# The NLP Index

Updated: 06/23/21 - Total repos: 6,084
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6/23/2021 Graph Neural Networks for Natural Language Processing: A Survey
Deep learning has become the dominant approach in coping with various tasks in Natural LanguageProcessing (NLP). Although text inputs are typically represented as a sequence of tokens, there isa rich variety of NLP problems that can be best expressed with a graph structure. As a result, thereis a surge of interests in developing new deep learning techniques on graphs for a large numberof NLP tasks. In this survey, we present a comprehensive overview onGraph Neural Networks(GNNs) for Natural Language Processing. We propose a new taxonomy of GNNs for NLP, whichsystematically organizes existing research of GNNs for NLP along three axes: graph construction,graph representation learning, and graph based encoder-decoder models. We further introducea large number of NLP applications that are exploiting the power of GNNs and summarize thecorresponding benchmark datasets, evaluation metrics, and open-source codes. Finally, we discussvarious outstanding challenges for making the full use of GNNs for NLP as well as future researchdirections. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive overview of Graph NeuralNetworks for Natural Language Processing.
Lingfei Wu, Yu Chen, Kai Shen, Xiaojie Guo, Hanning Gao, Shucheng Li, Jian Pei, Bo Long
753
Python
6/23/2021 An Empirical Study on Hyperparameter Optimization for Fine-Tuning Pre-trained Language Models
The performance of fine-tuning pre-trained language models largely depends on the hyperparameter configuration. In this paper, we investigate the performance of modern hyperparameter optimization methods (HPO) on fine-tuning pre-trained language models. First, we study and report three HPO algorithms' performances on fine-tuning two state-of-the-art language models on the GLUE dataset. We find that using the same time budget, HPO often fails to outperform grid search due to two reasons: insufficient time budget and overfitting. We propose two general strategies and an experimental procedure to systematically troubleshoot HPO's failure cases. By applying the procedure, we observe that HPO can succeed with more appropriate settings in the search space and time budget; however, in certain cases overfitting remains. Finally, we make suggestions for future work. Our implementation can be found in this https URL.
Xueqing Liu, Chi Wang
401
Jupyter Notebook
6/23/2021 GigaSpeech: An Evolving, Multi-domain ASR Corpus with 10,000 Hours of Transcribed Audio
This paper introduces GigaSpeech, an evolving, multi-domain English speech recognition corpus with 10,000 hours of high quality labeled audio suitable for supervised training, and 40,000 hours of total audio suitable for semi-supervised and unsupervised training. Around 40,000 hours of transcribed audio is first collected from audiobooks, podcasts and YouTube, covering both read and spontaneous speaking styles, and a variety of topics, such as arts, science, sports, etc. A new forced alignment and segmentation pipeline is proposed to create sentence segments suitable for speech recognition training, and to filter out segments with low-quality transcription. For system training, GigaSpeech provides five subsets of different sizes, 10h, 250h, 1000h, 2500h, and 10000h. For our 10,000-hour XL training subset, we cap the word error rate at 4% during the filtering/validation stage, and for all our other smaller training subsets, we cap it at 0%. The DEV and TEST evaluation sets, on the other hand, are re-processed by professional human transcribers to ensure high transcription quality. Baseline systems are provided for popular speech recognition toolkits, namely Athena, ESPnet, Kaldi and Pika.
Guoguo Chen, Shuzhou Chai, Guanbo Wang, Jiayu Du, Wei-Qiang Zhang, Chao Weng, Dan Su, Daniel Povey, Jan Trmal, Junbo Zhang, Mingjie Jin, Sanjeev Khudanpur, Shinji Watanabe, Shuaijiang Zhao, Wei Zou, Xiangang Li, Xuchen Yao, Yongqing Wang, Yujun Wang, Zhao You, Zhiyong Yan
182
Shell
6/23/2021 Launching into clinical space with medspaCy: a new clinical text processing toolkit in Python
Despite impressive success of machine learning algorithms in clinical natural language processing (cNLP), rule-based approaches still have a prominent role. In this paper, we introduce medspaCy, an extensible, open-source cNLP library based on spaCy framework that allows flexible integration of rule-based and machine learning-based algorithms adapted to clinical text. MedspaCy includes a variety of components that meet common cNLP needs such as context analysis and mapping to standard terminologies. By utilizing spaCy's clear and easy-to-use conventions, medspaCy enables development of custom pipelines that integrate easily with other spaCy-based modules. Our toolkit includes several core components and facilitates rapid development of pipelines for clinical text.
Hannah Eyre (1 and 2), Alec B Chapman (1 and 2), Kelly S Peterson (1 and 2), Jianlin Shi (2), Patrick R Alba (1 and 2), Makoto M Jones (1 and 2), Tamara L Box (3), Scott L DuVall (1 and 2), Olga V Patterson (1 and 2) ((1) VA Salt Lake City Health Care System, (2) University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA, (3) Veterans Health Administration Office of Analytics and Performance Integration)
105
Jupyter Notebook
6/23/2021 CBLUE: A Chinese Biomedical Language Understanding Evaluation Benchmark
Artificial Intelligence (AI), along with the recent progress in biomedical language understanding, is gradually changing medical practice. With the development of biomedical language understanding benchmarks, AI applications are widely used in the medical field. However, most benchmarks are limited to English, which makes it challenging to replicate many of the successes in English for other languages. To facilitate research in this direction, we collect real-world biomedical data and present the first Chinese Biomedical Language Understanding Evaluation (CBLUE) benchmark: a collection of natural language understanding tasks including named entity recognition, information extraction, clinical diagnosis normalization, single-sentence/sentence-pair classification, and an associated online platform for model evaluation, comparison, and analysis. To establish evaluation on these tasks, we report empirical results with the current 11 pre-trained Chinese models, and experimental results show that state-of-the-art neural models perform by far worse than the human ceiling. Our benchmark is released at \url{this https URL}.
Ningyu Zhang, Zhen Bi, Xiaozhuan Liang, Lei Li, Xiang Chen, Shumin Deng, Luoqiu Li, Xin Xie, Hongbin Ye, Xin Shang, Kangping Yin, Chuanqi Tan, Jian Xu, Mosha Chen, Fei Huang, Luo Si, Yuan Ni, Guotong Xie, Zhifang Sui, Baobao Chang, Hui Zong, Zheng Yuan, Linfeng Li, Jun Yan, Hongying Zan, Kunli Zhang, Huajun Chen, Buzhou Tang, Qingcai Chen
97
Python
6/23/2021 pysentimiento: A Python Toolkit for Sentiment Analysis and SocialNLP tasks
Extracting opinions from texts has gathered a lot of interest in the last years, as we are experiencing an unprecedented volume of user-generated content in social networks and other places. A problem that social researchers find in using opinion mining tools is that they are usually behind commercial APIs and unavailable for other languages than English. To address these issues, we present pysentimiento, a multilingual Python toolkit for Sentiment Analysis and other Social NLP tasks. This open-source library brings state-of-the-art models for Spanish and English in a black-box fashion, allowing researchers to easily access these techniques.
Juan Manuel Perez, Juan Carlos Giudici, Franco Luque
66
Jupyter Notebook
6/23/2021 LoRA: Low-Rank Adaptation of Large Language Models
The dominant paradigm of natural language processing consists of large-scale pre-training on general domain data and adaptation to particular tasks or domains. As we pre-train larger models, conventional fine-tuning, which retrains all model parameters, becomes less feasible. Using GPT-3 175B as an example, deploying many independent instances of fine-tuned models, each with 175B parameters, is extremely expensive. We propose Low-Rank Adaptation, or LoRA, which freezes the pre-trained model weights and injects trainable rank decomposition matrices into each layer of the Transformer architecture, greatly reducing the number of trainable parameters for downstream tasks. For GPT-3, LoRA can reduce the number of trainable parameters by 10,000 times and the computation hardware requirement by 3 times compared to full fine-tuning. LoRA performs on-par or better than fine-tuning in model quality on both GPT-3 and GPT-2, despite having fewer trainable parameters, a higher training throughput, and no additional inference latency. We also provide an empirical investigation into rank-deficiency in language model adaptations, which sheds light on the efficacy of LoRA. We release our implementation in GPT-2 at this https URL .
Edward J. Hu, Yelong Shen, Phillip Wallis, Zeyuan Allen-Zhu, Yuanzhi Li, Shean Wang, Weizhu Chen
61
Python
6/23/2021 Thinking Like Transformers
What is the computational model behind a Transformer? Where recurrent neural networks have direct parallels in finite state machines, allowing clear discussion and thought around architecture variants or trained models, Transformers have no such familiar parallel. In this paper we aim to change that, proposing a computational model for the transformer-encoder in the form of a programming language. We map the basic components of a transformer-encoder -- attention and feed-forward computation -- into simple primitives, around which we form a programming language: the Restricted Access Sequence Processing Language (RASP). We show how RASP can be used to program solutions to tasks that could conceivably be learned by a Transformer, and how a Transformer can be trained to mimic a RASP solution. In particular, we provide RASP programs for histograms, sorting, and Dyck-languages. We further use our model to relate their difficulty in terms of the number of required layers and attention heads: analyzing a RASP program implies a maximum number of heads and layers necessary to encode a task in a transformer. Finally, we see how insights gained from our abstraction might be used to explain phenomena seen in recent works.
Gail Weiss, Yoav Goldberg, Eran Yahav
55
Python
6/23/2021 BoB: BERT Over BERT for Training Persona-based Dialogue Models from Limited Personalized Data
Maintaining consistent personas is essential for dialogue agents. Although tremendous advancements have been brought, the limited-scale of annotated persona-dense data are still barriers towards training robust and consistent persona-based dialogue models. In this work, we show how the challenges can be addressed by disentangling persona-based dialogue generation into two sub-tasks with a novel BERT-over-BERT (BoB) model. Specifically, the model consists of a BERT-based encoder and two BERT-based decoders, where one decoder is for response generation, and another is for consistency understanding. In particular, to learn the ability of consistency understanding from large-scale non-dialogue inference data, we train the second decoder in an unlikelihood manner. Under different limited data settings, both automatic and human evaluations demonstrate that the proposed model outperforms strong baselines in response quality and persona consistency.
Haoyu Song, Yan Wang, Kaiyan Zhang, Wei-Nan Zhang, Ting Liu
32
Python
6/23/2021 DocNLI: A Large-scale Dataset for Document-level Natural Language Inference
Natural language inference (NLI) is formulated as a unified framework for solving various NLP problems such as relation extraction, question answering, summarization, etc. It has been studied intensively in the past few years thanks to the availability of large-scale labeled datasets. However, most existing studies focus on merely sentence-level inference, which limits the scope of NLI's application in downstream NLP problems. This work presents DocNLI -- a newly-constructed large-scale dataset for document-level NLI. DocNLI is transformed from a broad range of NLP problems and covers multiple genres of text. The premises always stay in the document granularity, whereas the hypotheses vary in length from single sentences to passages with hundreds of words. Additionally, DocNLI has pretty limited artifacts which unfortunately widely exist in some popular sentence-level NLI datasets. Our experiments demonstrate that, even without fine-tuning, a model pretrained on DocNLI shows promising performance on popular sentence-level benchmarks, and generalizes well to out-of-domain NLP tasks that rely on inference at document granularity. Task-specific fine-tuning can bring further improvements. Data, code, and pretrained models can be found at this https URL.
Wenpeng Yin, Dragomir Radev, Caiming Xiong
19
Python
6/23/2021 CausalNLP: A Practical Toolkit for Causal Inference with Text
The vast majority of existing methods and systems for causal inference assume that all variables under consideration are categorical or numerical (e.g., gender, price, blood pressure, enrollment). In this paper, we present CausalNLP, a toolkit for inferring causality from observational data that includes text in addition to traditional numerical and categorical variables. CausalNLP employs the use of meta-learners for treatment effect estimation and supports using raw text and its linguistic properties as both a treatment and a "controlled-for" variable (e.g., confounder). The library is open-source and available at: this https URL.
Arun S. Maiya
17
Jupyter Notebook
6/23/2021 Scientific Language Models for Biomedical Knowledge Base Completion: An Empirical Study
Biomedical knowledge graphs (KGs) hold rich information on entities such as diseases, drugs, and genes. Predicting missing links in these graphs can boost many important applications, such as drug design and repurposing. Recent work has shown that general-domain language models (LMs) can serve as "soft" KGs, and that they can be fine-tuned for the task of KG completion. In this work, we study scientific LMs for KG completion, exploring whether we can tap into their latent knowledge to enhance biomedical link prediction. We evaluate several domain-specific LMs, fine-tuning them on datasets centered on drugs and diseases that we represent as KGs and enrich with textual entity descriptions. We integrate the LM-based models with KG embedding models, using a router method that learns to assign each input example to either type of model and provides a substantial boost in performance. Finally, we demonstrate the advantage of LM models in the inductive setting with novel scientific entities. Our datasets and code are made publicly available.
Rahul Nadkarni, David Wadden, Iz Beltagy, Noah A. Smith, Hannaneh Hajishirzi, Tom Hope
16
Python
6/23/2021 WAX-ML: A Python library for machine learning and feedback loops on streaming data
Wax is what you put on a surfboard to avoid slipping. It is an essential tool to go surfing... We introduce WAX-ML a research-oriented Python library providing tools to design powerful machine learning algorithms and feedback loops working on streaming data. It strives to complement JAX with tools dedicated to time series. WAX-ML makes JAX-based programs easy to use for end-users working with pandas and xarray for data manipulation. It provides a simple mechanism for implementing feedback loops, allows the implementation of online learning and reinforcement learning algorithms with functions, and makes them easy to integrate by end-users working with the object-oriented reinforcement learning framework from the Gym library. It is released with an Apache open-source license on GitHub at this https URL.
