaluating Lexical Semantic Change across Times and Domains
We perform an interdisciplinary large-scale evaluation for detecting lexical semantic divergences in a diachronic and in a synchronic task: semantic sense changes across time, and semantic sense changes across domains. Our work addresses the superficialness and lack of comparison in assessing models of diachronic lexical change, by bringing together and extending benchmark models on a common state-of-the-art evaluation task. In addition, we demonstrate that the same evaluation task and modelling approaches can successfully be utilised for the synchronic detection of domain-specific sense divergences in the field of term extraction.
Dominik Schlechtweg, Anna Hatty, Marco del Tredici, Sabine Schulte im Walde
14
Python
5/7/2021 Second-order Co-occurrence Sensitivity of Skip-Gram with Negative Sampling
We simulate first- and second-order context overlap and show that Skip-Gram with Negative Sampling is similar to Singular Value Decomposition in capturing second-order co-occurrence information, while Pointwise Mutual Information is agnostic to it. We support the results with an empirical study finding that the models react differently when provided with additional second-order information. Our findings reveal a basic property of Skip-Gram with Negative Sampling and point towards an explanation of its success on a variety of tasks.
Dominik Schlechtweg, Cennet Oguz, Sabine Schulte im Walde
0
Python
5/7/2021 Time-Out: Temporal Referencing for Robust Modeling of Lexical Semantic Change
State-of-the-art models of lexical semantic change detection suffer from noise stemming from vector space alignment. We have empirically tested the Temporal Referencing method for lexical semantic change and show that, by avoiding alignment, it is less affected by this noise. We show that, trained on a diachronic corpus, the skip-gram with negative sampling architecture with temporal referencing outperforms alignment models on a synthetic task as well as a manual testset. We introduce a principled way to simulate lexical semantic change and systematically control for possible biases.
Haim Dubossarsky, Simon Hengchen, Nina Tahmasebi, Dominik Schlechtweg
10
Python
5/7/2021 How to best use Syntax in Semantic Role Labelling
There are many different ways in which external information might be used in an NLP task. This paper investigates how external syntactic information can be used most effectively in the Semantic Role Labeling (SRL) task. We evaluate three different ways of encoding syntactic parses and three different ways of injecting them into a state-of-the-art neural ELMo-based SRL sequence labelling model. We show that using a constituency representation as input features improves performance the most, achieving a new state-of-the-art for non-ensemble SRL models on the in-domain CoNLL'05 and CoNLL'12 benchmarks.
Yufei Wang, Mark Johnson, Stephen Wan, Yifang Sun, Wei Wang
5
Python
5/7/2021 REflex: Flexible Framework for Relation Extraction in Multiple Domains
Systematic comparison of methods for relation extraction (RE) is difficult because many experiments in the field are not described precisely enough to be completely reproducible and many papers fail to report ablation studies that would highlight the relative contributions of their various combined techniques. In this work, we build a unifying framework for RE, applying this on three highly used datasets (from the general, biomedical and clinical domains) with the ability to be extendable to new datasets. By performing a systematic exploration of modeling, pre-processing and training methodologies, we find that choices of pre-processing are a large contributor performance and that omission of such information can further hinder fair comparison. Other insights from our exploration allow us to provide recommendations for future research in this area.
Geeticka Chauhan, Matthew B. A. McDermott, Peter Szolovits
10
Jupyter NB
5/7/2021 Language as an Abstraction for Hierarchical Deep Reinforcement Learning
Solving complex, temporally-extended tasks is a long-standing problem in reinforcement learning (RL). We hypothesize that one critical element of solving such problems is the notion of compositionality. With the ability to learn concepts and sub-skills that can be composed to solve longer tasks, i.e. hierarchical RL, we can acquire temporally-extended behaviors. However, acquiring effective yet general abstractions for hierarchical RL is remarkably challenging. In this paper, we propose to use language as the abstraction, as it provides unique compositional structure, enabling fast learning and combinatorial generalization, while retaining tremendous flexibility, making it suitable for a variety of problems. Our approach learns an instruction-following low-level policy and a high-level policy that can reuse abstractions across tasks, in essence, permitting agents to reason using structured language. To study compositional task learning, we introduce an open-source object interaction environment built using the MuJoCo physics engine and the CLEVR engine. We find that, using our approach, agents can learn to solve to diverse, temporally-extended tasks such as object sorting and multi-object rearrangement, including from raw pixel observations. Our analysis reveals that the compositional nature of language is critical for learning diverse sub-skills and systematically generalizing to new sub-skills in comparison to non-compositional abstractions that use the same supervision.
Yiding Jiang, Shixiang Gu, Kevin Murphy, Chelsea Finn
88
Python
5/7/2021 Latent Retrieval for Weakly Supervised Open Domain Question Answering
Recent work on open domain question answering (QA) assumes strong supervision of the supporting evidence and/or assumes a blackbox information retrieval (IR) system to retrieve evidence candidates. We argue that both are suboptimal, since gold evidence is not always available, and QA is fundamentally different from IR. We show for the first time that it is possible to jointly learn the retriever and reader from question-answer string pairs and without any IR system. In this setting, evidence retrieval from all of Wikipedia is treated as a latent variable. Since this is impractical to learn from scratch, we pre-train the retriever with an Inverse Cloze Task. We evaluate on open versions of five QA datasets. On datasets where the questioner already knows the answer, a traditional IR system such as BM25 is sufficient. On datasets where a user is genuinely seeking an answer, we show that learned retrieval is crucial, outperforming BM25 by up to 19 points in exact match.
Kenton Lee, Ming-Wei Chang, Kristina Toutanova
n/a
5/7/2021 How Large Are Lions? Inducing Distributions over Quantitative Attributes
Most current NLP systems have little knowledge about quantitative attributes of objects and events. We propose an unsupervised method for collecting quantitative information from large amounts of web data, and use it to create a new, very large resource consisting of distributions over physical quantities associated with objects, adjectives, and verbs which we call Distributions over Quantitative (DoQ). This contrasts with recent work in this area which has focused on making only relative comparisons such as "Is a lion bigger than a wolf?". Our evaluation shows that DoQ compares favorably with state of the art results on existing datasets for relative comparisons of nouns and adjectives, and on a new dataset we introduce.
Yanai Elazar, Abhijit Mahabal, Deepak Ramachandran, Tania Bedrax-Weiss, Dan Roth
13
5/7/2021 Learning Word Embeddings with Domain Awareness
Word embeddings are traditionally trained on a large corpus in an unsupervised setting, with no specific design for incorporating domain knowledge. This can lead to unsatisfactory performances when training data originate from heterogeneous domains. In this paper, we propose two novel mechanisms for domain-aware word embedding training, namely domain indicator and domain attention, which integrate domain-specific knowledge into the widely used SG and CBOW models, respectively. The two methods are based on a joint learning paradigm and ensure that words in a target domain are intensively focused when trained on a source domain corpus. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation confirm the validity and effectiveness of our models. Compared to baseline methods, our method is particularly effective in near-cold-start scenarios.
Guoyin Wang, Yan Song, Yue Zhang, Dong Yu
3
C
5/7/2021 Compound Probabilistic Context-Free Grammars for Grammar Induction
We study a formalization of the grammar induction problem that models sentences as being generated by a compound probabilistic context-free grammar. In contrast to traditional formulations which learn a single stochastic grammar, our grammar's rule probabilities are modulated by a per-sentence continuous latent variable, which induces marginal dependencies beyond the traditional context-free assumptions. Inference in this grammar is performed by collapsed variational inference, in which an amortized variational posterior is placed on the continuous variable, and the latent trees are marginalized out with dynamic programming. Experiments on English and Chinese show the effectiveness of our approach compared to recent state-of-the-art methods when evaluated on unsupervised parsing.
Yoon Kim, Chris Dyer, Alexander M. Rush
94
Python
5/7/2021 An Open-World Extension to Knowledge Graph Completion Models
We present a novel extension to embedding-based knowledge graph completion models which enables them to perform open-world link prediction, i.e. to predict facts for entities unseen in training based on their textual description. Our model combines a regular link prediction model learned from a knowledge graph with word embeddings learned from a textual corpus. After training both independently, we learn a transformation to map the embeddings of an entity's name and description to the graph-based embedding space. In experiments on several datasets including FB20k, DBPedia50k and our new dataset FB15k-237-OWE, we demonstrate competitive results. Particularly, our approach exploits the full knowledge graph structure even when textual descriptions are scarce, does not require a joint training on graph and text, and can be applied to any embedding-based link prediction model, such as TransE, ComplEx and DistMult.
Haseeb Shah, Johannes Villmow, Adrian Ulges, Ulrich Schwanecke, Faisal Shafait
24
Python
5/7/2021 GLTR: Statistical Detection and Visualization of Generated Text
The rapid improvement of language models has raised the specter of abuse of text generation systems. This progress motivates the development of simple methods for detecting generated text that can be used by and explained to non-experts. We develop GLTR, a tool to support humans in detecting whether a text was generated by a model. GLTR applies a suite of baseline statistical methods that can detect generation artifacts across common sampling schemes. In a human-subjects study, we show that the annotation scheme provided by GLTR improves the human detection-rate of fake text from 54% to 72% without any prior training. GLTR is open-source and publicly deployed, and has already been widely used to detect generated outputs
Sebastian Gehrmann, Hendrik Strobelt, Alexander M. Rush
274
TypeScript
5/7/2021 SP-10K: A Large-scale Evaluation Set for Selectional Preference Acquisition
Selectional Preference (SP) is a commonly observed language phenomenon and proved to be useful in many natural language processing tasks. To provide a better evaluation method for SP models, we introduce SP-10K, a large-scale evaluation set that provides human ratings for the plausibility of 10,000 SP pairs over five SP relations, covering 2,500 most frequent verbs, nouns, and adjectives in American English. Three representative SP acquisition methods based on pseudo-disambiguation are evaluated with SP-10K. To demonstrate the importance of our dataset, we investigate the relationship between SP-10K and the commonsense knowledge in ConceptNet5 and show the potential of using SP to represent the commonsense knowledge. We also use the Winograd Schema Challenge to prove that the proposed new SP relations are essential for the hard pronoun coreference resolution problem.