Emmanuel Serie
14
Python
6/23/2021 Text Generation with Efficient (Soft) Q-Learning
Han Guo, Bowen Tan, Zhengzhong Liu, Eric P. Xing, Zhiting Hu
14
Python
6/23/2021 Consistency Regularization for Cross-Lingual Fine-Tuning
Fine-tuning pre-trained cross-lingual language models can transfer task-specific supervision from one language to the others. In this work, we propose to improve cross-lingual fine-tuning with consistency regularization. Specifically, we use example consistency regularization to penalize the prediction sensitivity to four types of data augmentations, i.e., subword sampling, Gaussian noise, code-switch substitution, and machine translation. In addition, we employ model consistency to regularize the models trained with two augmented versions of the same training set. Experimental results on the XTREME benchmark show that our method significantly improves cross-lingual fine-tuning across various tasks, including text classification, question answering, and sequence labeling.
Bo Zheng, Li Dong, Shaohan Huang, Wenhui Wang, Zewen Chi, Saksham Singhal, Wanxiang Che, Ting Liu, Xia Song, Furu Wei
13
Python
6/23/2021 Memory-efficient Transformers via Top-$k$ Attention
Following the success of dot-product attention in Transformers, numerous approximations have been recently proposed to address its quadratic complexity with respect to the input length. While these variants are memory and compute efficient, it is not possible to directly use them with popular pre-trained language models trained using vanilla attention, without an expensive corrective pre-training stage. In this work, we propose a simple yet highly accurate approximation for vanilla attention. We process the queries in chunks, and for each query, compute the top-$k$ scores with respect to the keys. Our approach offers several advantages: (a) its memory usage is linear in the input size, similar to linear attention variants, such as Performer and RFA (b) it is a drop-in replacement for vanilla attention that does not require any corrective pre-training, and (c) it can also lead to significant memory savings in the feed-forward layers after casting them into the familiar query-key-value framework. We evaluate the quality of top-$k$ approximation for multi-head attention layers on the Long Range Arena Benchmark, and for feed-forward layers of T5 and UnifiedQA on multiple QA datasets. We show our approach leads to accuracy that is nearly-identical to vanilla attention in multiple setups including training from scratch, fine-tuning, and zero-shot inference.
Ankit Gupta, Guy Dar, Shaya Goodman, David Ciprut, Jonathan Berant
12
Python
6/23/2021 N-Best ASR Transformer: Enhancing SLU Performance using Multiple ASR Hypotheses
Spoken Language Understanding (SLU) systems parse speech into semantic structures like dialog acts and slots. This involves the use of an Automatic Speech Recognizer (ASR) to transcribe speech into multiple text alternatives (hypotheses). Transcription errors, common in ASRs, impact downstream SLU performance negatively. Approaches to mitigate such errors involve using richer information from the ASR, either in form of N-best hypotheses or word-lattices. We hypothesize that transformer models learn better with a simpler utterance representation using the concatenation of the N-best ASR alternatives, where each alternative is separated by a special delimiter [SEP]. In our work, we test our hypothesis by using concatenated N-best ASR alternatives as the input to transformer encoder models, namely BERT and XLM-RoBERTa, and achieve performance equivalent to the prior state-of-the-art model on DSTC2 dataset. We also show that our approach significantly outperforms the prior state-of-the-art when subjected to the low data regime. Additionally, this methodology is accessible to users of third-party ASR APIs which do not provide word-lattice information.
Karthik Ganesan, Pakhi Bamdev, Jaivarsan B, Amresh Venugopal, Abhinav Tushar
12
Python
6/23/2021 Improving Entity Linking through Semantic Reinforced Entity Embeddings
Entity embeddings, which represent different aspects of each entity with a single vector like word embeddings, are a key component of neural entity linking models. Existing entity embeddings are learned from canonical Wikipedia articles and local contexts surrounding target entities. Such entity embeddings are effective, but too distinctive for linking models to learn contextual commonality. We propose a simple yet effective method, FGS2EE, to inject fine-grained semantic information into entity embeddings to reduce the distinctiveness and facilitate the learning of contextual commonality. FGS2EE first uses the embeddings of semantic type words to generate semantic embeddings, and then combines them with existing entity embeddings through linear aggregation. Extensive experiments show the effectiveness of such embeddings. Based on our entity embeddings, we achieved new sate-of-the-art performance on entity linking.
Feng Hou, Ruili Wang, Jun He, Yi Zhou
8
Python
6/23/2021 Revisiting the Weaknesses of Reinforcement Learning for Neural Machine Translation
Policy gradient algorithms have found wide adoption in NLP, but have recently become subject to criticism, doubting their suitability for NMT. Choshen et al. (2020) identify multiple weaknesses and suspect that their success is determined by the shape of output distributions rather than the reward. In this paper, we revisit these claims and study them under a wider range of configurations. Our experiments on in-domain and cross-domain adaptation reveal the importance of exploration and reward scaling, and provide empirical counter-evidence to these claims.
Samuel Kiegeland, Julia Kreutzer
8
Python
6/23/2021 Improving Pretrained Cross-Lingual Language Models via Self-Labeled Word Alignment
The cross-lingual language models are typically pretrained with masked language modeling on multilingual text or parallel sentences. In this paper, we introduce denoising word alignment as a new cross-lingual pre-training task. Specifically, the model first self-labels word alignments for parallel sentences. Then we randomly mask tokens in a bitext pair. Given a masked token, the model uses a pointer network to predict the aligned token in the other language. We alternately perform the above two steps in an expectation-maximization manner. Experimental results show that our method improves cross-lingual transferability on various datasets, especially on the token-level tasks, such as question answering, and structured prediction. Moreover, the model can serve as a pretrained word aligner, which achieves reasonably low error rates on the alignment benchmarks. The code and pretrained parameters are available at this https URL.
Zewen Chi, Li Dong, Bo Zheng, Shaohan Huang, Xian-Ling Mao, Heyan Huang, Furu Wei
7
6/23/2021 Modeling Worlds in Text
We provide a dataset that enables the creation of learning agents that can build knowledge graph-based world models of interactive narratives. Interactive narratives -- or text-adventure games -- are partially observable environments structured as long puzzles or quests in which an agent perceives and interacts with the world purely through textual natural language. Each individual game typically contains hundreds of locations, characters, and objects -- each with their own unique descriptions -- providing an opportunity to study the problem of giving language-based agents the structured memory necessary to operate in such worlds. Our dataset provides 24198 mappings between rich natural language observations and: (1) knowledge graphs that reflect the world state in the form of a map; (2) natural language actions that are guaranteed to cause a change in that particular world state. The training data is collected across 27 games in multiple genres and contains a further 7836 heldout instances over 9 additional games in the test set. We further provide baseline models using rules-based, question-answering, and sequence learning approaches in addition to an analysis of the data and corresponding learning tasks.
Prithviraj Ammanabrolu, Mark O. Riedl
6
6/23/2021 Break-It-Fix-It: Unsupervised Learning for Program Repair
We consider repair tasks: given a critic (e.g., compiler) that assesses the quality of an input, the goal is to train a fixer that converts a bad example (e.g., code with syntax errors) into a good one (e.g., code with no errors). Existing works create training data consisting of (bad, good) pairs by corrupting good examples using heuristics (e.g., dropping tokens). However, fixers trained on this synthetically-generated data do not extrapolate well to the real distribution of bad inputs. To bridge this gap, we propose a new training approach, Break-It-Fix-It (BIFI), which has two key ideas: (i) we use the critic to check a fixer's output on real bad inputs and add good (fixed) outputs to the training data, and (ii) we train a breaker to generate realistic bad code from good code. Based on these ideas, we iteratively update the breaker and the fixer while using them in conjunction to generate more paired data. We evaluate BIFI on two code repair datasets: GitHub-Python, a new dataset we introduce where the goal is to repair Python code with AST parse errors; and DeepFix, where the goal is to repair C code with compiler errors. BIFI outperforms existing methods, obtaining 90.5% repair accuracy on GitHub-Python (+28.5%) and 71.7% on DeepFix (+5.6%). Notably, BIFI does not require any labeled data; we hope it will be a strong starting point for unsupervised learning of various repair tasks.
Michihiro Yasunaga, Percy Liang
6
Python
6/23/2021 Sequence-Level Training for Non-Autoregressive Neural Machine Translation
In recent years, Neural Machine Translation (NMT) has achieved notable results in various translation tasks. However, the word-by-word generation manner determined by the autoregressive mechanism leads to high translation latency of the NMT and restricts its low-latency applications. Non-Autoregressive Neural Machine Translation (NAT) removes the autoregressive mechanism and achieves significant decoding speedup through generating target words independently and simultaneously. Nevertheless, NAT still takes the word-level cross-entropy loss as the training objective, which is not optimal because the output of NAT cannot be properly evaluated due to the multimodality problem. In this paper, we propose using sequence-level training objectives to train NAT models, which evaluate the NAT outputs as a whole and correlates well with the real translation quality. Firstly, we propose training NAT models to optimize sequence-level evaluation metrics (e.g., BLEU) based on several novel reinforcement algorithms customized for NAT, which outperforms the conventional method by reducing the variance of gradient estimation. Secondly, we introduce a novel training objective for NAT models, which aims to minimize the Bag-of-Ngrams (BoN) difference between the model output and the reference sentence. The BoN training objective is differentiable and can be calculated efficiently without doing any approximations. Finally, we apply a three-stage training strategy to combine these two methods to train the NAT model. We validate our approach on four translation tasks (WMT14 En$\leftrightarrow$De, WMT16 En$\leftrightarrow$Ro), which shows that our approach largely outperforms NAT baselines and achieves remarkable performance on all translation tasks.
Chenze Shao, Yang Feng, Jinchao Zhang, Fandong Meng, Jie Zhou
5
Python
6/23/2021 CodemixedNLP: An Extensible and Open NLP Toolkit for Code-Mixing
The NLP community has witnessed steep progress in a variety of tasks across the realms of monolingual and multilingual language processing recently. These successes, in conjunction with the proliferating mixed language interactions on social media have boosted interest in modeling code-mixed texts. In this work, we present CodemixedNLP, an open-source library with the goals of bringing together the advances in code-mixed NLP and opening it up to a wider machine learning community. The library consists of tools to develop and benchmark versatile model architectures that are tailored for mixed texts, methods to expand training sets, techniques to quantify mixing styles, and fine-tuned state-of-the-art models for 7 tasks in Hinglish. We believe this work has a potential to foster a distributed yet collaborative and sustainable ecosystem in an otherwise dispersed space of code-mixing research. The toolkit is designed to be simple, easily extensible, and resourceful to both researchers as well as practitioners.
Sai Muralidhar Jayanthi, Kavya Nerella, Khyathi Raghavi Chandu, Alan W Black
5
Python
6/23/2021 SSMix: Saliency-Based Span Mixup for Text Classification
Data augmentation with mixup has shown to be effective on various computer vision tasks. Despite its great success, there has been a hurdle to apply mixup to NLP tasks since text consists of discrete tokens with variable length. In this work, we propose SSMix, a novel mixup method where the operation is performed on input text rather than on hidden vectors like previous approaches. SSMix synthesizes a sentence while preserving the locality of two original texts by span-based mixing and keeping more tokens related to the prediction relying on saliency information. With extensive experiments, we empirically validate that our method outperforms hidden-level mixup methods on a wide range of text classification benchmarks, including textual entailment, sentiment classification, and question-type classification. Our code is available at this https URL.
Soyoung Yoon, Gyuwan Kim, Kyumin Park
4
Python
6/23/2021 Modeling Hierarchical Structures with Continuous Recursive Neural Networks
Recursive Neural Networks (RvNNs), which compose sequences according to their underlying hierarchical syntactic structure, have performed well in several natural language processing tasks compared to similar models without structural biases. However, traditional RvNNs are incapable of inducing the latent structure in a plain text sequence on their own. Several extensions have been proposed to overcome this limitation. Nevertheless, these extensions tend to rely on surrogate gradients or reinforcement learning at the cost of higher bias or variance. In this work, we propose Continuous Recursive Neural Network (CRvNN) as a backpropagation-friendly alternative to address the aforementioned limitations. This is done by incorporating a continuous relaxation to the induced structure. We demonstrate that CRvNN achieves strong performance in challenging synthetic tasks such as logical inference and ListOps. We also show that CRvNN performs comparably or better than prior latent structure models on real-world tasks such as sentiment analysis and natural language inference.
Jishnu Ray Chowdhury, Cornelia Caragea
4
Python
6/23/2021 PRASEMap: A Probabilistic Reasoning and Semantic Embedding based Knowledge Graph Alignment System
Knowledge Graph (KG) alignment aims at finding equivalent entities and relations (i.e., mappings) between two KGs. The existing approaches utilize either reasoning-based or semantic embedding-based techniques, but few studies explore their combination. In this demonstration, we present PRASEMap, an unsupervised KG alignment system that iteratively computes the Mappings with both Probabilistic Reasoning (PR) And Semantic Embedding (SE) techniques. PRASEMap can support various embedding-based KG alignment approaches as the SE module, and enables easy human computer interaction that additionally provides an option for users to feed the mapping annotations back to the system for better results. The demonstration showcases these features via a stand-alone Web application with user friendly interfaces.
Zhiyuan Qi, Ziheng Zhang, Jiaoyan Chen, Xi Chen, Yefeng Zheng
4
Python
6/23/2021 Neural Combinatory Constituency Parsing
We propose two fast neural combinatory models for constituency parsing: binary and multi-branching. Our models decompose the bottom-up parsing process into 1) classification of tags, labels, and binary orientations or chunks and 2) vector composition based on the computed orientations or chunks. These models have theoretical sub-quadratic complexity and empirical linear complexity. The binary model achieves an F1 score of 92.54 on Penn Treebank, speeding at 1327.2 sents/sec. Both the models with XLNet provide near state-of-the-art accuracies for English. Syntactic branching tendency and headedness of a language are observed during the training and inference processes for Penn Treebank, Chinese Treebank, and Keyaki Treebank (Japanese).
Zhousi Chen, Longtu Zhang, Aizhan Imankulova, Mamoru Komachi
4
Python
6/23/2021 ARTA: Collection and Classification of Ambiguous Requests and Thoughtful Actions
Human-assisting systems such as dialogue systems must take thoughtful, appropriate actions not only for clear and unambiguous user requests, but also for ambiguous user requests, even if the users themselves are not aware of their potential requirements. To construct such a dialogue agent, we collected a corpus and developed a model that classifies ambiguous user requests into corresponding system actions. In order to collect a high-quality corpus, we asked workers to input antecedent user requests whose pre-defined actions could be regarded as thoughtful. Although multiple actions could be identified as thoughtful for a single user request, annotating all combinations of user requests and system actions is impractical. For this reason, we fully annotated only the test data and left the annotation of the training data incomplete. In order to train the classification model on such training data, we applied the positive/unlabeled (PU) learning method, which assumes that only a part of the data is labeled with positive examples. The experimental results show that the PU learning method achieved better performance than the general positive/negative (PN) learning method to classify thoughtful actions given an ambiguous user request.
Shohei Tanaka, Koichiro Yoshino, Katsuhito Sudoh, Satoshi Nakamura
3
Python
6/23/2021 Knowledgeable or Educated Guess? Revisiting Language Models as Knowledge Bases
Previous literatures show that pre-trained masked language models (MLMs) such as BERT can achieve competitive factual knowledge extraction performance on some datasets, indicating that MLMs can potentially be a reliable knowledge source. In this paper, we conduct a rigorous study to explore the underlying predicting mechanisms of MLMs over different extraction paradigms. By investigating the behaviors of MLMs, we find that previous decent performance mainly owes to the biased prompts which overfit dataset artifacts. Furthermore, incorporating illustrative cases and external contexts improve knowledge prediction mainly due to entity type guidance and golden answer leakage. Our findings shed light on the underlying predicting mechanisms of MLMs, and strongly question the previous conclusion that current MLMs can potentially serve as reliable factual knowledge bases.
Boxi Cao, Hongyu Lin, Xianpei Han, Le Sun, Lingyong Yan, Meng Liao, Tong Xue, Jin Xu
3
Python
6/23/2021 Semantic sentence similarity: size does not always matter
This study addresses the question whether visually grounded speech recognition (VGS) models learn to capture sentence semantics without access to any prior linguistic knowledge. We produce synthetic and natural spoken versions of a well known semantic textual similarity database and show that our VGS model produces embeddings that correlate well with human semantic similarity judgements. Our results show that a model trained on a small image-caption database outperforms two models trained on much larger databases, indicating that database size is not all that matters. We also investigate the importance of having multiple captions per image and find that this is indeed helpful even if the total number of images is lower, suggesting that paraphrasing is a valuable learning signal. While the general trend in the field is to create ever larger datasets to train models on, our findings indicate other characteristics of the database can just as important important.
Danny Merkx, Stefan L. Frank, Mirjam Ernestus
3
Python
6/23/2021 Scaling Deep Contrastive Learning Batch Size under Memory Limited Setup
Contrastive learning has been applied successfully to learn vector representations of text. Previous research demonstrated that learning high-quality representations benefits from batch-wise contrastive loss with a large number of negatives. In practice, the technique of in-batch negative is used, where for each example in a batch, other batch examples' positives will be taken as its negatives, avoiding encoding extra negatives. This, however, still conditions each example's loss on all batch examples and requires fitting the entire large batch into GPU memory. This paper introduces a gradient caching technique that decouples backpropagation between contrastive loss and the encoder, removing encoder backward pass data dependency along the batch dimension. As a result, gradients can be computed for one subset of the batch at a time, leading to almost constant memory usage.
Luyu Gao, Yunyi Zhang, Jiawei Han, Jamie Callan
3
Python
6/23/2021 A Self-supervised Method for Entity Alignment
Entity alignment, aiming to identify equivalent entities across different knowledge graphs (KGs), is a fundamental problem for constructing large-scale KGs. Over the course of its development, supervision has been considered necessary for accurate alignments. Inspired by the recent progress of self-supervised learning, we explore the extent to which we can get rid of supervision for entity alignment. Existing supervised methods for this task focus on pulling each pair of positive (labeled) entities close to each other. However, our analysis suggests that the learning of entity alignment can actually benefit more from pushing sampled (unlabeled) negatives far away than pulling positive aligned pairs close. We present SelfKG by leveraging this discovery to design a contrastive learning strategy across two KGs. Extensive experiments on benchmark datasets demonstrate that SelfKG without supervision can match or achieve comparable results with state-of-the-art supervised baselines. The performance of SelfKG demonstrates self-supervised learning offers great potential for entity alignment in KGs.
Xiao Liu, Haoyun Hong, Xinghao Wang, Zeyi Chen, Evgeny Kharlamov, Yuxiao Dong, Jie Tang
3
Python
6/23/2021 Biomedical Entity Linking with Contrastive Context Matching
We introduce BioCoM, a contrastive learning framework for biomedical entity linking that uses only two resources: a small-sized dictionary and a large number of raw biomedical articles. Specifically, we build the training instances from raw PubMed articles by dictionary matching and use them to train a context-aware entity linking model with contrastive learning. We predict the normalized biomedical entity at inference time through a nearest-neighbor search. Results found that BioCoM substantially outperforms state-of-the-art models, especially in low-resource settings, by effectively using the context of the entities.
Shogo Ujiie, Hayate Iso, Eiji Aramaki
3
Python
6/23/2021 Probabilistic, Structure-Aware Algorithms for Improved Variety, Accuracy, and Coverage of AMR Alignments
We present algorithms for aligning components of Abstract Meaning Representation (AMR) graphs to spans in English sentences. We leverage unsupervised learning in combination with heuristics, taking the best of both worlds from previous AMR aligners. Our unsupervised models, however, are more sensitive to graph substructures, without requiring a separate syntactic parse. Our approach covers a wider variety of AMR substructures than previously considered, achieves higher coverage of nodes and edges, and does so with higher accuracy. We will release our LEAMR datasets and aligner for use in research on AMR parsing, generation, and evaluation.
Austin Blodgett, Nathan Schneider
2
Python
6/23/2021 Text2Event: Controllable Sequence-to-Structure Generation for End-to-end Event Extraction
Event extraction is challenging due to the complex structure of event records and the semantic gap between text and event. Traditional methods usually extract event records by decomposing the complex structure prediction task into multiple subtasks. In this paper, we propose Text2Event, a sequence-to-structure generation paradigm that can directly extract events from the text in an end-to-end manner. Specifically, we design a sequence-to-structure network for unified event extraction, a constrained decoding algorithm for event knowledge injection during inference, and a curriculum learning algorithm for efficient model learning. Experimental results show that, by uniformly modeling all tasks in a single model and universally predicting different labels, our method can achieve competitive performance using only record-level annotations in both supervised learning and transfer learning settings.
Yaojie Lu, Hongyu Lin, Jin Xu, Xianpei Han, Jialong Tang, Annan Li, Le Sun, Meng Liao, Shaoyi Chen
2
Python
6/23/2021 Causal Analysis of Syntactic Agreement Mechanisms in Neural Language Models
Targeted syntactic evaluations have demonstrated the ability of language models to perform subject-verb agreement given difficult contexts. To elucidate the mechanisms by which the models accomplish this behavior, this study applies causal mediation analysis to pre-trained neural language models. We investigate the magnitude of models' preferences for grammatical inflections, as well as whether neurons process subject-verb agreement similarly across sentences with different syntactic structures. We uncover similarities and differences across architectures and model sizes -- notably, that larger models do not necessarily learn stronger preferences. We also observe two distinct mechanisms for producing subject-verb agreement depending on the syntactic structure of the input sentence. Finally, we find that language models rely on similar sets of neurons when given sentences with similar syntactic structure.
Matthew Finlayson, Aaron Mueller, Stuart Shieber, Sebastian Gehrmann, Tal Linzen, Yonatan Belinkov
2
Jupyter Notebook
6/23/2021 Sample-efficient Linguistic Generalizations through Program Synthesis: Experiments with Phonology Problems
Neural models excel at extracting statistical patterns from large amounts of data, but struggle to learn patterns or reason about language from only a few examples. In this paper, we ask: Can we learn explicit rules that generalize well from only a few examples? We explore this question using program synthesis. We develop a synthesis model to learn phonology rules as programs in a domain-specific language. We test the ability of our models to generalize from few training examples using our new dataset of problems from the Linguistics Olympiad, a challenging set of tasks that require strong linguistic reasoning ability. In addition to being highly sample-efficient, our approach generates human-readable programs, and allows control over the generalizability of the learnt programs.
Saujas Vaduguru, Aalok Sathe, Monojit Choudhury, Dipti Misra Sharma
2
Python
6/23/2021 Straight to the Gradient: Learning to Use Novel Tokens for Neural Text Generation
Advanced large-scale neural language models have led to significant success in many language generation tasks. However, the most commonly used training objective, Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE), has been shown problematic, where the trained model prefers using dull and repetitive phrases. In this work, we introduce ScaleGrad, a modification straight to the gradient of the loss function, to remedy the degeneration issue of the standard MLE objective. By directly maneuvering the gradient information, ScaleGrad makes the model learn to use novel tokens. Empirical results show the effectiveness of our method not only in open-ended generation, but also in directed generation tasks. With the simplicity in architecture, our method can serve as a general training objective that is applicable to most of the neural text generation tasks.
Xiang Lin, Simeng Han, Shafiq Joty
2
6/23/2021 GenSF: Simultaneous Adaptation of Generative Pre-trained Models and Slot Filling
Shikib Mehri, Maxine Eskenazi
2
Python
6/23/2021 Incorporating External POS Tagger for Punctuation Restoration
Punctuation restoration is an important post-processing step in automatic speech recognition. Among other kinds of external information, part-of-speech (POS) taggers provide informative tags, suggesting each input token's syntactic role, which has been shown to be beneficial for the punctuation restoration task. In this work, we incorporate an external POS tagger and fuse its predicted labels into the existing language model to provide syntactic information. Besides, we propose sequence boundary sampling (SBS) to learn punctuation positions more efficiently as a sequence tagging task. Experimental results show that our methods can consistently obtain performance gains and achieve a new state-of-the-art on the common IWSLT benchmark. Further ablation studies illustrate that both large pre-trained language models and the external POS tagger take essential parts to improve the model's performance.
Ning Shi, Wei Wang, Boxin Wang, Jinfeng Li, Xiangyu Liu, Zhouhan Lin
2
Python
6/23/2021 From Discourse to Narrative: Knowledge Projection for Event Relation Extraction
Current event-centric knowledge graphs highly rely on explicit connectives to mine relations between events. Unfortunately, due to the sparsity of connectives, these methods severely undermine the coverage of EventKGs. The lack of high-quality labelled corpora further exacerbates that problem. In this paper, we propose a knowledge projection paradigm for event relation extraction: projecting discourse knowledge to narratives by exploiting the commonalities between them. Specifically, we propose Multi-tier Knowledge Projection Network (MKPNet), which can leverage multi-tier discourse knowledge effectively for event relation extraction. In this way, the labelled data requirement is significantly reduced, and implicit event relations can be effectively extracted. Intrinsic experimental results show that MKPNet achieves the new state-of-the-art performance, and extrinsic experimental results verify the value of the extracted event relations.
Jialong Tang, Hongyu Lin, Meng Liao, Yaojie Lu, Xianpei Han, Le Sun, Weijian Xie, Jin Xu
2
Python
6/23/2021 Turn the Combination Lock: Learnable Textual Backdoor Attacks via Word Substitution
Recent studies show that neural natural language processing (NLP) models are vulnerable to backdoor attacks. Injected with backdoors, models perform normally on benign examples but produce attacker-specified predictions when the backdoor is activated, presenting serious security threats to real-world applications. Since existing textual backdoor attacks pay little attention to the invisibility of backdoors, they can be easily detected and blocked. In this work, we present invisible backdoors that are activated by a learnable combination of word substitution. We show that NLP models can be injected with backdoors that lead to a nearly 100% attack success rate, whereas being highly invisible to existing defense strategies and even human inspections. The results raise a serious alarm to the security of NLP models, which requires further research to be resolved. All the data and code of this paper are released at this https URL.
Fanchao Qi, Yuan Yao, Sophia Xu, Zhiyuan Liu, Maosong Sun
2
Python
6/23/2021 How Should Agents Ask Questions For Situated Learning? An Annotated Dialogue Corpus
Intelligent agents that are confronted with novel concepts in situated environments will need to ask their human teammates questions to learn about the physical world. To better understand this problem, we need data about asking questions in situated task-based interactions. To this end, we present the Human-Robot Dialogue Learning (HuRDL) Corpus - a novel dialogue corpus collected in an online interactive virtual environment in which human participants play the role of a robot performing a collaborative tool-organization task. We describe the corpus data and a corresponding annotation scheme to offer insight into the form and content of questions that humans ask to facilitate learning in a situated environment. We provide the corpus as an empirically-grounded resource for improving question generation in situated intelligent agents.