Hongming Zhang, Hantian Ding, Yangqiu Song
8
5/7/2021 Self-Supervised Learning for Contextualized Extractive Summarization
Existing models for extractive summarization are usually trained from scratch with a cross-entropy loss, which does not explicitly capture the global context at the document level. In this paper, we aim to improve this task by introducing three auxiliary pre-training tasks that learn to capture the document-level context in a self-supervised fashion. Experiments on the widely-used CNN/DM dataset validate the effectiveness of the proposed auxiliary tasks. Furthermore, we show that after pre-training, a clean model with simple building blocks is able to outperform previous state-of-the-art that are carefully designed.
Hong Wang, Xin Wang, Wenhan Xiong, Mo Yu, Xiaoxiao Guo, Shiyu Chang, William Yang Wang
35
Perl
5/7/2021 Retrieve, Read, Rerank: Towards End-to-End Multi-Document Reading Comprehension
This paper considers the reading comprehension task in which multiple documents are given as input. Prior work has shown that a pipeline of retriever, reader, and reranker can improve the overall performance. However, the pipeline system is inefficient since the input is re-encoded within each module, and is unable to leverage upstream components to help downstream training. In this work, we present RE$^3$QA, a unified question answering model that combines context retrieving, reading comprehension, and answer reranking to predict the final answer. Unlike previous pipelined approaches, RE$^3$QA shares contextualized text representation across different components, and is carefully designed to use high-quality upstream outputs (e.g., retrieved context or candidate answers) for directly supervising downstream modules (e.g., the reader or the reranker). As a result, the whole network can be trained end-to-end to avoid the context inconsistency problem. Experiments show that our model outperforms the pipelined baseline and achieves state-of-the-art results on two versions of TriviaQA and two variants of SQuAD.
Minghao Hu, Yuxing Peng, Zhen Huang, Dongsheng Li
76
Python
5/7/2021 Open-Domain Targeted Sentiment Analysis via Span-Based Extraction and Classification
Open-domain targeted sentiment analysis aims to detect opinion targets along with their sentiment polarities from a sentence. Prior work typically formulates this task as a sequence tagging problem. However, such formulation suffers from problems such as huge search space and sentiment inconsistency. To address these problems, we propose a span-based extract-then-classify framework, where multiple opinion targets are directly extracted from the sentence under the supervision of target span boundaries, and corresponding polarities are then classified using their span representations. We further investigate three approaches under this framework, namely the pipeline, joint, and collapsed models. Experiments on three benchmark datasets show that our approach consistently outperforms the sequence tagging baseline. Moreover, we find that the pipeline model achieves the best performance compared with the other two models.
Minghao Hu, Yuxing Peng, Zhen Huang, Dongsheng Li, Yiwei Lv
84
Python
5/7/2021 Neural Arabic Question Answering
This paper tackles the problem of open domain factual Arabic question answering (QA) using Wikipedia as our knowledge source. This constrains the answer of any question to be a span of text in Wikipedia. Open domain QA for Arabic entails three challenges: annotated QA datasets in Arabic, large scale efficient information retrieval and machine reading comprehension. To deal with the lack of Arabic QA datasets we present the Arabic Reading Comprehension Dataset (ARCD) composed of 1,395 questions posed by crowdworkers on Wikipedia articles, and a machine translation of the Stanford Question Answering Dataset (Arabic-SQuAD). Our system for open domain question answering in Arabic (SOQAL) is based on two components: (1) a document retriever using a hierarchical TF-IDF approach and (2) a neural reading comprehension model using the pre-trained bi-directional transformer BERT. Our experiments on ARCD indicate the effectiveness of our approach with our BERT-based reader achieving a 61.3 F1 score, and our open domain system SOQAL achieving a 27.6 F1 score.
Hussein Mozannar, Karl El Hajal, Elie Maamary, Hazem Hajj
78
Python
5/7/2021 Table2Vec: Neural Word and Entity Embeddings for Table Population and Retrieval
Tables contain valuable knowledge in a structured form. We employ neural language modeling approaches to embed tabular data into vector spaces. Specifically, we consider different table elements, such caption, column headings, and cells, for training word and entity embeddings. These embeddings are then utilized in three particular table-related tasks, row population, column population, and table retrieval, by incorporating them into existing retrieval models as additional semantic similarity signals. Evaluation results show that table embeddings can significantly improve upon the performance of state-of-the-art baselines.
Li Deng, Shuo Zhang, Krisztian Balog
8
5/7/2021 Identification of Tasks, Datasets, Evaluation Metrics, and Numeric Scores for Scientific Leaderboards Construction
While the fast-paced inception of novel tasks and new datasets helps foster active research in a community towards interesting directions, keeping track of the abundance of research activity in different areas on different datasets is likely to become increasingly difficult. The community could greatly benefit from an automatic system able to summarize scientific results, e.g., in the form of a leaderboard. In this paper we build two datasets and develop a framework (TDMS-IE) aimed at automatically extracting task, dataset, metric and score from NLP papers, towards the automatic construction of leaderboards. Experiments show that our model outperforms several baselines by a large margin. Our model is a first step towards automatic leaderboard construction, e.g., in the NLP domain.
Yufang Hou, Charles Jochim, Martin Gleize, Francesca Bonin, Debasis Ganguly
42
Java
5/7/2021 Retrieving Sequential Information for Non-Autoregressive Neural Machine Translation
Non-Autoregressive Transformer (NAT) aims to accelerate the Transformer model through discarding the autoregressive mechanism and generating target words independently, which fails to exploit the target sequential information. Over-translation and under-translation errors often occur for the above reason, especially in the long sentence translation scenario. In this paper, we propose two approaches to retrieve the target sequential information for NAT to enhance its translation ability while preserving the fast-decoding property. Firstly, we propose a sequence-level training method based on a novel reinforcement algorithm for NAT (Reinforce-NAT) to reduce the variance and stabilize the training procedure. Secondly, we propose an innovative Transformer decoder named FS-decoder to fuse the target sequential information into the top layer of the decoder. Experimental results on three translation tasks show that the Reinforce-NAT surpasses the baseline NAT system by a significant margin on BLEU without decelerating the decoding speed and the FS-decoder achieves comparable translation performance to the autoregressive Transformer with considerable speedup.
Chenze Shao, Yang Feng, Jinchao Zhang, Fandong Meng, Xilin Chen, Jie Zhou
17
Python
5/7/2021 The Second DIHARD Diarization Challenge: Dataset, task, and baselines
This paper introduces the second DIHARD challenge, the second in a series of speaker diarization challenges intended to improve the robustness of diarization systems to variation in recording equipment, noise conditions, and conversational domain. The challenge comprises four tracks evaluating diarization performance under two input conditions (single channel vs. multi-channel) and two segmentation conditions (diarization from a reference speech segmentation vs. diarization from scratch). In order to prevent participants from overtuning to a particular combination of recording conditions and conversational domain, recordings are drawn from a variety of sources ranging from read audiobooks to meeting speech, to child language acquisition recordings, to dinner parties, to web video. We describe the task and metrics, challenge design, datasets, and baseline systems for speech enhancement, speech activity detection, and diarization.
Neville Ryant, Kenneth Church, Christopher Cieri, Alejandrina Cristia, Jun Du, Sriram Ganapathy, Mark Liberman
28
Perl
5/7/2021 Large-Scale Multi-Label Text Classification on EU Legislation
We consider Large-Scale Multi-Label Text Classification (LMTC) in the legal domain. We release a new dataset of 57k legislative documents from EURLEX, annotated with ~4.3k EUROVOC labels, which is suitable for LMTC, few- and zero-shot learning. Experimenting with several neural classifiers, we show that BIGRUs with label-wise attention perform better than other current state of the art methods. Domain-specific WORD2VEC and context-sensitive ELMO embeddings further improve performance. We also find that considering only particular zones of the documents is sufficient. This allows us to bypass BERT's maximum text length limit and fine-tune BERT, obtaining the best results in all but zero-shot learning cases.
Ilias Chalkidis, Manos Fergadiotis, Prodromos Malakasiotis, Ion Androutsopoulos
52
Python
5/7/2021 Assessing incrementality in sequence-to-sequence models
Since their inception, encoder-decoder models have successfully been applied to a wide array of problems in computational linguistics. The most recent successes are predominantly due to the use of different variations of attention mechanisms, but their cognitive plausibility is questionable. In particular, because past representations can be revisited at any point in time, attention-centric methods seem to lack an incentive to build up incrementally more informative representations of incoming sentences. This way of processing stands in stark contrast with the way in which humans are believed to process language: continuously and rapidly integrating new information as it is encountered. In this work, we propose three novel metrics to assess the behavior of RNNs with and without an attention mechanism and identify key differences in the way the different model types process sentences.
Dennis Ulmer, Dieuwke Hupkes, Elia Bruni
3
Python
5/7/2021 Distilling Translations with Visual Awareness
Previous work on multimodal machine translation has shown that visual information is only needed in very specific cases, for example in the presence of ambiguous words where the textual context is not sufficient. As a consequence, models tend to learn to ignore this information. We propose a translate-and-refine approach to this problem where images are only used by a second stage decoder. This approach is trained jointly to generate a good first draft translation and to improve over this draft by (i) making better use of the target language textual context (both left and right-side contexts) and (ii) making use of visual context. This approach leads to the state of the art results. Additionally, we show that it has the ability to recover from erroneous or missing words in the source language.