Felix Gervits, Antonio Roque, Gordon Briggs, Matthias Scheutz, Matthew Marge
2
6/23/2021 Mitigating Biases in Toxic Language Detection through Invariant Rationalization
Automatic detection of toxic language plays an essential role in protecting social media users, especially minority groups, from verbal abuse. However, biases toward some attributes, including gender, race, and dialect, exist in most training datasets for toxicity detection. The biases make the learned models unfair and can even exacerbate the marginalization of people. Considering that current debiasing methods for general natural language understanding tasks cannot effectively mitigate the biases in the toxicity detectors, we propose to use invariant rationalization (InvRat), a game-theoretic framework consisting of a rationale generator and a predictor, to rule out the spurious correlation of certain syntactic patterns (e.g., identity mentions, dialect) to toxicity labels. We empirically show that our method yields lower false positive rate in both lexical and dialectal attributes than previous debiasing methods.
Yung-Sung Chuang, Mingye Gao, Hongyin Luo, James Glass, Hung-yi Lee, Yun-Nung Chen, Shang-Wen Li
2
Python
6/23/2021 DravidianCodeMix: Sentiment Analysis and Offensive Language Identification Dataset for Dravidian Languages in Code-Mixed Text
This paper describes the development of a multilingual, manually annotated dataset for three under-resourced Dravidian languages generated from social media comments. The dataset was annotated for sentiment analysis and offensive language identification for a total of more than 60,000 YouTube comments. The dataset consists of around 44,000 comments in Tamil-English, around 7,000 comments in Kannada-English, and around 20,000 comments in Malayalam-English. The data was manually annotated by volunteer annotators and has a high inter-annotator agreement in Krippendorff's alpha. The dataset contains all types of code-mixing phenomena since it comprises user-generated content from a multilingual country. We also present baseline experiments to establish benchmarks on the dataset using machine learning methods. The dataset is available on Github (this https URL) and Zenodo (this https URL\#.YJtw0SYo\_0M).
Bharathi Raja Chakravarthi, Ruba Priyadharshini, Vigneshwaran Muralidaran, Navya Jose, Shardul Suryawanshi, Elizabeth Sherly, John P. McCrae
1
Jupyter Notebook
6/23/2021 Probing Pre-Trained Language Models for Disease Knowledge
Pre-trained language models such as ClinicalBERT have achieved impressive results on tasks such as medical Natural Language Inference. At first glance, this may suggest that these models are able to perform medical reasoning tasks, such as mapping symptoms to diseases. However, we find that standard benchmarks such as MedNLI contain relatively few examples that require such forms of reasoning. To better understand the medical reasoning capabilities of existing language models, in this paper we introduce DisKnE, a new benchmark for Disease Knowledge Evaluation. To construct this benchmark, we annotated each positive MedNLI example with the types of medical reasoning that are needed. We then created negative examples by corrupting these positive examples in an adversarial way. Furthermore, we define training-test splits per disease, ensuring that no knowledge about test diseases can be learned from the training data, and we canonicalize the formulation of the hypotheses to avoid the presence of artefacts. This leads to a number of binary classification problems, one for each type of reasoning and each disease. When analysing pre-trained models for the clinical/biomedical domain on the proposed benchmark, we find that their performance drops considerably.
Israa Alghanmi, Luis Espinosa-Anke, Steven Schockaert
1
Python
6/23/2021 Element Intervention for Open Relation Extraction
Open relation extraction aims to cluster relation instances referring to the same underlying relation, which is a critical step for general relation extraction. Current OpenRE models are commonly trained on the datasets generated from distant supervision, which often results in instability and makes the model easily collapsed. In this paper, we revisit the procedure of OpenRE from a causal view. By formulating OpenRE using a structural causal model, we identify that the above-mentioned problems stem from the spurious correlations from entities and context to the relation type. To address this issue, we conduct \emph{Element Intervention}, which intervenes on the context and entities respectively to obtain the underlying causal effects of them. We also provide two specific implementations of the interventions based on entity ranking and context contrasting. Experimental results on unsupervised relation extraction datasets show that our methods outperform previous state-of-the-art methods and are robust across different datasets.
Fangchao Liu, Lingyong Yan, Hongyu Lin, Xianpei Han, Le Sun
1
Python
6/23/2021 Direction is what you need: Improving Word Embedding Compression in Large Language Models
The adoption of Transformer-based models in natural language processing (NLP) has led to great success using a massive number of parameters. However, due to deployment constraints in edge devices, there has been a rising interest in the compression of these models to improve their inference time and memory footprint. This paper presents a novel loss objective to compress token embeddings in the Transformer-based models by leveraging an AutoEncoder architecture. More specifically, we emphasize the importance of the direction of compressed embeddings with respect to original uncompressed embeddings. The proposed method is task-agnostic and does not require further language modeling pre-training. Our method significantly outperforms the commonly used SVD-based matrix-factorization approach in terms of initial language model Perplexity. Moreover, we evaluate our proposed approach over SQuAD v1.1 dataset and several downstream tasks from the GLUE benchmark, where we also outperform the baseline in most scenarios. Our code is public.
Klaudia Balazy, Mohammadreza Banaei, Remi Lebret, Jacek Tabor, Karl Aberer
1
Python
6/23/2021 Cascaded Span Extraction and Response Generation for Document-Grounded Dialog
This paper summarizes our entries to both subtasks of the first DialDoc shared task which focuses on the agent response prediction task in goal-oriented document-grounded dialogs. The task is split into two subtasks: predicting a span in a document that grounds an agent turn and generating an agent response based on a dialog and grounding document. In the first subtask, we restrict the set of valid spans to the ones defined in the dataset, use a biaffine classifier to model spans, and finally use an ensemble of different models. For the second subtask, we use a cascaded model which grounds the response prediction on the predicted span instead of the full document. With these approaches, we obtain significant improvements in both subtasks compared to the baseline.
Nico Daheim, David Thulke, Christian Dugast, Hermann Ney
1
6/23/2021 MathBERT: A Pre-trained Language Model for General NLP Tasks in Mathematics Education
Due to the transfer learning nature of BERT model, researchers have achieved better performance than base BERT by further pre-training the original BERT on a huge domain-specific corpus. Due to the special nature of mathematical texts which often contain math equations and symbols, the original BERT model pre-trained on general English context will not fit Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks in mathematical education well. Therefore, we propose MathBERT, a BERT pre-trained on large mathematical corpus including pre-k to graduate level mathematical content to tackle math-specific tasks. In addition, We generate a customized mathematical vocabulary to pre-train with MathBERT and compare the performance to the MathBERT pre-trained with the original BERT vocabulary. We select three important tasks in mathematical education such as knowledge component, auto-grading, and knowledge tracing prediction to evaluate the performance of MathBERT. Our experiments show that MathBERT outperforms the base BERT by 2-9\% margin. In some cases, MathBERT pre-trained with mathematical vocabulary is better than MathBERT trained with original this http URL our best knowledge, MathBERT is the first pre-trained model for general purpose mathematics education tasks.
Jia Tracy Shen, Michiharu Yamashita, Ethan Prihar, Neil Heffernan, Xintao Wu, Dongwon Lee
1
Python
6/23/2021 Modeling Profanity and Hate Speech in Social Media with Semantic Subspaces
Hate speech and profanity detection suffer from data sparsity, especially for languages other than English, due to the subjective nature of the tasks and the resulting annotation incompatibility of existing corpora. In this study, we identify profane subspaces in word and sentence representations and explore their generalization capability on a variety of similar and distant target tasks in a zero-shot setting. This is done monolingually (German) and cross-lingually to closely-related (English), distantly-related (French) and non-related (Arabic) tasks. We observe that, on both similar and distant target tasks and across all languages, the subspace-based representations transfer more effectively than standard BERT representations in the zero-shot setting, with improvements between F1 +10.9 and F1 +42.9 over the baselines across all tested monolingual and cross-lingual scenarios.
Vanessa Hahn, Dana Ruiter, Thomas Kleinbauer, Dietrich Klakow
1
Python
6/23/2021 X-FACT: A New Benchmark Dataset for Multilingual Fact Checking
In this work, we introduce X-FACT: the largest publicly available multilingual dataset for factual verification of naturally existing real-world claims. The dataset contains short statements in 25 languages and is labeled for veracity by expert fact-checkers. The dataset includes a multilingual evaluation benchmark that measures both out-of-domain generalization, and zero-shot capabilities of the multilingual models. Using state-of-the-art multilingual transformer-based models, we develop several automated fact-checking models that, along with textual claims, make use of additional metadata and evidence from news stories retrieved using a search engine. Empirically, our best model attains an F-score of around 40%, suggesting that our dataset is a challenging benchmark for evaluation of multilingual fact-checking models.
Ashim Gupta, Vivek Srikumar
1
Python
6/23/2021 Deriving Word Vectors from Contextualized Language Models using Topic-Aware Mention Selection
One of the long-standing challenges in lexical semantics consists in learning representations of words which reflect their semantic properties. The remarkable success of word embeddings for this purpose suggests that high-quality representations can be obtained by summarizing the sentence contexts of word mentions. In this paper, we propose a method for learning word representations that follows this basic strategy, but differs from standard word embeddings in two important ways. First, we take advantage of contextualized language models (CLMs) rather than bags of word vectors to encode contexts. Second, rather than learning a word vector directly, we use a topic model to partition the contexts in which words appear, and then learn different topic-specific vectors for each word. Finally, we use a task-specific supervision signal to make a soft selection of the resulting vectors. We show that this simple strategy leads to high-quality word vectors, which are more predictive of semantic properties than word embeddings and existing CLM-based strategies.
Yixiao Wang, Zied Bouraoui, Luis Espinosa Anke, Steven Schockaert
0
Python
6/23/2021 Biomedical Interpretable Entity Representations
Pre-trained language models induce dense entity representations that offer strong performance on entity-centric NLP tasks, but such representations are not immediately interpretable. This can be a barrier to model uptake in important domains such as biomedicine. There has been recent work on general interpretable representation learning (Onoe and Durrett, 2020), but these domain-agnostic representations do not readily transfer to the important domain of biomedicine. In this paper, we create a new entity type system and training set from a large corpus of biomedical texts by mapping entities to concepts in a medical ontology, and from these to Wikipedia pages whose categories are our types. From this mapping we derive Biomedical Interpretable Entity Representations(BIERs), in which dimensions correspond to fine-grained entity types, and values are predicted probabilities that a given entity is of the corresponding type. We propose a novel method that exploits BIER's final sparse and intermediate dense representations to facilitate model and entity type debugging. We show that BIERs achieve strong performance in biomedical tasks including named entity disambiguation and entity label classification, and we provide error analysis to highlight the utility of their interpretability, particularly in low-supervision settings. Finally, we provide our induced 68K biomedical type system, the corresponding 37 million triples of derived data used to train BIER models and our best performing model.
Diego Garcia-Olano, Yasumasa Onoe, Ioana Baldini, Joydeep Ghosh, Byron C. Wallace, Kush R. Varshney
0
6/23/2021 Unsupervised Abstractive Opinion Summarization by Generating Sentences with Tree-Structured Topic Guidance
This paper presents a novel unsupervised abstractive summarization method for opinionated texts. While the basic variational autoencoder-based models assume a unimodal Gaussian prior for the latent code of sentences, we alternate it with a recursive Gaussian mixture, where each mixture component corresponds to the latent code of a topic sentence and is mixed by a tree-structured topic distribution. By decoding each Gaussian component, we generate sentences with tree-structured topic guidance, where the root sentence conveys generic content, and the leaf sentences describe specific topics. Experimental results demonstrate that the generated topic sentences are appropriate as a summary of opinionated texts, which are more informative and cover more input contents than those generated by the recent unsupervised summarization model (BraÃÂÃÂinskas et al., 2020). Furthermore, we demonstrate that the variance of latent Gaussians represents the granularity of sentences, analogous to Gaussian word embedding (Vilnis and McCallum, 2015).
Masaru Isonuma, Junichiro Mori, Danushka Bollegala, Ichiro Sakata
0
Python
6/23/2021 The Possible, the Plausible, and the Desirable: Event-Based Modality Detection for Language Processing
Modality is the linguistic ability to describe events with added information such as how desirable, plausible, or feasible they are. Modality is important for many NLP downstream tasks such as the detection of hedging, uncertainty, speculation, and more. Previous studies that address modality detection in NLP often restrict modal expressions to a closed syntactic class, and the modal sense labels are vastly different across different studies, lacking an accepted standard. Furthermore, these senses are often analyzed independently of the events that they modify. This work builds on the theoretical foundations of the Georgetown Gradable Modal Expressions (GME) work by Rubinstein et al. (2013) to propose an event-based modality detection task where modal expressions can be words of any syntactic class and sense labels are drawn from a comprehensive taxonomy which harmonizes the modal concepts contributed by the different studies. We present experiments on the GME corpus aiming to detect and classify fine-grained modal concepts and associate them with their modified events. We show that detecting and classifying modal expressions is not only feasible, but also improves the detection of modal events in their own right.
Valentina Pyatkin, Shoval Sadde, Aynat Rubinstein, Paul Portner, Reut Tsarfaty
0
Jupyter Notebook
6/23/2021 RyanSpeech: A Corpus for Conversational Text-to-Speech Synthesis
This paper introduces RyanSpeech, a new speech corpus for research on automated text-to-speech (TTS) systems. Publicly available TTS corpora are often noisy, recorded with multiple speakers, or lack quality male speech data. In order to meet the need for a high quality, publicly available male speech corpus within the field of speech recognition, we have designed and created RyanSpeech which contains textual materials from real-world conversational settings. These materials contain over 10 hours of a professional male voice actor's speech recorded at 44.1 kHz. This corpus's design and pipeline make RyanSpeech ideal for developing TTS systems in real-world applications. To provide a baseline for future research, protocols, and benchmarks, we trained 4 state-of-the-art speech models and a vocoder on RyanSpeech. The results show 3.36 in mean opinion scores (MOS) in our best model. We have made both the corpus and trained models for public use.
0
Python
6/23/2021 Code to Comment Translation: A Comparative Study on Model Effectiveness & Errors
Automated source code summarization is a popular software engineering research topic wherein machine translation models are employed to "translate" code snippets into relevant natural language descriptions. Most evaluations of such models are conducted using automatic reference-based metrics. However, given the relatively large semantic gap between programming languages and natural language, we argue that this line of research would benefit from a qualitative investigation into the various error modes of current state-of-the-art models. Therefore, in this work, we perform both a quantitative and qualitative comparison of three recently proposed source code summarization models. In our quantitative evaluation, we compare the models based on the smoothed BLEU-4, METEOR, and ROUGE-L machine translation metrics, and in our qualitative evaluation, we perform a manual open-coding of the most common errors committed by the models when compared to ground truth captions. Our investigation reveals new insights into the relationship between metric-based performance and model prediction errors grounded in an empirically derived error taxonomy that can be used to drive future research efforts
Junayed Mahmud, Fahim Faisal, Raihan Islam Arnob, Antonios Anastasopoulos, Kevin Moran
0
Python
6/23/2021 Schema-Guided Paradigm for Zero-Shot Dialog
Developing mechanisms that flexibly adapt dialog systems to unseen tasks and domains is a major challenge in dialog research. Neural models implicitly memorize task-specific dialog policies from the training data. We posit that this implicit memorization has precluded zero-shot transfer learning. To this end, we leverage the schema-guided paradigm, wherein the task-specific dialog policy is explicitly provided to the model. We introduce the Schema Attention Model (SAM) and improved schema representations for the STAR corpus. SAM obtains significant improvement in zero-shot settings, with a +22 F1 score improvement over prior work. These results validate the feasibility of zero-shot generalizability in dialog. Ablation experiments are also presented to demonstrate the efficacy of SAM.
Shikib Mehri, Maxine Eskenazi
0
Python
6/23/2021 Discrete Auto-regressive Variational Attention Models for Text Modeling
Variational autoencoders (VAEs) have been widely applied for text modeling. In practice, however, they are troubled by two challenges: information underrepresentation and posterior collapse. The former arises as only the last hidden state of LSTM encoder is transformed into the latent space, which is generally insufficient to summarize the data. The latter is a long-standing problem during the training of VAEs as the optimization is trapped to a disastrous local optimum. In this paper, we propose Discrete Auto-regressive Variational Attention Model (DAVAM) to address the challenges. Specifically, we introduce an auto-regressive variational attention approach to enrich the latent space by effectively capturing the semantic dependency from the input. We further design discrete latent space for the variational attention and mathematically show that our model is free from posterior collapse. Extensive experiments on language modeling tasks demonstrate the superiority of DAVAM against several VAE counterparts.
Xianghong Fang, Haoli Bai, Jian Li, Zenglin Xu, Michael Lyu, Irwin King
0
Python
6/23/2021 Assessing the Use of Prosody in Constituency Parsing of Imperfect Transcripts
This work explores constituency parsing on automatically recognized transcripts of conversational speech. The neural parser is based on a sentence encoder that leverages word vectors contextualized with prosodic features, jointly learning prosodic feature extraction with parsing. We assess the utility of the prosody in parsing on imperfect transcripts, i.e. transcripts with automatic speech recognition (ASR) errors, by applying the parser in an N-best reranking framework. In experiments on Switchboard, we obtain 13-15% of the oracle N-best gain relative to parsing the 1-best ASR output, with insignificant impact on word recognition error rate. Prosody provides a significant part of the gain, and analyses suggest that it leads to more grammatical utterances via recovering function words.
Trang Tran, Mari Ostendorf
0
Shell
6/23/2021 Do Acoustic Word Embeddings Capture Phonological Similarity? An Empirical Study
Several variants of deep neural networks have been successfully employed for building parametric models that project variable-duration spoken word segments onto fixed-size vector representations, or acoustic word embeddings (AWEs). However, it remains unclear to what degree we can rely on the distance in the emerging AWE space as an estimate of word-form similarity. In this paper, we ask: does the distance in the acoustic embedding space correlate with phonological dissimilarity? To answer this question, we empirically investigate the performance of supervised approaches for AWEs with different neural architectures and learning objectives. We train AWE models in controlled settings for two languages (German and Czech) and evaluate the embeddings on two tasks: word discrimination and phonological similarity. Our experiments show that (1) the distance in the embedding space in the best cases only moderately correlates with phonological distance, and (2) improving the performance on the word discrimination task does not necessarily yield models that better reflect word phonological similarity. Our findings highlight the necessity to rethink the current intrinsic evaluations for AWEs.
Badr M. Abdullah, Marius Mosbach, Iuliia Zaitova, Bernd Mobius, Dietrich Klakow
0
Python
6/23/2021 Posthoc Verification and the Fallibility of the Ground Truth
Classifiers commonly make use of pre-annotated datasets, wherein a model is evaluated by pre-defined metrics on a held-out test set typically made of human-annotated labels. Metrics used in these evaluations are tied to the availability of well-defined ground truth labels, and these metrics typically do not allow for inexact matches. These noisy ground truth labels and strict evaluation metrics may compromise the validity and realism of evaluation results. In the present work, we discuss these concerns and conduct a systematic posthoc verification experiment on the entity linking (EL) task. Unlike traditional methodologies, which asks annotators to provide free-form annotations, we ask annotators to verify the correctness of annotations after the fact (i.e., posthoc). Compared to pre-annotation evaluation, state-of-the-art EL models performed extremely well according to the posthoc evaluation methodology. Posthoc validation also permits the validation of the ground truth dataset. Surprisingly, we find predictions from EL models had a similar or higher verification rate than the ground truth. We conclude with a discussion on these findings and recommendations for future evaluations.
Yifan Ding, Nicholas Botzer, Tim Weninger
0
Python
6/23/2021 Denoising Distantly Supervised Named Entity Recognition via a Hypergeometric Probabilistic Model
Denoising is the essential step for distant supervision based named entity recognition. Previous denoising methods are mostly based on instance-level confidence statistics, which ignore the variety of the underlying noise distribution on different datasets and entity types. This makes them difficult to be adapted to high noise rate settings. In this paper, we propose Hypergeometric Learning (HGL), a denoising algorithm for distantly supervised NER that takes both noise distribution and instance-level confidence into consideration. Specifically, during neural network training, we naturally model the noise samples in each batch following a hypergeometric distribution parameterized by the noise-rate. Then each instance in the batch is regarded as either correct or noisy one according to its label confidence derived from previous training step, as well as the noise distribution in this sampled batch. Experiments show that HGL can effectively denoise the weakly-labeled data retrieved from distant supervision, and therefore results in significant improvements on the trained models.
Wenkai Zhang, Hongyu Lin, Xianpei Han, Le Sun, Huidan Liu, Zhicheng Wei, Nicholas Jing Yuan
0
6/23/2021 Out-of-Scope Intent Detection with Self-Supervision and Discriminative Training
Out-of-scope intent detection is of practical importance in task-oriented dialogue systems. Since the distribution of outlier utterances is arbitrary and unknown in the training stage, existing methods commonly rely on strong assumptions on data distribution such as mixture of Gaussians to make inference, resulting in either complex multi-step training procedures or hand-crafted rules such as confidence threshold selection for outlier detection. In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective method to train an out-of-scope intent classifier in a fully end-to-end manner by simulating the test scenario in training, which requires no assumption on data distribution and no additional post-processing or threshold setting. Specifically, we construct a set of pseudo outliers in the training stage, by generating synthetic outliers using inliner features via self-supervision and sampling out-of-scope sentences from easily available open-domain datasets. The pseudo outliers are used to train a discriminative classifier that can be directly applied to and generalize well on the test task. We evaluate our method extensively on four benchmark dialogue datasets and observe significant improvements over state-of-the-art approaches. Our code has been released at this https URL.
Li-Ming Zhan, Haowen Liang, Bo Liu, Lu Fan, Xiao-Ming Wu, Albert Y.S. Lam
n/a
6/15/2021 VALUE: A Multi-Task Benchmark for Video-and-Language Understanding Evaluation
Most existing video-and-language (VidL) research focuses on a single dataset, or multiple datasets of a single task. In reality, a truly useful VidL system is expected to be easily generalizable to diverse tasks, domains, and datasets. To facilitate the evaluation of such systems, we introduce Video-And-Language Understanding Evaluation (VALUE) benchmark, an assemblage of 11 VidL datasets over 3 popular tasks: (i) text-to-video retrieval; (ii) video question answering; and (iii) video captioning. VALUE benchmark aims to cover a broad range of video genres, video lengths, data volumes, and task difficulty levels. Rather than focusing on single-channel videos with visual information only, VALUE promotes models that leverage information from both video frames and their associated subtitles, as well as models that share knowledge across multiple tasks. We evaluate various baseline methods with and without large-scale VidL pre-training, and systematically investigate the impact of video input channels, fusion methods, and different video representations. We also study the transferability between tasks, and conduct multi-task learning under different settings. The significant gap between our best model and human performance calls for future study for advanced VidL models. VALUE is available at this https URL.
Linjie Li, Jie Lei, Zhe Gan, Licheng Yu, Yen-Chun Chen, Rohit Pillai, Yu Cheng, Luowei Zhou, Xin Eric Wang, William Yang Wang, Tamara Lee Berg, Mohit Bansal, Jingjing Liu, Lijuan Wang, Zicheng Liu
6/15/2021 AdvPicker: Effectively Leveraging Unlabeled Data via Adversarial Discriminator for Cross-Lingual NER
Neural methods have been shown to achieve high performance in Named Entity Recognition (NER), but rely on costly high-quality labeled data for training, which is not always available across languages. While previous works have shown that unlabeled data in a target language can be used to improve cross-lingual model performance, we propose a novel adversarial approach (AdvPicker) to better leverage such data and further improve results. We design an adversarial learning framework in which an encoder learns entity domain knowledge from labeled source-language data and better shared features are captured via adversarial training - where a discriminator selects less language-dependent target-language data via similarity to the source language. Experimental results on standard benchmark datasets well demonstrate that the proposed method benefits strongly from this data selection process and outperforms existing state-of-the-art methods; without requiring any additional external resources (e.g., gazetteers or via machine translation). The code is available at this https URL
Weile Chen, Huiqiang Jiang, Qianhui Wu, Borje F. Karlsson, Yi Guan
n/a
6/15/2021 Empowering Language Understanding with Counterfactual Reasoning
Present language understanding methods have demonstrated extraordinary ability of recognizing patterns in texts via machine learning. However, existing methods indiscriminately use the recognized patterns in the testing phase that is inherently different from us humans who have counterfactual thinking, e.g., to scrutinize for the hard testing samples. Inspired by this, we propose a Counterfactual Reasoning Model, which mimics the counterfactual thinking by learning from few counterfactual samples. In particular, we devise a generation module to generate representative counterfactual samples for each factual sample, and a retrospective module to retrospect the model prediction by comparing the counterfactual and factual samples. Extensive experiments on sentiment analysis (SA) and natural language inference (NLI) validate the effectiveness of our method.
Fuli Feng, Jizhi Zhang, Xiangnan He, Hanwang Zhang, Tat-Seng Chua
47628
Python
6/15/2021 The FLORES-101 Evaluation Benchmark for Low-Resource and Multilingual Machine Translation
One of the biggest challenges hindering progress in low-resource and multilingual machine translation is the lack of good evaluation benchmarks. Current evaluation benchmarks either lack good coverage of low-resource languages, consider only restricted domains, or are low quality because they are constructed using semi-automatic procedures. In this work, we introduce the FLORES-101 evaluation benchmark, consisting of 3001 sentences extracted from English Wikipedia and covering a variety of different topics and domains. These sentences have been translated in 101 languages by professional translators through a carefully controlled process. The resulting dataset enables better assessment of model quality on the long tail of low-resource languages, including the evaluation of many-to-many multilingual translation systems, as all translations are multilingually aligned. By publicly releasing such a high-quality and high-coverage dataset, we hope to foster progress in the machine translation community and beyond.
Naman Goyal, Cynthia Gao, Vishrav Chaudhary, Peng-Jen Chen, Guillaume Wenzek, Da Ju, Sanjana Krishnan, Marc'Aurelio Ranzato, Francisco Guzman, Angela Fan
298
Python
6/15/2021 FastSeq: Make Sequence Generation Faster
Transformer-based models have made tremendous impacts in natural language generation. However the inference speed is a bottleneck due to large model size and intensive computing involved in auto-regressive decoding process. We develop FastSeq framework to accelerate sequence generation without accuracy loss. The proposed optimization techniques include an attention cache optimization, an efficient algorithm for detecting repeated n-grams, and an asynchronous generation pipeline with parallel I/O. These optimizations are general enough to be applicable to Transformer-based models (e.g., T5, GPT2, and UniLM). Our benchmark results on a set of widely used and diverse models demonstrate 4-9x inference speed gain. Additionally, FastSeq is easy to use with a simple one-line code change. The source code is available at this https URL.