Julia Ive, Pranava Madhyastha, Lucia Specia
8
Python
5/7/2021 BiSET: Bi-directional Selective Encoding with Template for Abstractive Summarization
The success of neural summarization models stems from the meticulous encodings of source articles. To overcome the impediments of limited and sometimes noisy training data, one promising direction is to make better use of the available training data by applying filters during summarization. In this paper, we propose a novel Bi-directional Selective Encoding with Template (BiSET) model, which leverages template discovered from training data to softly select key information from each source article to guide its summarization process. Extensive experiments on a standard summarization dataset were conducted and the results show that the template-equipped BiSET model manages to improve the summarization performance significantly with a new state of the art.
Kai Wang, Xiaojun Quan, Rui Wang
41
Python
5/7/2021 Word Embeddings for the Armenian Language: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Evaluation
In this work, we intrinsically and extrinsically evaluate and compare existing word embedding models for the Armenian language. Alongside, new embeddings are presented, trained using GloVe, fastText, CBOW, SkipGram algorithms. We adapt and use the word analogy task in intrinsic evaluation of embeddings. For extrinsic evaluation, two tasks are employed: morphological tagging and text classification. Tagging is performed on a deep neural network, using ArmTDP v2.3 dataset. For text classification, we propose a corpus of news articles categorized into 7 classes. The datasets are made public to serve as benchmarks for future models.
Karen Avetisyan, Tsolak Ghukasyan
2
5/7/2021 Good Secretaries, Bad Truck Drivers? Occupational Gender Stereotypes in Sentiment Analysis
In this work, we investigate the presence of occupational gender stereotypes in sentiment analysis models. Such a task has implications for reducing implicit biases in these models, which are being applied to an increasingly wide variety of downstream tasks. We release a new gender-balanced dataset of 800 sentences pertaining to specific professions and propose a methodology for using it as a test bench to evaluate sentiment analysis models. We evaluate the presence of occupational gender stereotypes in 3 different models using our approach, and explore their relationship with societal perceptions of occupations.
Jayadev Bhaskaran, Isha Bhallamudi
2
Python
5/7/2021 Embedding Projection for Targeted Cross-Lingual Sentiment: Model Comparisons and a Real-World Study
Sentiment analysis benefits from large, hand-annotated resources in order to train and test machine learning models, which are often data hungry. While some languages, e.g., English, have a vast array of these resources, most under-resourced languages do not, especially for fine-grained sentiment tasks, such as aspect-level or targeted sentiment analysis. To improve this situation, we propose a cross-lingual approach to sentiment analysis that is applicable to under-resourced languages and takes into account target-level information. This model incorporates sentiment information into bilingual distributional representations, by jointly optimizing them for semantics and sentiment, showing state-of-the-art performance at sentence-level when combined with machine translation. The adaptation to targeted sentiment analysis on multiple domains shows that our model outperforms other projection-based bilingual embedding methods on binary targeted sentiment tasks. Our analysis on ten languages demonstrates that the amount of unlabeled monolingual data has surprisingly little effect on the sentiment results. As expected, the choice of annotated source language for projection to a target leads to better results for source-target language pairs which are similar. Therefore, our results suggest that more efforts should be spent on the creation of resources for less similar languages to those which are resource-rich already. Finally, a domain mismatch leads to a decreased performance. This suggests resources in any language should ideally cover varieties of domains.
Jeremy Barnes, Roman Klinger
4
Python
5/7/2021 A Multiscale Visualization of Attention in the Transformer Model
The Transformer is a sequence model that forgoes traditional recurrent architectures in favor of a fully attention-based approach. Besides improving performance, an advantage of using attention is that it can also help to interpret a model by showing how the model assigns weight to different input elements. However, the multi-layer, multi-head attention mechanism in the Transformer model can be difficult to decipher. To make the model more accessible, we introduce an open-source tool that visualizes attention at multiple scales, each of which provides a unique perspective on the attention mechanism. We demonstrate the tool on BERT and OpenAI GPT-2 and present three example use cases: detecting model bias, locating relevant attention heads, and linking neurons to model behavior.
Jesse Vig
2805
Jupyter NB
5/7/2021 Avoiding Reasoning Shortcuts: Adversarial Evaluation, Training, and Model Development for Multi-Hop QA
Multi-hop question answering requires a model to connect multiple pieces of evidence scattered in a long context to answer the question. In this paper, we show that in the multi-hop HotpotQA (Yang et al., 2018) dataset, the examples often contain reasoning shortcuts through which models can directly locate the answer by word-matching the question with a sentence in the context. We demonstrate this issue by constructing adversarial documents that create contradicting answers to the shortcut but do not affect the validity of the original answer. The performance of strong baseline models drops significantly on our adversarial evaluation, indicating that they are indeed exploiting the shortcuts rather than performing multi-hop reasoning. After adversarial training, the baseline's performance improves but is still limited on the adversarial evaluation. Hence, we use a control unit that dynamically attends to the question at different reasoning hops to guide the model's multi-hop reasoning. We show that this 2-hop model trained on the regular data is more robust to the adversaries than the baseline model. After adversarial training, this 2-hop model not only achieves improvements over its counterpart trained on regular data, but also outperforms the adversarially-trained 1-hop baseline. We hope that these insights and initial improvements will motivate the development of new models that combine explicit compositional reasoning with adversarial training.
Yichen Jiang, Mohit Bansal
8
Python
5/7/2021 Explore, Propose, and Assemble: An Interpretable Model for Multi-Hop Reading Comprehension
Multi-hop reading comprehension requires the model to explore and connect relevant information from multiple sentences/documents in order to answer the question about the context. To achieve this, we propose an interpretable 3-module system called Explore-Propose-Assemble reader (EPAr). First, the Document Explorer iteratively selects relevant documents and represents divergent reasoning chains in a tree structure so as to allow assimilating information from all chains. The Answer Proposer then proposes an answer from every root-to-leaf path in the reasoning tree. Finally, the Evidence Assembler extracts a key sentence containing the proposed answer from every path and combines them to predict the final answer. Intuitively, EPAr approximates the coarse-to-fine-grained comprehension behavior of human readers when facing multiple long documents. We jointly optimize our 3 modules by minimizing the sum of losses from each stage conditioned on the previous stage's output. On two multi-hop reading comprehension datasets WikiHop and MedHop, our EPAr model achieves significant improvements over the baseline and competitive results compared to the state-of-the-art model. We also present multiple reasoning-chain-recovery tests and ablation studies to demonstrate our system's ability to perform interpretable and accurate reasoning.
Yichen Jiang, Nitish Joshi, Yen-Chun Chen, Mohit Bansal
24
Python
5/7/2021 PatentBERT: Patent Classification with Fine-Tuning a pre-trained BERT Model
In this work we focus on fine-tuning a pre-trained BERT model and applying it to patent classification. When applied to large datasets of over two millions patents, our approach outperforms the state of the art by an approach using CNN with word embeddings. In addition, we focus on patent claims without other parts in patent documents. Our contributions include: (1) a new state-of-the-art method based on pre-trained BERT model and fine-tuning for patent classification, (2) a large dataset USPTO-3M at the CPC subclass level with SQL statements that can be used by future researchers, (3) showing that patent claims alone are sufficient for classification task, in contrast to conventional wisdom.
Jieh-Sheng Lee, Jieh Hsiang
5
Jupyter NB
5/7/2021 The Effect of Translationese in Machine Translation Test Sets
The effect of translationese has been studied in the field of machine translation (MT), mostly with respect to training data. We study in depth the effect of translationese on test data, using the test sets from the last three editions of WMT's news shared task, containing 17 translation directions. We show evidence that (i) the use of translationese in test sets results in inflated human evaluation scores for MT systems; (ii) in some cases system rankings do change and (iii) the impact translationese has on a translation direction is inversely correlated to the translation quality attainable by state-of-the-art MT systems for that direction.
Mike Zhang, Antonio Toral
3
TeX
5/7/2021 Neural Decipherment via Minimum-Cost Flow: from Ugaritic to Linear B
In this paper we propose a novel neural approach for automatic decipherment of lost languages. To compensate for the lack of strong supervision signal, our model design is informed by patterns in language change documented in historical linguistics. The model utilizes an expressive sequence-to-sequence model to capture character-level correspondences between cognates. To effectively train the model in an unsupervised manner, we innovate the training procedure by formalizing it as a minimum-cost flow problem. When applied to the decipherment of Ugaritic, we achieve a 5.5% absolute improvement over state-of-the-art results. We also report the first automatic results in deciphering Linear B, a syllabic language related to ancient Greek, where our model correctly translates 67.3% of cognates.
Jiaming Luo, Yuan Cao, Regina Barzilay
38
Python
5/7/2021 Evaluation and Improvement of Chatbot Text Classification Data Quality Using Plausible Negative Examples
We describe and validate a metric for estimating multi-class classifier performance based on cross-validation and adapted for improvement of small, unbalanced natural-language datasets used in chatbot design. Our experiences draw upon building recruitment chatbots that mediate communication between job-seekers and recruiters by exposing the ML/NLP dataset to the recruiting team. Evaluation approaches must be understandable to various stakeholders, and useful for improving chatbot performance. The metric, nex-cv, uses negative examples in the evaluation of text classification, and fulfils three requirements. First, it is actionable: it can be used by non-developer staff. Second, it is not overly optimistic compared to human ratings, making it a fast method for comparing classifiers. Third, it allows model-agnostic comparison, making it useful for comparing systems despite implementation differences. We validate the metric based on seven recruitment-domain datasets in English and German over the course of one year.