Yu Yan, Fei Hu, Jiusheng Chen, Nikhil Bhendawade, Ting Ye, Yeyun Gong, Nan Duan, Desheng Cui, Bingyu Chi, Ruifei Zhang
255
Python
6/15/2021 Interpretable agent communication from scratch(with a generic visual processor emerging on the side)
As deep networks begin to be deployed as autonomous agents, the issue of how they can communicate with each other becomes important. Here, we train two deep nets from scratch to perform realistic referent identification through unsupervised emergent communication. We show that the largely interpretable emergent protocol allows the nets to successfully communicate even about object types they did not see at training time. The visual representations induced as a by-product of our training regime, moreover, show comparable quality, when re-used as generic visual features, to a recent self-supervised learning model. Our results provide concrete evidence of the viability of (interpretable) emergent deep net communication in a more realistic scenario than previously considered, as well as establishing an intriguing link between this field and self-supervised visual learning.
Roberto Dessi, Eugene Kharitonov, Marco Baroni
186
Jupyter Notebook
6/15/2021 Conversations Are Not Flat: Modeling the Dynamic Information Flow across Dialogue Utterances
Nowadays, open-domain dialogue models can generate acceptable responses according to the historical context based on the large-scale pre-trained language models. However, they generally concatenate the dialogue history directly as the model input to predict the response, which we named as the flat pattern and ignores the dynamic information flow across dialogue utterances. In this work, we propose the DialoFlow model, in which we introduce a dynamic flow mechanism to model the context flow, and design three training objectives to capture the information dynamics across dialogue utterances by addressing the semantic influence brought about by each utterance in large-scale pre-training. Experiments on the multi-reference Reddit Dataset and DailyDialog Dataset demonstrate that our DialoFlow significantly outperforms the DialoGPT on the dialogue generation task. Besides, we propose the Flow score, an effective automatic metric for evaluating interactive human-bot conversation quality based on the pre-trained DialoFlow, which presents high chatbot-level correlation ($r=0.9$) with human ratings among 11 chatbots. Code and pre-trained models will be public. \footnote{\url{this https URL}}
Zekang Li, Jinchao Zhang, Zhengcong Fei, Yang Feng, Jie Zhou
37
Python
Subhabrata Mukherjee, Ahmed Hassan Awadallah, Jianfeng Gao
27
Python
6/15/2021 Programming Puzzles
We introduce a new type of programming challenge called programming puzzles, as an objective and comprehensive evaluation of program synthesis, and release an open-source dataset of Python Programming Puzzles (P3). Each puzzle is defined by a short Python program $f$, and the goal is to find an input $x$ which makes $f$ output "True". The puzzles are objective in that each one is specified entirely by the source code of its verifier $f$, so evaluating $f(x)$ is all that is needed to test a candidate solution $x$. They do not require an answer key or input/output examples, nor do they depend on natural language understanding. The dataset is comprehensive in that it spans problems of a range of difficulties and domains, ranging from trivial string manipulation problems that are immediately obvious to human programmers (but not necessarily to AI), to classic programming puzzles (e.g., Towers of Hanoi), to interview/competitive-programming problems (e.g., dynamic programming), to longstanding open problems in algorithms and mathematics (e.g., factoring). The objective nature of P3 readily supports self-supervised bootstrapping. We develop baseline enumerative program synthesis and GPT-3 solvers that are capable of solving easy puzzles -- even without access to any reference solutions -- by learning from their own past solutions. Based on a small user study, we find puzzle difficulty to correlate between human programmers and the baseline AI solvers.
Tal Schuster, Ashwin Kalyan, Oleksandr Polozov, Adam Tauman Kalai
83
Python
6/15/2021 Meta-Learning to Compositionally Generalize
Natural language is compositional; the meaning of a sentence is a function of the meaning of its parts. This property allows humans to create and interpret novel sentences, generalizing robustly outside their prior experience. Neural networks have been shown to struggle with this kind of generalization, in particular performing poorly on tasks designed to assess compositional generalization (i.e. where training and testing distributions differ in ways that would be trivial for a compositional strategy to resolve). Their poor performance on these tasks may in part be due to the nature of supervised learning which assumes training and testing data to be drawn from the same distribution. We implement a meta-learning augmented version of supervised learning whose objective directly optimizes for out-of-distribution generalization. We construct pairs of tasks for meta-learning by sub-sampling existing training data. Each pair of tasks is constructed to contain relevant examples, as determined by a similarity metric, in an effort to inhibit models from memorizing their input. Experimental results on the COGS and SCAN datasets show that our similarity-driven meta-learning can improve generalization performance.
Henry Conklin, Bailin Wang, Kenny Smith, Ivan Titov
29
Python
6/15/2021 Enhancing Taxonomy Completion with Concept Generation via Fusing Relational Representations
Automatic construction of a taxonomy supports many applications in e-commerce, web search, and question answering. Existing taxonomy expansion or completion methods assume that new concepts have been accurately extracted and their embedding vectors learned from the text corpus. However, one critical and fundamental challenge in fixing the incompleteness of taxonomies is the incompleteness of the extracted concepts, especially for those whose names have multiple words and consequently low frequency in the corpus. To resolve the limitations of extraction-based methods, we propose GenTaxo to enhance taxonomy completion by identifying positions in existing taxonomies that need new concepts and then generating appropriate concept names. Instead of relying on the corpus for concept embeddings, GenTaxo learns the contextual embeddings from their surrounding graph-based and language-based relational information, and leverages the corpus for pre-training a concept name generator. Experimental results demonstrate that GenTaxo improves the completeness of taxonomies over existing methods.
Qingkai Zeng, Jinfeng Lin, Wenhao Yu, Jane Cleland-Huang, Meng Jiang
21
Python
6/15/2021 Learning compositional structures for semantic graph parsing
AM dependency parsing is a method for neural semantic graph parsing that exploits the principle of compositionality. While AM dependency parsers have been shown to be fast and accurate across several graphbanks, they require explicit annotations of the compositional tree structures for training. In the past, these were obtained using complex graphbank-specific heuristics written by experts. Here we show how they can instead be trained directly on the graphs with a neural latent-variable model, drastically reducing the amount and complexity of manual heuristics. We demonstrate that our model picks up on several linguistic phenomena on its own and achieves comparable accuracy to supervised training, greatly facilitating the use of AM dependency parsing for new sembanks.
Jonas Groschwitz, Meaghan Fowlie, Alexander Koller
17
Python
6/15/2021 You Only Compress Once: Towards Effective and Elastic BERT Compression via Exploit-Explore Stochastic Nature Gradient
Despite superior performance on various natural language processing tasks, pre-trained models such as BERT are challenged by deploying on resource-constraint devices. Most existing model compression approaches require re-compression or fine-tuning across diverse constraints to accommodate various hardware deployments. This practically limits the further application of model compression. Moreover, the ineffective training and searching process of existing elastic compression paradigms[4,27] prevents the direct migration to BERT compression. Motivated by the necessity of efficient inference across various constraints on BERT, we propose a novel approach, YOCO-BERT, to achieve compress once and deploy everywhere. Specifically, we first construct a huge search space with 10^13 architectures, which covers nearly all configurations in BERT model. Then, we propose a novel stochastic nature gradient optimization method to guide the generation of optimal candidate architecture which could keep a balanced trade-off between explorations and exploitation. When a certain resource constraint is given, a lightweight distribution optimization approach is utilized to obtain the optimal network for target deployment without fine-tuning. Compared with state-of-the-art algorithms, YOCO-BERT provides more compact models, yet achieving 2.1%-4.5% average accuracy improvement on the GLUE benchmark. Besides, YOCO-BERT is also more effective, e.g.,the training complexity is O(1)for N different devices. Code is availablehttps://github.com/MAC-AutoML/YOCO-BERT.
Shaokun Zhang, Xiawu Zheng, Chenyi Yang, Yuchao Li, Yan Wang, Fei Chao, Mengdi Wang, Shen Li, Jun Yang, Rongrong Ji
17
Python
6/15/2021 FEVEROUS: Fact Extraction and VERification Over Unstructured and Structured information
Fact verification has attracted a lot of attention in the machine learning and natural language processing communities, as it is one of the key methods for detecting misinformation. Existing large-scale benchmarks for this task have focused mostly on textual sources, i.e. unstructured information, and thus ignored the wealth of information available in structured formats, such as tables. In this paper we introduce a novel dataset and benchmark, Fact Extraction and VERification Over Unstructured and Structured information (FEVEROUS), which consists of 87,026 verified claims. Each claim is annotated with evidence in the form of sentences and/or cells from tables in Wikipedia, as well as a label indicating whether this evidence supports, refutes, or does not provide enough information to reach a verdict. Furthermore, we detail our efforts to track and minimize the biases present in the dataset and could be exploited by models, e.g. being able to predict the label without using evidence. Finally, we develop a baseline for verifying claims against text and tables which predicts both the correct evidence and verdict for 18% of the claims.
Rami Aly, Zhijiang Guo, Michael Schlichtkrull, James Thorne, Andreas Vlachos, Christos Christodoulopoulos, Oana Cocarascu, Arpit Mittal
17
PHP
6/15/2021 CLTR: An End-to-End, Transformer-Based System for Cell Level Table Retrieval and Table Question Answering
We present the first end-to-end, transformer-based table question answering (QA) system that takes natural language questions and massive table corpus as inputs to retrieve the most relevant tables and locate the correct table cells to answer the question. Our system, CLTR, extends the current state-of-the-art QA over tables model to build an end-to-end table QA architecture. This system has successfully tackled many real-world table QA problems with a simple, unified pipeline. Our proposed system can also generate a heatmap of candidate columns and rows over complex tables and allow users to quickly identify the correct cells to answer questions. In addition, we introduce two new open-domain benchmarks, E2E_WTQ and E2E_GNQ, consisting of 2,005 natural language questions over 76,242 tables. The benchmarks are designed to validate CLTR as well as accommodate future table retrieval and end-to-end table QA research and experiments. Our experiments demonstrate that our system is the current state-of-the-art model on the table retrieval task and produces promising results for end-to-end table QA.
Feifei Pan, Mustafa Canim, Michael Glass, Alfio Gliozzo, Peter Fox
15
Python
6/15/2021 Realistic Evaluation Principles for Cross-document Coreference Resolution
We point out that common evaluation practices for cross-document coreference resolution have been unrealistically permissive in their assumed settings, yielding inflated results. We propose addressing this issue via two evaluation methodology principles. First, as in other tasks, models should be evaluated on predicted mentions rather than on gold mentions. Doing this raises a subtle issue regarding singleton coreference clusters, which we address by decoupling the evaluation of mention detection from that of coreference linking. Second, we argue that models should not exploit the synthetic topic structure of the standard ECB+ dataset, forcing models to confront the lexical ambiguity challenge, as intended by the dataset creators. We demonstrate empirically the drastic impact of our more realistic evaluation principles on a competitive model, yielding a score which is 33 F1 lower compared to evaluating by prior lenient practices.
Arie Cattan, Alon Eirew, Gabriel Stanovsky, Mandar Joshi, Ido Dagan
14
Python
6/15/2021 Personalized Transformer for Explainable Recommendation
Personalization of natural language generation plays a vital role in a large spectrum of tasks, such as explainable recommendation, review summarization and dialog systems. In these tasks, user and item IDs are important identifiers for personalization. Transformer, which is demonstrated with strong language modeling capability, however, is not personalized and fails to make use of the user and item IDs since the ID tokens are not even in the same semantic space as the words. To address this problem, we present a PErsonalized Transformer for Explainable Recommendation (PETER), on which we design a simple and effective learning objective that utilizes the IDs to predict the words in the target explanation, so as to endow the IDs with linguistic meanings and to achieve personalized Transformer. Besides generating explanations, PETER can also make recommendations, which makes it a unified model for the whole recommendation-explanation pipeline. Extensive experiments show that our small unpretrained model outperforms fine-tuned BERT on the generation task, in terms of both effectiveness and efficiency, which highlights the importance and the nice utility of our design.
Lei Li, Yongfeng Zhang, Li Chen
14
6/15/2021 Itihasa: A large-scale corpus for Sanskrit to English translation
This work introduces Itihasa, a large-scale translation dataset containing 93,000 pairs of Sanskrit shlokas and their English translations. The shlokas are extracted from two Indian epics viz., The Ramayana and The Mahabharata. We first describe the motivation behind the curation of such a dataset and follow up with empirical analysis to bring out its nuances. We then benchmark the performance of standard translation models on this corpus and show that even state-of-the-art transformer architectures perform poorly, emphasizing the complexity of the dataset.
Rahul Aralikatte, Miryam de Lhoneux, Anoop Kunchukuttan, Anders Sogaard
15
6/15/2021 Document-level Relation Extraction as Semantic Segmentation
Document-level relation extraction aims to extract relations among multiple entity pairs from a document. Previously proposed graph-based or transformer-based models utilize the entities independently, regardless of global information among relational triples. This paper approaches the problem by predicting an entity-level relation matrix to capture local and global information, parallel to the semantic segmentation task in computer vision. Herein, we propose a Document U-shaped Network for document-level relation extraction. Specifically, we leverage an encoder module to capture the context information of entities and a U-shaped segmentation module over the image-style feature map to capture global interdependency among triples. Experimental results show that our approach can obtain state-of-the-art performance on three benchmark datasets DocRED, CDR, and GDA.