Kit Kuksenok, Andriy Martyniv
2
Python
5/7/2021 Meta-learning of textual representations
Recent progress in AutoML has lead to state-of-the-art methods (e.g., AutoSKLearn) that can be readily used by non-experts to approach any supervised learning problem. Whereas these methods are quite effective, they are still limited in the sense that they work for tabular (matrix formatted) data only. This paper describes one step forward in trying to automate the design of supervised learning methods in the context of text mining. We introduce a meta learning methodology for automatically obtaining a representation for text mining tasks starting from raw text. We report experiments considering 60 different textual representations and more than 80 text mining datasets associated to a wide variety of tasks. Experimental results show the proposed methodology is a promising solution to obtain highly effective off the shell text classification pipelines.
Jorge Madrid, Hugo Jair Escalante, Eduardo Morales
5
Python
5/7/2021 Pre-training of Graph Augmented Transformers for Medication Recommendation
Medication recommendation is an important healthcare application. It is commonly formulated as a temporal prediction task. Hence, most existing works only utilize longitudinal electronic health records (EHRs) from a small number of patients with multiple visits ignoring a large number of patients with a single visit (selection bias). Moreover, important hierarchical knowledge such as diagnosis hierarchy is not leveraged in the representation learning process. To address these challenges, we propose G-BERT, a new model to combine the power of Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) and BERT (Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers) for medical code representation and medication recommendation. We use GNNs to represent the internal hierarchical structures of medical codes. Then we integrate the GNN representation into a transformer-based visit encoder and pre-train it on EHR data from patients only with a single visit. The pre-trained visit encoder and representation are then fine-tuned for downstream predictive tasks on longitudinal EHRs from patients with multiple visits. G-BERT is the first to bring the language model pre-training schema into the healthcare domain and it achieved state-of-the-art performance on the medication recommendation task.
Junyuan Shang, Tengfei Ma, Cao Xiao, Jimeng Sun
72
Python
5/7/2021 Cross-Lingual Syntactic Transfer through Unsupervised Adaptation of Invertible Projections
Cross-lingual transfer is an effective way to build syntactic analysis tools in low-resource languages. However, transfer is difficult when transferring to typologically distant languages, especially when neither annotated target data nor parallel corpora are available. In this paper, we focus on methods for cross-lingual transfer to distant languages and propose to learn a generative model with a structured prior that utilizes labeled source data and unlabeled target data jointly. The parameters of source model and target model are softly shared through a regularized log likelihood objective. An invertible projection is employed to learn a new interlingual latent embedding space that compensates for imperfect cross-lingual word embedding input. We evaluate our method on two syntactic tasks: part-of-speech (POS) tagging and dependency parsing. On the Universal Dependency Treebanks, we use English as the only source corpus and transfer to a wide range of target languages. On the 10 languages in this dataset that are distant from English, our method yields an average of 5.2% absolute improvement on POS tagging and 8.3% absolute improvement on dependency parsing over a direct transfer method using state-of-the-art discriminative models.
Junxian He, Zhisong Zhang, Taylor Berg-Kirkpatrick, Graham Neubig
23
Python
5/7/2021 Towards conceptual generalization in the embedding space
Humans are able to conceive physical reality by jointly learning different facets thereof. To every pair of notions related to a perceived reality may correspond a mutual relation, which is a notion on its own, but one-level higher. Thus, we may have a description of perceived reality on at least two levels and the translation map between them is in general, due to their different content corpus, one-to-many. Following success of the unsupervised neural machine translation models, which are essentially one-to-one mappings trained separately on monolingual corpora, we examine further capabilities of the unsupervised deep learning methods used there and apply some of these methods to sets of notions of different level and measure. Using the graph and word embedding-like techniques, we build one-to-many map without parallel data in order to establish a unified vector representation of the outer world by combining notions of different kind into a unique conceptual framework. Due to their latent similarity, by aligning the two embedding spaces in purely unsupervised way, one obtains a geometric relation between objects of cognition on the two levels, making it possible to express a natural knowledge using one description in the context of the other.
Luka Nenadovic, Vladimir Prelovac
2
Jupyter NB
5/7/2021 Gender-preserving Debiasing for Pre-trained Word Embeddings
Word embeddings learnt from massive text collections have demonstrated significant levels of discriminative biases such as gender, racial or ethnic biases, which in turn bias the down-stream NLP applications that use those word embeddings. Taking gender-bias as a working example, we propose a debiasing method that preserves non-discriminative gender-related information, while removing stereotypical discriminative gender biases from pre-trained word embeddings. Specifically, we consider four types of information: \emph{feminine}, \emph{masculine}, \emph{gender-neutral} and \emph{stereotypical}, which represent the relationship between gender vs. bias, and propose a debiasing method that (a) preserves the gender-related information in feminine and masculine words, (b) preserves the neutrality in gender-neutral words, and (c) removes the biases from stereotypical words. Experimental results on several previously proposed benchmark datasets show that our proposed method can debias pre-trained word embeddings better than existing SoTA methods proposed for debiasing word embeddings while preserving gender-related but non-discriminative information.
Masahiro Kaneko, Danushka Bollegala
9
Python
5/7/2021 KaWAT: A Word Analogy Task Dataset for Indonesian
We introduced KaWAT (Kata Word Analogy Task), a new word analogy task dataset for Indonesian. We evaluated on it several existing pretrained Indonesian word embeddings and embeddings trained on Indonesian online news corpus. We also tested them on two downstream tasks and found that pretrained word embeddings helped either by reducing the training epochs or yielding significant performance gains.
Kemal Kurniawan
3
Python
5/7/2021 Neural Keyphrase Generation via Reinforcement Learning with Adaptive Rewards
Generating keyphrases that summarize the main points of a document is a fundamental task in natural language processing. Although existing generative models are capable of predicting multiple keyphrases for an input document as well as determining the number of keyphrases to generate, they still suffer from the problem of generating too few keyphrases. To address this problem, we propose a reinforcement learning (RL) approach for keyphrase generation, with an adaptive reward function that encourages a model to generate both sufficient and accurate keyphrases. Furthermore, we introduce a new evaluation method that incorporates name variations of the ground-truth keyphrases using the Wikipedia knowledge base. Thus, our evaluation method can more robustly evaluate the quality of predicted keyphrases. Extensive experiments on five real-world datasets of different scales demonstrate that our RL approach consistently and significantly improves the performance of the state-of-the-art generative models with both conventional and new evaluation methods.
Hou Pong Chan, Wang Chen, Lu Wang, Irwin King
81
Python
5/7/2021 EmotionX-KU: BERT-Max based Contextual Emotion Classifier
We propose a contextual emotion classifier based on a transferable language model and dynamic max pooling, which predicts the emotion of each utterance in a dialogue. A representative emotion analysis task, EmotionX, requires to consider contextual information from colloquial dialogues and to deal with a class imbalance problem. To alleviate these problems, our model leverages the self-attention based transferable language model and the weighted cross entropy loss. Furthermore, we apply post-training and fine-tuning mechanisms to enhance the domain adaptability of our model and utilize several machine learning techniques to improve its performance. We conduct experiments on two emotion-labeled datasets named Friends and EmotionPush. As a result, our model outperforms the previous state-of-the-art model and also shows competitive performance in the EmotionX 2019 challenge. The code will be available in the Github page.
Kisu Yang, Dongyub Lee, Taesun Whang, Seolhwa Lee, Heuiseok Lim
33
Python
5/7/2021 Zero-Shot Entity Linking by Reading Entity Descriptions
We present the zero-shot entity linking task, where mentions must be linked to unseen entities without in-domain labeled data. The goal is to enable robust transfer to highly specialized domains, and so no metadata or alias tables are assumed. In this setting, entities are only identified by text descriptions, and models must rely strictly on language understanding to resolve the new entities. First, we show that strong reading comprehension models pre-trained on large unlabeled data can be used to generalize to unseen entities. Second, we propose a simple and effective adaptive pre-training strategy, which we term domain-adaptive pre-training (DAP), to address the domain shift problem associated with linking unseen entities in a new domain. We present experiments on a new dataset that we construct for this task and show that DAP improves over strong pre-training baselines, including BERT. The data and code are available at this https URL.
Lajanugen Logeswaran, Ming-Wei Chang, Kenton Lee, Kristina Toutanova, Jacob Devlin, Honglak Lee
90
Python
5/7/2021 Transforming Complex Sentences into a Semantic Hierarchy
We present an approach for recursively splitting and rephrasing complex English sentences into a novel semantic hierarchy of simplified sentences, with each of them presenting a more regular structure that may facilitate a wide variety of artificial intelligence tasks, such as machine translation (MT) or information extraction (IE). Using a set of hand-crafted transformation rules, input sentences are recursively transformed into a two-layered hierarchical representation in the form of core sentences and accompanying contexts that are linked via rhetorical relations. In this way, the semantic relationship of the decomposed constituents is preserved in the output, maintaining its interpretability for downstream applications. Both a thorough manual analysis and automatic evaluation across three datasets from two different domains demonstrate that the proposed syntactic simplification approach outperforms the state of the art in structural text simplification. Moreover, an extrinsic evaluation shows that when applying our framework as a preprocessing step the performance of state-of-the-art Open IE systems can be improved by up to 346% in precision and 52% in recall. To enable reproducible research, all code is provided online.
Christina Niklaus, Matthias Cetto, Andre Freitas, Siegfried Handschuh
23
Java
5/7/2021 Coherent Comment Generation for Chinese Articles with a Graph-to-Sequence Model
Automatic article commenting is helpful in encouraging user engagement and interaction on online news platforms. However, the news documents are usually too long for traditional encoder-decoder based models, which often results in general and irrelevant comments. In this paper, we propose to generate comments with a graph-to-sequence model that models the input news as a topic interaction graph. By organizing the article into graph structure, our model can better understand the internal structure of the article and the connection between topics, which makes it better able to understand the story. We collect and release a large scale news-comment corpus from a popular Chinese online news platform Tencent Kuaibao. Extensive experiment results show that our model can generate much more coherent and informative comments compared with several strong baseline models.
Wei Li, Jingjing Xu, Yancheng He, Shengli Yan, Yunfang Wu, Xu sun
148
Python
5/7/2021 PKUSEG: A Toolkit for Multi-Domain Chinese Word Segmentation
Chinese word segmentation (CWS) is a fundamental step of Chinese natural language processing. In this paper, we build a new toolkit, named PKUSEG, for multi-domain word segmentation. Unlike existing single-model toolkits, PKUSEG targets at multi-domain word segmentation and provides separate models for different domains, such as web, medicine, and tourism. The new toolkit also supports POS tagging and model training to adapt to various application scenarios. Experiments show that PKUSEG achieves high performance on multiple domains. The toolkit is now freely and publicly available for the usage of research and industry.
Ruixuan Luo, Jingjing Xu, Yi Zhang, Xuancheng Ren, Xu Sun
5399
Python
5/7/2021 Generating Summaries with Topic Templates and Structured Convolutional Decoders
Existing neural generation approaches create multi-sentence text as a single sequence. In this paper we propose a structured convolutional decoder that is guided by the content structure of target summaries. We compare our model with existing sequential decoders on three data sets representing different domains. Automatic and human evaluation demonstrate that our summaries have better content coverage.
Laura Perez-Beltrachini, Yang Liu, Mirella Lapata
26
Python
5/7/2021 Plain English Summarization of Contracts
Unilateral contracts, such as terms of service, play a substantial role in modern digital life. However, few users read these documents before accepting the terms within, as they are too long and the language too complicated. We propose the task of summarizing such legal documents in plain English, which would enable users to have a better understanding of the terms they are accepting. We propose an initial dataset of legal text snippets paired with summaries written in plain English. We verify the quality of these summaries manually and show that they involve heavy abstraction, compression, and simplification. Initial experiments show that unsupervised extractive summarization methods do not perform well on this task due to the level of abstraction and style differences. We conclude with a call for resource and technique development for simplification and style transfer for legal language.
Laura Manor, Junyi Jessy Li
13
5/7/2021 A Focus on Neural Machine Translation for African Languages
African languages are numerous, complex and low-resourced. The datasets required for machine translation are difficult to discover, and existing research is hard to reproduce. Minimal attention has been given to machine translation for African languages so there is scant research regarding the problems that arise when using machine translation techniques. To begin addressing these problems, we trained models to translate English to five of the official South African languages (Afrikaans, isiZulu, Northern Sotho, Setswana, Xitsonga), making use of modern neural machine translation techniques. The results obtained show the promise of using neural machine translation techniques for African languages. By providing reproducible publicly-available data, code and results, this research aims to provide a starting point for other researchers in African machine translation to compare to and build upon.
Laura Martinus, Jade Z. Abbott
23
TypeScript
5/7/2021 Benchmarking Neural Machine Translation for Southern African Languages
Unlike major Western languages, most African languages are very low-resourced. Furthermore, the resources that do exist are often scattered and difficult to obtain and discover. As a result, the data and code for existing research has rarely been shared. This has lead a struggle to reproduce reported results, and few publicly available benchmarks for African machine translation models exist. To start to address these problems, we trained neural machine translation models for 5 Southern African languages on publicly-available datasets. Code is provided for training the models and evaluate the models on a newly released evaluation set, with the aim of spur future research in the field for Southern African languages.
Laura Martinus, Jade Z. Abbott
23
TypeScript
5/7/2021 Incremental Learning from Scratch for Task-Oriented Dialogue Systems
Clarifying user needs is essential for existing task-oriented dialogue systems. However, in real-world applications, developers can never guarantee that all possible user demands are taken into account in the design phase. Consequently, existing systems will break down when encountering unconsidered user needs. To address this problem, we propose a novel incremental learning framework to design task-oriented dialogue systems, or for short Incremental Dialogue System (IDS), without pre-defining the exhaustive list of user needs. Specifically, we introduce an uncertainty estimation module to evaluate the confidence of giving correct responses. If there is high confidence, IDS will provide responses to users. Otherwise, humans will be involved in the dialogue process, and IDS can learn from human intervention through an online learning module. To evaluate our method, we propose a new dataset which simulates unanticipated user needs in the deployment stage. Experiments show that IDS is robust to unconsidered user actions, and can update itself online by smartly selecting only the most effective training data, and hence attains better performance with less annotation cost.
Weikang Wang, Jiajun Zhang, Qian Li, Mei-Yuh Hwang, Chengqing Zong, Zhifei Li
23
Python
5/7/2021 NLProlog: Reasoning with Weak Unification for Question Answering in Natural Language
Rule-based models are attractive for various tasks because they inherently lead to interpretable and explainable decisions and can easily incorporate prior knowledge. However, such systems are difficult to apply to problems involving natural language, due to its linguistic variability. In contrast, neural models can cope very well with ambiguity by learning distributed representations of words and their composition from data, but lead to models that are difficult to interpret. In this paper, we describe a model combining neural networks with logic programming in a novel manner for solving multi-hop reasoning tasks over natural language. Specifically, we propose to use a Prolog prover which we extend to utilize a similarity function over pretrained sentence encoders. We fine-tune the representations for the similarity function via backpropagation. This leads to a system that can apply rule-based reasoning to natural language, and induce domain-specific rules from training data. We evaluate the proposed system on two different question answering tasks, showing that it outperforms two baselines -- BIDAF (Seo et al., 2016a) and FAST QA (Weissenborn et al., 2017b) on a subset of the WikiHop corpus and achieves competitive results on the MedHop data set (Welbl et al., 2017).
Leon Weber, Pasquale Minervini, Jannes Munchmeyer, Ulf Leser, Tim Rocktaschel
47
Python
5/7/2021 Boosting Entity Linking Performance by Leveraging Unlabeled Documents
Modern entity linking systems rely on large collections of documents specifically annotated for the task (e.g., AIDA CoNLL). In contrast, we propose an approach which exploits only naturally occurring information: unlabeled documents and Wikipedia. Our approach consists of two stages. First, we construct a high recall list of candidate entities for each mention in an unlabeled document. Second, we use the candidate lists as weak supervision to constrain our document-level entity linking model. The model treats entities as latent variables and, when estimated on a collection of unlabelled texts, learns to choose entities relying both on local context of each mention and on coherence with other entities in the document. The resulting approach rivals fully-supervised state-of-the-art systems on standard test sets. It also approaches their performance in the very challenging setting: when tested on a test set sampled from the data used to estimate the supervised systems. By comparing to Wikipedia-only training of our model, we demonstrate that modeling unlabeled documents is beneficial.
Phong Le, Ivan Titov
31
Python
5/7/2021 TalkSumm: A Dataset and Scalable Annotation Method for Scientific Paper Summarization Based on Conference Talks
Currently, no large-scale training data is available for the task of scientific paper summarization. In this paper, we propose a novel method that automatically generates summaries for scientific papers, by utilizing videos of talks at scientific conferences. We hypothesize that such talks constitute a coherent and concise description of the papers' content, and can form the basis for good summaries. We collected 1716 papers and their corresponding videos, and created a dataset of paper summaries. A model trained on this dataset achieves similar performance as models trained on a dataset of summaries created manually. In addition, we validated the quality of our summaries by human experts.
Guy Lev, Michal Shmueli-Scheuer, Jonathan Herzig, Achiya Jerbi, David Konopnicki
25
Python
5/7/2021 An Imitation Learning Approach to Unsupervised Parsing
Recently, there has been an increasing interest in unsupervised parsers that optimize semantically oriented objectives, typically using reinforcement learning. Unfortunately, the learned trees often do not match actual syntax trees well. Shen et al. (2018) propose a structured attention mechanism for language modeling (PRPN), which induces better syntactic structures but relies on ad hoc heuristics. Also, their model lacks interpretability as it is not grounded in parsing actions. In our work, we propose an imitation learning approach to unsupervised parsing, where we transfer the syntactic knowledge induced by the PRPN to a Tree-LSTM model with discrete parsing actions. Its policy is then refined by Gumbel-Softmax training towards a semantically oriented objective. We evaluate our approach on the All Natural Language Inference dataset and show that it achieves a new state of the art in terms of parsing $F$-score, outperforming our base models, including the PRPN.
Bowen Li, Lili Mou, Frank Keller
6
Python
5/7/2021 An Interactive Multi-Task Learning Network for End-to-End Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis
Aspect-based sentiment analysis produces a list of aspect terms and their corresponding sentiments for a natural language sentence. This task is usually done in a pipeline manner, with aspect term extraction performed first, followed by sentiment predictions toward the extracted aspect terms. While easier to develop, such an approach does not fully exploit joint information from the two subtasks and does not use all available sources of training information that might be helpful, such as document-level labeled sentiment corpus. In this paper, we propose an interactive multi-task learning network (IMN) which is able to jointly learn multiple related tasks simultaneously at both the token level as well as the document level. Unlike conventional multi-task learning methods that rely on learning common features for the different tasks, IMN introduces a message passing architecture where information is iteratively passed to different tasks through a shared set of latent variables. Experimental results demonstrate superior performance of the proposed method against multiple baselines on three benchmark datasets.