Ningyu Zhang, Xiang Chen, Xin Xie, Shumin Deng, Chuanqi Tan, Mosha Chen, Fei Huang, Luo Si, Huajun Chen
14
6/15/2021 A Simple Recipe for Multilingual Grammatical Error Correction
This paper presents a simple recipe to train state-of-the-art multilingual Grammatical Error Correction (GEC) models. We achieve this by first proposing a language-agnostic method to generate a large number of synthetic examples. The second ingredient is to use large-scale multilingual language models (up to 11B parameters). Once fine-tuned on language-specific supervised sets we surpass the previous state-of-the-art results on GEC benchmarks in four languages: English, Czech, German and Russian. Having established a new set of baselines for GEC, we make our results easily reproducible and accessible by releasing a cLang-8 dataset. It is produced by using our best model, which we call gT5, to clean the targets of a widely used yet noisy lang-8 dataset. cLang-8 greatly simplifies typical GEC training pipelines composed of multiple fine-tuning stages -- we demonstrate that performing a single fine-tuning step on cLang-8 with the off-the-shelf language models yields further accuracy improvements over an already top-performing gT5 model for English.
Sascha Rothe, Jonathan Mallinson, Eric Malmi, Sebastian Krause, Aliaksei Severyn
13
Python
6/15/2021 Swords: A Benchmark for Lexical Substitution with Improved Data Coverage and Quality
We release a new benchmark for lexical substitution, the task of finding appropriate substitutes for a target word in a context. To assist humans with writing, lexical substitution systems can suggest words that humans cannot easily think of. However, existing benchmarks depend on human recall as the only source of data, and therefore lack coverage of the substitutes that would be most helpful to humans. Furthermore, annotators often provide substitutes of low quality, which are not actually appropriate in the given context. We collect higher-coverage and higher-quality data by framing lexical substitution as a classification problem, guided by the intuition that it is easier for humans to judge the appropriateness of candidate substitutes than conjure them from memory. To this end, we use a context-free thesaurus to produce candidates and rely on human judgement to determine contextual appropriateness. Compared to the previous largest benchmark, our Swords benchmark has 4.1x more substitutes per target word for the same level of quality, and its substitutes are 1.5x more appropriate (based on human judgement) for the same number of substitutes.
Mina Lee, Chris Donahue, Alexander Iyabor, Robin Jia, Percy Liang
13
Python
6/15/2021 Addressing Inquiries about History: An Efficient and Practical Framework for Evaluating Open-domain Chatbot Consistency
Zekang Li, Jinchao Zhang, Zhengcong Fei, Yang Feng, Jie Zhou
11
6/15/2021 Text-to-SQL in the Wild: A Naturally-Occurring Dataset Based on Stack Exchange Data
Most available semantic parsing datasets, comprising of pairs of natural utterances and logical forms, were collected solely for the purpose of training and evaluation of natural language understanding systems. As a result, they do not contain any of the richness and variety of natural-occurring utterances, where humans ask about data they need or are curious about. In this work, we release SEDE, a dataset with 12,023 pairs of utterances and SQL queries collected from real usage on the Stack Exchange website. We show that these pairs contain a variety of real-world challenges which were rarely reflected so far in any other semantic parsing dataset, propose an evaluation metric based on comparison of partial query clauses that is more suitable for real-world queries, and conduct experiments with strong baselines, showing a large gap between the performance on SEDE compared to other common datasets.
Moshe Hazoom, Vibhor Malik, Ben Bogin
12
Jupyter Notebook
6/15/2021 Meta Learning for Knowledge Distillation
We present Meta Learning for Knowledge Distillation (MetaDistil), a simple yet effective alternative to traditional knowledge distillation (KD) methods where the teacher model is fixed during training. We show the teacher network can learn to better transfer knowledge to the student network (i.e., learning to teach) with the feedback from the performance of the distilled student network in a meta learning framework. Moreover, we introduce a pilot update mechanism to improve the alignment between the inner-learner and meta-learner in meta learning algorithms that focus on an improved inner-learner. Experiments on various benchmarks show that MetaDistil can yield significant improvements compared with traditional KD algorithms and is less sensitive to the choice of different student capacity and hyperparameters, facilitating the use of KD on different tasks and models. The code is available at this https URL
Wangchunshu Zhou, Canwen Xu, Julian McAuley
9
6/15/2021 SciFive: a text-to-text transformer model for biomedical literature
In this report, we introduce SciFive, a domain-specific T5 model that has been pre-trained on large biomedical corpora. Our model outperforms the current SOTA methods (i.e. BERT, BioBERT, Base T5) on tasks in named entity relation, relation extraction, natural language inference, and question-answering. We show that text-generation methods have significant potential in a broad array of biomedical NLP tasks, particularly those requiring longer, more complex outputs. Our results support the exploration of more difficult text generation tasks and the development of new methods in this area
Long N. Phan, James T. Anibal, Hieu Tran, Shaurya Chanana, Erol Bahadroglu, Alec Peltekian, Gregoire Altan-Bonnet
7
Jupyter Notebook
6/15/2021 Neural Abstractive Unsupervised Summarization of Online News Discussions
Summarization has usually relied on gold standard summaries to train extractive or abstractive models. Social media brings a hurdle to summarization techniques since it requires addressing a multi-document multi-author approach. We address this challenging task by introducing a novel method that generates abstractive summaries of online news discussions. Our method extends a BERT-based architecture, including an attention encoding that fed comments' likes during the training stage. To train our model, we define a task which consists of reconstructing high impact comments based on popularity (likes). Accordingly, our model learns to summarize online discussions based on their most relevant comments. Our novel approach provides a summary that represents the most relevant aspects of a news item that users comment on, incorporating the social context as a source of information to summarize texts in online social networks. Our model is evaluated using ROUGE scores between the generated summary and each comment on the thread. Our model, including the social attention encoding, significantly outperforms both extractive and abstractive summarization methods based on such evaluation.
Ignacio Tampe Palma, Marcelo Mendoza, Evangelos Milios
7
Python
6/15/2021 Lexicon Learning for Few-Shot Neural Sequence Modeling
Sequence-to-sequence transduction is the core problem in language processing applications as diverse as semantic parsing, machine translation, and instruction following. The neural network models that provide the dominant solution to these problems are brittle, especially in low-resource settings: they fail to generalize correctly or systematically from small datasets. Past work has shown that many failures of systematic generalization arise from neural models' inability to disentangle lexical phenomena from syntactic ones. To address this, we augment neural decoders with a lexical translation mechanism that generalizes existing copy mechanisms to incorporate learned, decontextualized, token-level translation rules. We describe how to initialize this mechanism using a variety of lexicon learning algorithms, and show that it improves systematic generalization on a diverse set of sequence modeling tasks drawn from cognitive science, formal semantics, and machine translation.
Ekin Akyurek, Jacob Andreas
6
Jupyter Notebook
6/15/2021 A Comprehensive Assessment of Dialog Evaluation Metrics
Automatic evaluation metrics are a crucial component of dialog systems research. Standard language evaluation metrics are known to be ineffective for evaluating dialog. As such, recent research has proposed a number of novel, dialog-specific metrics that correlate better with human judgements. Due to the fast pace of research, many of these metrics have been assessed on different datasets and there has as yet been no time for a systematic comparison between them. To this end, this paper provides a comprehensive assessment of recently proposed dialog evaluation metrics on a number of datasets. In this paper, 17 different automatic evaluation metrics are evaluated on 10 different datasets. Furthermore, the metrics are assessed in different settings, to better qualify their respective strengths and weaknesses. Metrics are assessed (1) on both the turn level and the dialog level, (2) for different dialog lengths, (3) for different dialog qualities (e.g., coherence, engaging), (4) for different types of response generation models (i.e., generative, retrieval, simple models and state-of-the-art models), (5) taking into account the similarity of different metrics and (6) exploring combinations of different metrics. This comprehensive assessment offers several takeaways pertaining to dialog evaluation metrics in general. It also suggests how to best assess evaluation metrics and indicates promising directions for future work.
Yi-Ting Yeh, Maxine Eskenazi, Shikib Mehri
8
Python
6/15/2021 A Unified Generative Framework for Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis
Aspect-based Sentiment Analysis (ABSA) aims to identify the aspect terms, their corresponding sentiment polarities, and the opinion terms. There exist seven subtasks in ABSA. Most studies only focus on the subsets of these subtasks, which leads to various complicated ABSA models while hard to solve these subtasks in a unified framework. In this paper, we redefine every subtask target as a sequence mixed by pointer indexes and sentiment class indexes, which converts all ABSA subtasks into a unified generative formulation. Based on the unified formulation, we exploit the pre-training sequence-to-sequence model BART to solve all ABSA subtasks in an end-to-end framework. Extensive experiments on four ABSA datasets for seven subtasks demonstrate that our framework achieves substantial performance gain and provides a real unified end-to-end solution for the whole ABSA subtasks, which could benefit multiple tasks.
Hang Yan, Junqi Dai, Tuo ji, Xipeng Qiu, Zheng Zhang
7
Python
6/15/2021 Disfl-QA: A Benchmark Dataset for Understanding Disfluencies in Question Answering
Disfluencies is an under-studied topic in NLP, even though it is ubiquitous in human conversation. This is largely due to the lack of datasets containing disfluencies. In this paper, we present a new challenge question answering dataset, Disfl-QA, a derivative of SQuAD, where humans introduce contextual disfluencies in previously fluent questions. Disfl-QA contains a variety of challenging disfluencies that require a more comprehensive understanding of the text than what was necessary in prior datasets. Experiments show that the performance of existing state-of-the-art question answering models degrades significantly when tested on Disfl-QA in a zero-shot setting.We show data augmentation methods partially recover the loss in performance and also demonstrate the efficacy of using gold data for fine-tuning. We argue that we need large-scale disfluency datasets in order for NLP models to be robust to them. The dataset is publicly available at: this https URL.
5
6/15/2021 TIMEDIAL: Temporal Commonsense Reasoning in Dialog
Everyday conversations require understanding everyday events, which in turn, requires understanding temporal commonsense concepts interwoven with those events. Despite recent progress with massive pre-trained language models (LMs) such as T5 and GPT-3, their capability of temporal reasoning in dialogs remains largely under-explored. In this paper, we present the first study to investigate pre-trained LMs for their temporal reasoning capabilities in dialogs by introducing a new task and a crowd-sourced English challenge set, TIMEDIAL. We formulate TIME-DIAL as a multiple-choice cloze task with over 1.1K carefully curated dialogs. Empirical results demonstrate that even the best performing models struggle on this task compared to humans, with 23 absolute points of gap in accuracy. Furthermore, our analysis reveals that the models fail to reason about dialog context correctly; instead, they rely on shallow cues based on existing temporal patterns in context, motivating future research for modeling temporal concepts in text and robust contextual reasoning about them. The dataset is publicly available at: this https URL.
Lianhui Qin, Aditya Gupta, Shyam Upadhyay, Luheng He, Yejin Choi, Manaal Faruqui
13
6/15/2021 BiToD: A Bilingual Multi-Domain Dataset For Task-Oriented Dialogue Modeling
Task-oriented dialogue (ToD) benchmarks provide an important avenue to measure progress and develop better conversational agents. However, existing datasets for end-to-end ToD modeling are limited to a single language, hindering the development of robust end-to-end ToD systems for multilingual countries and regions. Here we introduce BiToD, the first bilingual multi-domain dataset for end-to-end task-oriented dialogue modeling. BiToD contains over 7k multi-domain dialogues (144k utterances) with a large and realistic bilingual knowledge base. It serves as an effective benchmark for evaluating bilingual ToD systems and cross-lingual transfer learning approaches. We provide state-of-the-art baselines under three evaluation settings (monolingual, bilingual, and cross-lingual). The analysis of our baselines in different settings highlights 1) the effectiveness of training a bilingual ToD system compared to two independent monolingual ToD systems, and 2) the potential of leveraging a bilingual knowledge base and cross-lingual transfer learning to improve the system performance under low resource condition.
Zhaojiang Lin, Andrea Madotto, Genta Indra Winata, Peng Xu, Feijun Jiang, Yuxiang Hu, Chen Shi, Pascale Fung
9
Python
6/15/2021 CAiRE in DialDoc21: Data Augmentation for Information-Seeking Dialogue System
Information-seeking dialogue systems, including knowledge identification and response generation, aim to respond to users with fluent, coherent, and informative responses based on users' needs, which. To tackle this challenge, we utilize data augmentation methods and several training techniques with the pre-trained language models to learn a general pattern of the task and thus achieve promising performance. In DialDoc21 competition, our system achieved 74.95 F1 score and 60.74 Exact Match score in subtask 1, and 37.72 SacreBLEU score in subtask 2. Empirical analysis is provided to explain the effectiveness of our approaches.
Etsuko Ishii, Yan Xu, Genta Indra Winata, Zhaojiang Lin, Andrea Madotto, Zihan Liu, Peng Xu, Pascale Fung
4
Python
6/15/2021 Combining Static Word Embeddings and Contextual Representations for Bilingual Lexicon Induction
Bilingual Lexicon Induction (BLI) aims to map words in one language to their translations in another, and is typically through learning linear projections to align monolingual word representation spaces. Two classes of word representations have been explored for BLI: static word embeddings and contextual representations, but there is no studies to combine both. In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective mechanism to combine the static word embeddings and the contextual representations to utilize the advantages of both paradigms. We test the combination mechanism on various language pairs under the supervised and unsupervised BLI benchmark settings. Experiments show that our mechanism consistently improves performances over robust BLI baselines on all language pairs by averagely improving 3.2 points in the supervised setting, and 3.1 points in the unsupervised setting.