Ruidan He, Wee Sun Lee, Hwee Tou Ng, Daniel Dahlmeier
192
Python
5/7/2021 Survey on Publicly Available Sinhala Natural Language Processing Tools and Research
Sinhala is the native language of the Sinhalese people who make up the largest ethnic group of Sri Lanka. The language belongs to the globe-spanning language tree, Indo-European. However, due to poverty in both linguistic and economic capital, Sinhala, in the perspective of Natural Language Processing tools and research, remains a resource-poor language which has neither the economic drive its cousin English has nor the sheer push of the law of numbers a language such as Chinese has. A number of research groups from Sri Lanka have noticed this dearth and the resultant dire need for proper tools and research for Sinhala natural language processing. However, due to various reasons, these attempts seem to lack coordination and awareness of each other. The objective of this paper is to fill that gap of a comprehensive literature survey of the publicly available Sinhala natural language tools and research so that the researchers working in this field can better utilize contributions of their peers. As such, we shall be uploading this paper to arXiv and perpetually update it periodically to reflect the advances made in the field.
Nisansa de Silva
10
HTML
5/7/2021 Sentiment analysis is not solved! Assessing and probing sentiment classification
Neural methods for SA have led to quantitative improvements over previous approaches, but these advances are not always accompanied with a thorough analysis of the qualitative differences. Therefore, it is not clear what outstanding conceptual challenges for sentiment analysis remain. In this work, we attempt to discover what challenges still prove a problem for sentiment classifiers for English and to provide a challenging dataset. We collect the subset of sentences that an (oracle) ensemble of state-of-the-art sentiment classifiers misclassify and then annotate them for 18 linguistic and paralinguistic phenomena, such as negation, sarcasm, modality, etc. The dataset is available at this https URL. Finally, we provide a case study that demonstrates the usefulness of the dataset to probe the performance of a given sentiment classifier with respect to linguistic phenomena.
Jeremy Barnes, Lilja Ovrelid, Erik Velldal
4
Python
5/7/2021 Improving Sentiment Analysis with Multi-task Learning of Negation
Sentiment analysis is directly affected by compositional phenomena in language that act on the prior polarity of the words and phrases found in the text. Negation is the most prevalent of these phenomena and in order to correctly predict sentiment, a classifier must be able to identify negation and disentangle the effect that its scope has on the final polarity of a text. This paper proposes a multi-task approach to explicitly incorporate information about negation in sentiment analysis, which we show outperforms learning negation implicitly in a data-driven manner. We describe our approach, a cascading neural architecture with selective sharing of LSTM layers, and show that explicitly training the model with negation as an auxiliary task helps improve the main task of sentiment analysis. The effect is demonstrated across several different standard English-language data sets for both tasks and we analyze several aspects of our system related to its performance, varying types and amounts of input data and different multi-task setups.
Jeremy Barnes, Erik Velldal, Lilja Ovrelid
10
Python
5/7/2021 Improving Neural Language Models by Segmenting, Attending, and Predicting the Future
Common language models typically predict the next word given the context. In this work, we propose a method that improves language modeling by learning to align the given context and the following phrase. The model does not require any linguistic annotation of phrase segmentation. Instead, we define syntactic heights and phrase segmentation rules, enabling the model to automatically induce phrases, recognize their task-specific heads, and generate phrase embeddings in an unsupervised learning manner. Our method can easily be applied to language models with different network architectures since an independent module is used for phrase induction and context-phrase alignment, and no change is required in the underlying language modeling network. Experiments have shown that our model outperformed several strong baseline models on different data sets. We achieved a new state-of-the-art performance of 17.4 perplexity on the Wikitext-103 dataset. Additionally, visualizing the outputs of the phrase induction module showed that our model is able to learn approximate phrase-level structural knowledge without any annotation.
Hongyin Luo, Lan Jiang, Yonatan Belinkov, James Glass
11
Python
5/7/2021 Open Domain Event Extraction Using Neural Latent Variable Models
We consider open domain event extraction, the task of extracting unconstraint types of events from news clusters. A novel latent variable neural model is constructed, which is scalable to very large corpus. A dataset is collected and manually annotated, with task-specific evaluation metrics being designed. Results show that the proposed unsupervised model gives better performance compared to the state-of-the-art method for event schema induction.
Xiao Liu, Heyan Huang, Yue Zhang
81
Python
5/7/2021 News Labeling as Early as Possible: Real or Fake?
Making disguise between real and fake news propagation through online social networks is an important issue in many applications. The time gap between the news release time and detection of its label is a significant step towards broadcasting the real information and avoiding the fake. Therefore, one of the challenging tasks in this area is to identify fake and real news in early stages of propagation. However, there is a trade-off between minimizing the time gap and maximizing accuracy. Despite recent efforts in detection of fake news, there has been no significant work that explicitly incorporates early detection in its model. In this paper, we focus on accurate early labeling of news, and propose a model by considering earliness both in modeling and prediction. The proposed method utilizes recurrent neural networks with a novel loss function, and a new stopping rule. Given the context of news, we first embed it with a class-specific text representation. Then, we utilize the available public profile of users, and speed of news diffusion, for early labeling of the news. Experiments on real datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our model both in terms of early labelling and accuracy, compared to the state of the art baseline and models.
Maryam Ramezani, Mina Rafiei, Soroush Omranpour, Hamid R. Rabiee
0
Python
5/7/2021 Automatic Generation of High Quality CCGbanks for Parser Domain Adaptation
We propose a new domain adaptation method for Combinatory Categorial Grammar (CCG) parsing, based on the idea of automatic generation of CCG corpora exploiting cheaper resources of dependency trees. Our solution is conceptually simple, and not relying on a specific parser architecture, making it applicable to the current best-performing parsers. We conduct extensive parsing experiments with detailed discussion; on top of existing benchmark datasets on (1) biomedical texts and (2) question sentences, we create experimental datasets of (3) speech conversation and (4) math problems. When applied to the proposed method, an off-the-shelf CCG parser shows significant performance gains, improving from 90.7% to 96.6% on speech conversation, and from 88.5% to 96.8% on math problems.
Masashi Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Noji, Koji Mineshima, Daisuke Bekki
47
C
5/7/2021 Question Answering as an Automatic Evaluation Metric for News Article Summarization
Recent work in the field of automatic summarization and headline generation focuses on maximizing ROUGE scores for various news datasets. We present an alternative, extrinsic, evaluation metric for this task, Answering Performance for Evaluation of Summaries. APES utilizes recent progress in the field of reading-comprehension to quantify the ability of a summary to answer a set of manually created questions regarding central entities in the source article. We first analyze the strength of this metric by comparing it to known manual evaluation metrics. We then present an end-to-end neural abstractive model that maximizes APES, while increasing ROUGE scores to competitive results.
Matan Eyal, Tal Baumel, Michael Elhadad
4
Jupyter NB
5/7/2021 Adversarial Learning of Privacy-Preserving Text Representations for De-Identification of Medical Records
De-identification is the task of detecting protected health information (PHI) in medical text. It is a critical step in sanitizing electronic health records (EHRs) to be shared for research. Automatic de-identification classifierscan significantly speed up the sanitization process. However, obtaining a large and diverse dataset to train such a classifier that works wellacross many types of medical text poses a challenge as privacy laws prohibit the sharing of raw medical records. We introduce a method to create privacy-preserving shareable representations of medical text (i.e. they contain no PHI) that does not require expensive manual pseudonymization. These representations can be shared between organizations to create unified datasets for training de-identification models. Our representation allows training a simple LSTM-CRF de-identification model to an F1 score of 97.4%, which is comparable to a strong baseline that exposes private information in its representation. A robust, widely available de-identification classifier based on our representation could potentially enable studies for which de-identification would otherwise be too costly.
Max Friedrich, Arne Kohn, Gregor Wiedemann, Chris Biemann
10
Python
5/7/2021 Tabula nearly rasa: Probing the Linguistic Knowledge of Character-Level Neural Language Models Trained on Unsegmented Text
Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) have reached striking performance in many natural language processing tasks. This has renewed interest in whether these generic sequence processing devices are inducing genuine linguistic knowledge. Nearly all current analytical studies, however, initialize the RNNs with a vocabulary of known words, and feed them tokenized input during training. We present a multi-lingual study of the linguistic knowledge encoded in RNNs trained as character-level language models, on input data with word boundaries removed. These networks face a tougher and more cognitively realistic task, having to discover any useful linguistic unit from scratch based on input statistics. The results show that our "near tabula rasa" RNNs are mostly able to solve morphological, syntactic and semantic tasks that intuitively presuppose word-level knowledge, and indeed they learned, to some extent, to track word boundaries. Our study opens the door to speculations about the necessity of an explicit, rigid word lexicon in language learning and usage.
Michael Hahn, Marco Baroni
2
Python
5/7/2021 Demonstration of a Neural Machine Translation System with Online Learning for Translators
We introduce a demonstration of our system, which implements online learning for neural machine translation in a production environment. These techniques allow the system to continuously learn from the corrections provided by the translators. We implemented an end-to-end platform integrating our machine translation servers to one of the most common user interfaces for professional translators: SDL Trados Studio. Our objective was to save post-editing effort as the machine is continuously learning from human choices and adapting the models to a specific domain or user style.
Miguel Domingo, Mercedes Garcia-Martinez, Amando Estela, Laurent Bie, Alexandre Helle, Alvaro Peris, Francisco Casacuberta, Manuerl Herranz
1
Python
5/7/2021 Variational Sequential Labelers for Semi-Supervised Learning
We introduce a family of multitask variational methods for semi-supervised sequence labeling. Our model family consists of a latent-variable generative model and a discriminative labeler. The generative models use latent variables to define the conditional probability of a word given its context, drawing inspiration from word prediction objectives commonly used in learning word embeddings. The labeler helps inject discriminative information into the latent space. We explore several latent variable configurations, including ones with hierarchical structure, which enables the model to account for both label-specific and word-specific information. Our models consistently outperform standard sequential baselines on 8 sequence labeling datasets, and improve further with unlabeled data.
Mingda Chen, Qingming Tang, Karen Livescu, Kevin Gimpel
31
Python
5/7/2021 Smaller Text Classifiers with Discriminative Cluster Embeddings
Word embedding parameters often dominate overall model sizes in neural methods for natural language processing. We reduce deployed model sizes of text classifiers by learning a hard word clustering in an end-to-end manner. We use the Gumbel-Softmax distribution to maximize over the latent clustering while minimizing the task loss. We propose variations that selectively assign additional parameters to words, which further improves accuracy while still remaining parameter-efficient.
Mingda Chen, Kevin Gimpel
25
Python
5/7/2021 Unsupervised Neural Single-Document Summarization of Reviews via Learning Latent Discourse Structure and its Ranking
This paper focuses on the end-to-end abstractive summarization of a single product review without supervision. We assume that a review can be described as a discourse tree, in which the summary is the root, and the child sentences explain their parent in detail. By recursively estimating a parent from its children, our model learns the latent discourse tree without an external parser and generates a concise summary. We also introduce an architecture that ranks the importance of each sentence on the tree to support summary generation focusing on the main review point. The experimental results demonstrate that our model is competitive with or outperforms other unsupervised approaches. In particular, for relatively long reviews, it achieves a competitive or better performance than supervised models. The induced tree shows that the child sentences provide additional information about their parent, and the generated summary abstracts the entire review.
Masaru Isonuma, Junichiro Mori, Ichiro Sakata
25
Python
5/7/2021 SherLIiC: A Typed Event-Focused Lexical Inference Benchmark for Evaluating Natural Language Inference
We present SherLIiC, a testbed for lexical inference in context (LIiC), consisting of 3985 manually annotated inference rule candidates (InfCands), accompanied by (i) ~960k unlabeled InfCands, and (ii) ~190k typed textual relations between Freebase entities extracted from the large entity-linked corpus ClueWeb09. Each InfCand consists of one of these relations, expressed as a lemmatized dependency path, and two argument placeholders, each linked to one or more Freebase types. Due to our candidate selection process based on strong distributional evidence, SherLIiC is much harder than existing testbeds because distributional evidence is of little utility in the classification of InfCands. We also show that, due to its construction, many of SherLIiC's correct InfCands are novel and missing from existing rule bases. We evaluate a number of strong baselines on SherLIiC, ranging from semantic vector space models to state of the art neural models of natural language inference (NLI). We show that SherLIiC poses a tough challenge to existing NLI systems.
Martin Schmitt, Hinrich Schutze
6
Python
5/7/2021 Multi-task Pairwise Neural Ranking for Hashtag Segmentation
Hashtags are often employed on social media and beyond to add metadata to a textual utterance with the goal of increasing discoverability, aiding search, or providing additional semantics. However, the semantic content of hashtags is not straightforward to infer as these represent ad-hoc conventions which frequently include multiple words joined together and can include abbreviations and unorthodox spellings. We build a dataset of 12,594 hashtags split into individual segments and propose a set of approaches for hashtag segmentation by framing it as a pairwise ranking problem between candidate segmentations. Our novel neural approaches demonstrate 24.6% error reduction in hashtag segmentation accuracy compared to the current state-of-the-art method. Finally, we demonstrate that a deeper understanding of hashtag semantics obtained through segmentation is useful for downstream applications such as sentiment analysis, for which we achieved a 2.6% increase in average recall on the SemEval 2017 sentiment analysis dataset.
Mounica Maddela, Wei Xu, Daniel Preoţiuc-Pietro
8
Python
5/7/2021 Attention-based Conditioning Methods for External Knowledge Integration
In this paper, we present a novel approach for incorporating external knowledge in Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs). We propose the integration of lexicon features into the self-attention mechanism of RNN-based architectures. This form of conditioning on the attention distribution, enforces the contribution of the most salient words for the task at hand. We introduce three methods, namely attentional concatenation, feature-based gating and affine transformation. Experiments on six benchmark datasets show the effectiveness of our methods. Attentional feature-based gating yields consistent performance improvement across tasks. Our approach is implemented as a simple add-on module for RNN-based models with minimal computational overhead and can be adapted to any deep neural architecture.
Katerina Margatina, Christos Baziotis, Alexandros Potamianos
30
Python
5/7/2021 Sentence Centrality Revisited for Unsupervised Summarization
Single document summarization has enjoyed renewed interests in recent years thanks to the popularity of neural network models and the availability of large-scale datasets. In this paper we develop an unsupervised approach arguing that it is unrealistic to expect large-scale and high-quality training data to be available or created for different types of summaries, domains, or languages. We revisit a popular graph-based ranking algorithm and modify how node (aka sentence) centrality is computed in two ways: (a)~we employ BERT, a state-of-the-art neural representation learning model to better capture sentential meaning and (b)~we build graphs with directed edges arguing that the contribution of any two nodes to their respective centrality is influenced by their relative position in a document. Experimental results on three news summarization datasets representative of different languages and writing styles show that our approach outperforms strong baselines by a wide margin.
Hao Zheng, Mirella Lapata
91
Python
5/7/2021 Training Neural Machine Translation To Apply Terminology Constraints
This paper proposes a novel method to inject custom terminology into neural machine translation at run time. Previous works have mainly proposed modifications to the decoding algorithm in order to constrain the output to include run-time-provided target terms. While being effective, these constrained decoding methods add, however, significant computational overhead to the inference step, and, as we show in this paper, can be brittle when tested in realistic conditions. In this paper we approach the problem by training a neural MT system to learn how to use custom terminology when provided with the input. Comparative experiments show that our method is not only more effective than a state-of-the-art implementation of constrained decoding, but is also as fast as constraint-free decoding.
Georgiana Dinu, Prashant Mathur, Marcello Federico, Yaser Al-Onaizan
12
Python
5/7/2021 Transfer Learning in Biomedical Natural Language Processing: An Evaluation of BERT and ELMo on Ten Benchmarking Datasets
Inspired by the success of the General Language Understanding Evaluation benchmark, we introduce the Biomedical Language Understanding Evaluation (BLUE) benchmark to facilitate research in the development of pre-training language representations in the biomedicine domain. The benchmark consists of five tasks with ten datasets that cover both biomedical and clinical texts with different dataset sizes and difficulties. We also evaluate several baselines based on BERT and ELMo and find that the BERT model pre-trained on PubMed abstracts and MIMIC-III clinical notes achieves the best results. We make the datasets, pre-trained models, and codes publicly available at this https URL.
Yifan Peng, Shankai Yan, Zhiyong Lu
292
Python
5/7/2021 Findings of the First Shared Task on Machine Translation Robustness
We share the findings of the first shared task on improving robustness of Machine Translation (MT). The task provides a testbed representing challenges facing MT models deployed in the real world, and facilitates new approaches to improve models; robustness to noisy input and domain mismatch. We focus on two language pairs (English-French and English-Japanese), and the submitted systems are evaluated on a blind test set consisting of noisy comments on Reddit and professionally sourced translations. As a new task, we received 23 submissions by 11 participating teams from universities, companies, national labs, etc. All submitted systems achieved large improvements over baselines, with the best improvement having +22.33 BLEU. We evaluated submissions by both human judgment and automatic evaluation (BLEU), which shows high correlations (Pearson's r = 0.94 and 0.95). Furthermore, we conducted a qualitative analysis of the submitted systems using compare-mt, which revealed their salient differences in handling challenges in this task. Such analysis provides additional insights when there is occasional disagreement between human judgment and BLEU, e.g. systems better at producing colloquial expressions received higher score from human judgment.
Xian Li, Paul Michel, Antonios Anastasopoulos, Yonatan Belinkov, Nadir Durrani, Orhan Firat, Philipp Koehn, Graham Neubig, Juan Pino, Hassan Sajjad
344
Python
5/7/2021 Recovering Dropped Pronouns in Chinese Conversations via Modeling Their Referents
Pronouns are often dropped in Chinese sentences, and this happens more frequently in conversational genres as their referents can be easily understood from context. Recovering dropped pronouns is essential to applications such as Information Extraction where the referents of these dropped pronouns need to be resolved, or Machine Translation when Chinese is the source language. In this work, we present a novel end-to-end neural network model to recover dropped pronouns in conversational data. Our model is based on a structured attention mechanism that models the referents of dropped pronouns utilizing both sentence-level and word-level information. Results on three different conversational genres show that our approach achieves a significant improvement over the current state of the art.
Jingxuan Yang, Jianzhuo Tong, Si Li, Sheng Gao, Jun Guo, Nianwen Xue
5
Python
5/7/2021 Multi-view Knowledge Graph Embedding for Entity Alignment
We study the problem of embedding-based entity alignment between knowledge graphs (KGs). Previous works mainly focus on the relational structure of entities. Some further incorporate another type of features, such as attributes, for refinement. However, a vast of entity features are still unexplored or not equally treated together, which impairs the accuracy and robustness of embedding-based entity alignment. In this paper, we propose a novel framework that unifies multiple views of entities to learn embeddings for entity alignment. Specifically, we embed entities based on the views of entity names, relations and attributes, with several combination strategies. Furthermore, we design some cross-KG inference methods to enhance the alignment between two KGs. Our experiments on real-world datasets show that the proposed framework significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art embedding-based entity alignment methods. The selected views, cross-KG inference and combination strategies all contribute to the performance improvement.
Qingheng Zhang, Zequn Sun, Wei Hu, Muhao Chen, Lingbing Guo, Yuzhong Qu
85
Python
5/7/2021 Fine-Grained Entity Typing in Hyperbolic Space
How can we represent hierarchical information present in large type inventories for entity typing? We study the ability of hyperbolic embeddings to capture hierarchical relations between mentions in context and their target types in a shared vector space. We evaluate on two datasets and investigate two different techniques for creating a large hierarchical entity type inventory: from an expert-generated ontology and by automatically mining type co-occurrences. We find that the hyperbolic model yields improvements over its Euclidean counterpart in some, but not all cases. Our analysis suggests that the adequacy of this geometry depends on the granularity of the type inventory and the way hierarchical relations are inferred.
Federico Lopez, Benjamin Heinzerling, Michael Strube
25
Python
5/7/2021 Using Automatically Extracted Minimum Spans to Disentangle Coreference Evaluation from Boundary Detection
The common practice in coreference resolution is to identify and evaluate the maximum span of mentions. The use of maximum spans tangles coreference evaluation with the challenges of mention boundary detection like prepositional phrase attachment. To address this problem, minimum spans are manually annotated in smaller corpora. However, this additional annotation is costly and therefore, this solution does not scale to large corpora. In this paper, we propose the MINA algorithm for automatically extracting minimum spans to benefit from minimum span evaluation in all corpora. We show that the extracted minimum spans by MINA are consistent with those that are manually annotated by experts. Our experiments show that using minimum spans is in particular important in cross-dataset coreference evaluation, in which detected mention boundaries are noisier due to domain shift. We will integrate MINA into this https URL for reporting standard coreference scores based on both maximum and automatically detected minimum spans.
Nafise Sadat Moosavi, Leo Born, Massimo Poesio, Michael Strube
25
Python
5/7/2021 Emotion-Cause Pair Extraction: A New Task to Emotion Analysis in Texts
Emotion cause extraction (ECE), the task aimed at extracting the potential causes behind certain emotions in text, has gained much attention in recent years due to its wide applications. However, it suffers from two shortcomings: 1) the emotion must be annotated before cause extraction in ECE, which greatly limits its applications in real-world scenarios; 2) the way to first annotate emotion and then extract the cause ignores the fact that they are mutually indicative. In this work, we propose a new task: emotion-cause pair extraction (ECPE), which aims to extract the potential pairs of emotions and corresponding causes in a document. We propose a 2-step approach to address this new ECPE task, which first performs individual emotion extraction and cause extraction via multi-task learning, and then conduct emotion-cause pairing and filtering. The experimental results on a benchmark emotion cause corpus prove the feasibility of the ECPE task as well as the effectiveness of our approach.
Rui Xia, Zixiang Ding
115
Python
5/7/2021 From Independent Prediction to Re-ordered Prediction: Integrating Relative Position and Global Label Information to Emotion Cause Identification
Emotion cause identification aims at identifying the potential causes that lead to a certain emotion expression in text. Several techniques including rule based methods and traditional machine learning methods have been proposed to address this problem based on manually designed rules and features. More recently, some deep learning methods have also been applied to this task, with the attempt to automatically capture the causal relationship of emotion and its causes embodied in the text. In this work, we find that in addition to the content of the text, there are another two kinds of information, namely relative position and global labels, that are also very important for emotion cause identification. To integrate such information, we propose a model based on the neural network architecture to encode the three elements ($i.e.$, text content, relative position and global label), in an unified and end-to-end fashion. We introduce a relative position augmented embedding learning algorithm, and transform the task from an independent prediction problem to a reordered prediction problem, where the dynamic global label information is incorporated. Experimental results on a benchmark emotion cause dataset show that our model achieves new state-of-the-art performance and performs significantly better than a number of competitive baselines. Further analysis shows the effectiveness of the relative position augmented embedding learning algorithm and the reordered prediction mechanism with dynamic global labels.
Zixiang Ding, Huihui He, Mengran Zhang, Rui Xia
12
Python
5/7/2021 RTHN: A RNN-Transformer Hierarchical Network for Emotion Cause Extraction
The emotion cause extraction (ECE) task aims at discovering the potential causes behind a certain emotion expression in a document. Techniques including rule-based methods, traditional machine learning methods and deep neural networks have been proposed to solve this task. However, most of the previous work considered ECE as a set of independent clause classification problems and ignored the relations between multiple clauses in a document. In this work, we propose a joint emotion cause extraction framework, named RNN-Transformer Hierarchical Network (RTHN), to encode and classify multiple clauses synchronously. RTHN is composed of a lower word-level encoder based on RNNs to encode multiple words in each clause, and an upper clause-level encoder based on Transformer to learn the correlation between multiple clauses in a document. We furthermore propose ways to encode the relative position and global predication information into Transformer that can capture the causality between clauses and make RTHN more efficient. We finally achieve the best performance among 12 compared systems and improve the F1 score of the state-of-the-art from 72.69\% to 76.77\%.
Rui Xia, Mengran Zhang, Zixiang Ding
29
Python
5/7/2021 Know More about Each Other: Evolving Dialogue Strategy via Compound Assessment
In this paper, a novel Generation-Evaluation framework is developed for multi-turn conversations with the objective of letting both participants know more about each other. For the sake of rational knowledge utilization and coherent conversation flow, a dialogue strategy which controls knowledge selection is instantiated and continuously adapted via reinforcement learning. Under the deployed strategy, knowledge grounded conversations are conducted with two dialogue agents. The generated dialogues are comprehensively evaluated on aspects like informativeness and coherence, which are aligned with our objective and human instinct. These assessments are integrated as a compound reward to guide the evolution of dialogue strategy via policy gradient. Comprehensive experiments have been carried out on the publicly available dataset, demonstrating that the proposed method outperforms the other state-of-the-art approaches significantly.
Siqi Bao, Huang He, Fan Wang, Rongzhong Lian, Hua Wu
5895
Python
5/7/2021 Generating Multiple Diverse Responses with Multi-Mapping and Posterior Mapping Selection
In human conversation an input post is open to multiple potential responses, which is typically regarded as a one-to-many problem. Promising approaches mainly incorporate multiple latent mechanisms to build the one-to-many relationship. However, without accurate selection of the latent mechanism corresponding to the target response during training, these methods suffer from a rough optimization of latent mechanisms. In this paper, we propose a multi-mapping mechanism to better capture the one-to-many relationship, where multiple mapping modules are employed as latent mechanisms to model the semantic mappings from an input post to its diverse responses. For accurate optimization of latent mechanisms, a posterior mapping selection module is designed to select the corresponding mapping module according to the target response for further optimization. We also introduce an auxiliary matching loss to facilitate the optimization of posterior mapping selection. Empirical results demonstrate the superiority of our model in generating multiple diverse and informative responses over the state-of-the-art methods.
Chaotao Chen, Jinhua Peng, Fan Wang, Jun Xu, Hua Wu
5895
Python
5/7/2021 Proactive Human-Machine Conversation with Explicit Conversation Goals
Though great progress has been made for human-machine conversation, current dialogue system is still in its infancy: it usually converses passively and utters words more as a matter of response, rather than on its own initiatives. In this paper, we take a radical step towards building a human-like conversational agent: endowing it with the ability of proactively leading the conversation (introducing a new topic or maintaining the current topic). To facilitate the development of such conversation systems, we create a new dataset named DuConv where one acts as a conversation leader and the other acts as the follower. The leader is provided with a knowledge graph and asked to sequentially change the discussion topics, following the given conversation goal, and meanwhile keep the dialogue as natural and engaging as possible. DuConv enables a very challenging task as the model needs to both understand dialogue and plan over the given knowledge graph. We establish baseline results on this dataset (about 270K utterances and 30k dialogues) using several state-of-the-art models. Experimental results show that dialogue models that plan over the knowledge graph can make full use of related knowledge to generate more diverse multi-turn conversations. The baseline systems along with the dataset are publicly available
Wenquan Wu, Zhen Guo, Xiangyang Zhou, Hua Wu, Xiyuan Zhang, Rongzhong Lian, Haifeng Wang
5895
Python
5/7/2021 Unified Semantic Parsing with Weak Supervision
Semantic parsing over multiple knowledge bases enables a parser to exploit structural similarities of programs across the multiple domains. However, the fundamental challenge lies in obtaining high-quality annotations of (utterance, program) pairs across various domains needed for training such models. To overcome this, we propose a novel framework to build a unified multi-domain enabled semantic parser trained only with weak supervision (denotations). Weakly supervised training is particularly arduous as the program search space grows exponentially in a multi-domain setting. To solve this, we incorporate a multi-policy distillation mechanism in which we first train domain-specific semantic parsers (teachers) using weak supervision in the absence of the ground truth programs, followed by training a single unified parser (student) from the domain specific policies obtained from these teachers. The resultant semantic parser is not only compact but also generalizes better, and generates more accurate programs. It further does not require the user to provide a domain label while querying. On the standard Overnight dataset (containing multiple domains), we demonstrate that the proposed model improves performance by 20% in terms of denotation accuracy in comparison to baseline techniques.
Priyanka Agrawal, Parag Jain, Ayushi Dalmia, Abhishek Bansal, Ashish Mittal, Karthik Sankaranarayanan
2
Python
5/7/2021 ShEMO -- A Large-Scale Validated Database for Persian Speech Emotion Detection
This paper introduces a large-scale, validated database for Persian called Sharif Emotional Speech Database (ShEMO). The database includes 3000 semi-natural utterances, equivalent to 3 hours and 25 minutes of speech data extracted from online radio plays. The ShEMO covers speech samples of 87 native-Persian speakers for five basic emotions including anger, fear, happiness, sadness and surprise, as well as neutral state. Twelve annotators label the underlying emotional state of utterances and majority voting is used to decide on the final labels. According to the kappa measure, the inter-annotator agreement is 64% which is interpreted as "substantial agreement". We also present benchmark results based on common classification methods in speech emotion detection task. According to the experiments, support vector machine achieves the best results for both gender-independent (58.2%) and gender-dependent models (female=59.4%, male=57.6%). The ShEMO is available for academic purposes free of charge to provide a baseline for further research on Persian emotional speech.
Omid Mohamad Nezami, Paria Jamshid Lou, Mansoureh Karami
6