Jinpeng Zhang, Baijun Ji, Nini Xiao, Xiangyu Duan, Min Zhang, Yangbin Shi, Weihua Luo
4
Python
6/15/2021 Instantaneous Grammatical Error Correction with Shallow Aggressive Decoding
In this paper, we propose Shallow Aggressive Decoding (SAD) to improve the online inference efficiency of the Transformer for instantaneous Grammatical Error Correction (GEC). SAD optimizes the online inference efficiency for GEC by two innovations: 1) it aggressively decodes as many tokens as possible in parallel instead of always decoding only one token in each step to improve computational parallelism; 2) it uses a shallow decoder instead of the conventional Transformer architecture with balanced encoder-decoder depth to reduce the computational cost during inference. Experiments in both English and Chinese GEC benchmarks show that aggressive decoding could yield the same predictions as greedy decoding but with a significant speedup for online inference. Its combination with the shallow decoder could offer an even higher online inference speedup over the powerful Transformer baseline without quality loss. Not only does our approach allow a single model to achieve the state-of-the-art results in English GEC benchmarks: 66.4 F0.5 in the CoNLL-14 and 72.9 F0.5 in the BEA-19 test set with an almost 10x online inference speedup over the Transformer-big model, but also it is easily adapted to other languages. Our code is available at this https URL.
Xin Sun, Tao Ge, Furu Wei, Houfeng Wang
4
Python
6/15/2021 CLIP: A Dataset for Extracting Action Items for Physicians from Hospital Discharge Notes
Continuity of care is crucial to ensuring positive health outcomes for patients discharged from an inpatient hospital setting, and improved information sharing can help. To share information, caregivers write discharge notes containing action items to share with patients and their future caregivers, but these action items are easily lost due to the lengthiness of the documents. In this work, we describe our creation of a dataset of clinical action items annotated over MIMIC-III, the largest publicly available dataset of real clinical notes. This dataset, which we call CLIP, is annotated by physicians and covers 718 documents representing 100K sentences. We describe the task of extracting the action items from these documents as multi-aspect extractive summarization, with each aspect representing a type of action to be taken. We evaluate several machine learning models on this task, and show that the best models exploit in-domain language model pre-training on 59K unannotated documents, and incorporate context from neighboring sentences. We also propose an approach to pre-training data selection that allows us to explore the trade-off between size and domain-specificity of pre-training datasets for this task.
James Mullenbach, Yada Pruksachatkun, Sean Adler, Jennifer Seale, Jordan Swartz, T. Greg McKelvey, Hui Dai, Yi Yang, David Sontag
5
Python
6/15/2021 Hierarchical Task Learning from Language Instructions with Unified Transformers and Self-Monitoring
Yichi Zhang, Joyce Chai
4
6/15/2021 Convolutions and Self-Attention: Re-interpreting Relative Positions in Pre-trained Language Models
In this paper, we detail the relationship between convolutions and self-attention in natural language tasks. We show that relative position embeddings in self-attention layers are equivalent to recently-proposed dynamic lightweight convolutions, and we consider multiple new ways of integrating convolutions into Transformer self-attention. Specifically, we propose composite attention, which unites previous relative position embedding methods under a convolutional framework. We conduct experiments by training BERT with composite attention, finding that convolutions consistently improve performance on multiple downstream tasks, replacing absolute position embeddings. To inform future work, we present results comparing lightweight convolutions, dynamic convolutions, and depthwise-separable convolutions in language model pre-training, considering multiple injection points for convolutions in self-attention layers.
Tyler A. Chang, Yifan Xu, Weijian Xu, Zhuowen Tu
3
Python
6/15/2021 COVID-Fact: Fact Extraction and Verification of Real-World Claims on COVID-19 Pandemic
We introduce a FEVER-like dataset COVID-Fact of $4,086$ claims concerning the COVID-19 pandemic. The dataset contains claims, evidence for the claims, and contradictory claims refuted by the evidence. Unlike previous approaches, we automatically detect true claims and their source articles and then generate counter-claims using automatic methods rather than employing human annotators. Along with our constructed resource, we formally present the task of identifying relevant evidence for the claims and verifying whether the evidence refutes or supports a given claim. In addition to scientific claims, our data contains simplified general claims from media sources, making it better suited for detecting general misinformation regarding COVID-19. Our experiments indicate that COVID-Fact will provide a challenging testbed for the development of new systems and our approach will reduce the costs of building domain-specific datasets for detecting misinformation.
Arkadiy Saakyan, Tuhin Chakrabarty, Smaranda Muresan
6
Python
6/15/2021 A Joint Model for Dropped Pronoun Recovery and Conversational Discourse Parsing in Chinese Conversational Speech
In this paper, we present a neural model for joint dropped pronoun recovery (DPR) and conversational discourse parsing (CDP) in Chinese conversational speech. We show that DPR and CDP are closely related, and a joint model benefits both tasks. We refer to our model as DiscProReco, and it first encodes the tokens in each utterance in a conversation with a directed Graph Convolutional Network (GCN). The token states for an utterance are then aggregated to produce a single state for each utterance. The utterance states are then fed into a biaffine classifier to construct a conversational discourse graph. A second (multi-relational) GCN is then applied to the utterance states to produce a discourse relation-augmented representation for the utterances, which are then fused together with token states in each utterance as input to a dropped pronoun recovery layer. The joint model is trained and evaluated on a new Structure Parsing-enhanced Dropped Pronoun Recovery (SPDPR) dataset that we annotated with both two types of information. Experimental results on the SPDPR dataset and other benchmarks show that DiscProReco significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art baselines of both tasks.
Jingxuan Yang, Kerui Xu, Jun Xu, Si Li, Sheng Gao, Jun Guo, Nianwen Xue, Ji-Rong Wen
3
Python
6/15/2021 Unsupervised Representation Disentanglement of Text: An Evaluation on Synthetic Datasets
To highlight the challenges of achieving representation disentanglement for text domain in an unsupervised setting, in this paper we select a representative set of successfully applied models from the image domain. We evaluate these models on 6 disentanglement metrics, as well as on downstream classification tasks and homotopy. To facilitate the evaluation, we propose two synthetic datasets with known generative factors. Our experiments highlight the existing gap in the text domain and illustrate that certain elements such as representation sparsity (as an inductive bias), or representation coupling with the decoder could impact disentanglement. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first attempt on the intersection of unsupervised representation disentanglement and text, and provides the experimental framework and datasets for examining future developments in this direction.
Lan Zhang, Victor Prokhorov, Ehsan Shareghi
3
Python
6/15/2021 Shades of BLEU, Flavours of Success: The Case of MultiWOZ
The MultiWOZ dataset (Budzianowski et al.,2018) is frequently used for benchmarking context-to-response abilities of task-oriented dialogue systems. In this work, we identify inconsistencies in data preprocessing and reporting of three corpus-based metrics used on this dataset, i.e., BLEU score and Inform & Success rates. We point out a few problems of the MultiWOZ benchmark such as unsatisfactory preprocessing, insufficient or under-specified evaluation metrics, or rigid database. We re-evaluate 7 end-to-end and 6 policy optimization models in as-fair-as-possible setups, and we show that their reported scores cannot be directly compared. To facilitate comparison of future systems, we release our stand-alone standardized evaluation scripts. We also give basic recommendations for corpus-based benchmarking in future works.
Tomas Nekvinda, Ondrej Dusek
3
Python
6/15/2021 COINS: Dynamically Generating COntextualized Inference Rules for Narrative Story Completion
Despite recent successes of large pre-trained language models in solving reasoning tasks, their inference capabilities remain opaque. We posit that such models can be made more interpretable by explicitly generating interim inference rules, and using them to guide the generation of task-specific textual outputs. In this paper we present COINS, a recursive inference framework that i) iteratively reads context sentences, ii) dynamically generates contextualized inference rules, encodes them, and iii) uses them to guide task-specific output generation. We apply COINS to a Narrative Story Completion task that asks a model to complete a story with missing sentences, to produce a coherent story with plausible logical connections, causal relationships, and temporal dependencies. By modularizing inference and sentence generation steps in a recurrent model, we aim to make reasoning steps and their effects on next sentence generation transparent. Our automatic and manual evaluations show that the model generates better story sentences than SOTA baselines, especially in terms of coherence. We further demonstrate improved performance over strong pre-trained LMs in generating commonsense inference rules. The recursive nature of COINS holds the potential for controlled generation of longer sequences.
Debjit Paul, Anette Frank
3
6/15/2021 Entity Concept-enhanced Few-shot Relation Extraction
Few-shot relation extraction (FSRE) is of great importance in long-tail distribution problem, especially in special domain with low-resource data. Most existing FSRE algorithms fail to accurately classify the relations merely based on the information of the sentences together with the recognized entity pairs, due to limited samples and lack of knowledge. To address this problem, in this paper, we proposed a novel entity CONCEPT-enhanced FEw-shot Relation Extraction scheme (ConceptFERE), which introduces the inherent concepts of entities to provide clues for relation prediction and boost the relations classification performance. Firstly, a concept-sentence attention module is developed to select the most appropriate concept from multiple concepts of each entity by calculating the semantic similarity between sentences and concepts. Secondly, a self-attention based fusion module is presented to bridge the gap of concept embedding and sentence embedding from different semantic spaces. Extensive experiments on the FSRE benchmark dataset FewRel have demonstrated the effectiveness and the superiority of the proposed ConceptFERE scheme as compared to the state-of-the-art baselines. Code is available at this https URL.
Shan Yang, Yongfei Zhang, Guanglin Niu, Qinghua Zhao, Shiliang Pu
3
6/15/2021 Counterfactual Maximum Likelihood Estimation for Training Deep Networks
Although deep learning models have driven state-of-the-art performance on a wide array of tasks, they are prone to learning spurious correlations that should not be learned as predictive clues. To mitigate this problem, we propose a causality-based training framework to reduce the spurious correlations caused by observable confounders. We give theoretical analysis on the underlying general Structural Causal Model (SCM) and propose to perform Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) on the interventional distribution instead of the observational distribution, namely Counterfactual Maximum Likelihood Estimation (CMLE). As the interventional distribution, in general, is hidden from the observational data, we then derive two different upper bounds of the expected negative log-likelihood and propose two general algorithms, Implicit CMLE and Explicit CMLE, for causal predictions of deep learning models using observational data. We conduct experiments on two real-world tasks: Natural Language Inference (NLI) and Image Captioning. The results show that CMLE methods outperform the regular MLE method in terms of out-of-domain generalization performance and reducing spurious correlations, while maintaining comparable performance on the regular evaluations.
Xinyi Wang, Wenhu Chen, Michael Saxon, William Yang Wang
4
6/15/2021 Enhancing Label Correlation Feedback in Multi-Label Text Classification via Multi-Task Learning
In multi-label text classification (MLTC), each given document is associated with a set of correlated labels. To capture label correlations, previous classifier-chain and sequence-to-sequence models transform MLTC to a sequence prediction task. However, they tend to suffer from label order dependency, label combination over-fitting and error propagation problems. To address these problems, we introduce a novel approach with multi-task learning to enhance label correlation feedback. We first utilize a joint embedding (JE) mechanism to obtain the text and label representation simultaneously. In MLTC task, a document-label cross attention (CA) mechanism is adopted to generate a more discriminative document representation. Furthermore, we propose two auxiliary label co-occurrence prediction tasks to enhance label correlation learning: 1) Pairwise Label Co-occurrence Prediction (PLCP), and 2) Conditional Label Co-occurrence Prediction (CLCP). Experimental results on AAPD and RCV1-V2 datasets show that our method outperforms competitive baselines by a large margin. We analyze low-frequency label performance, label dependency, label combination diversity and coverage speed to show the effectiveness of our proposed method on label correlation learning.
Ximing Zhang, Qian-Wen Zhang, Zhao Yan, Ruifang Liu, Yunbo Cao
3
6/15/2021 Position Bias Mitigation: A Knowledge-Aware Graph Model for Emotion Cause Extraction
The Emotion Cause Extraction (ECE)} task aims to identify clauses which contain emotion-evoking information for a particular emotion expressed in text. We observe that a widely-used ECE dataset exhibits a bias that the majority of annotated cause clauses are either directly before their associated emotion clauses or are the emotion clauses themselves. Existing models for ECE tend to explore such relative position information and suffer from the dataset bias. To investigate the degree of reliance of existing ECE models on clause relative positions, we propose a novel strategy to generate adversarial examples in which the relative position information is no longer the indicative feature of cause clauses. We test the performance of existing models on such adversarial examples and observe a significant performance drop. To address the dataset bias, we propose a novel graph-based method to explicitly model the emotion triggering paths by leveraging the commonsense knowledge to enhance the semantic dependencies between a candidate clause and an emotion clause. Experimental results show that our proposed approach performs on par with the existing state-of-the-art methods on the original ECE dataset, and is more robust against adversarial attacks compared to existing models.
Hanqi Yan, Lin Gui, Gabriele Pergola, Yulan He
2
Python
6/15/2021 Improving Automated Evaluation of Open Domain Dialog via Diverse Reference Augmentation
Multiple different responses are often plausible for a given open domain dialog context. Prior work has shown the importance of having multiple valid reference responses for meaningful and robust automated evaluations. In such cases, common practice has been to collect more human written references. However, such collection can be expensive, time consuming, and not easily scalable. Instead, we propose a novel technique for automatically expanding a human generated reference to a set of candidate references. We fetch plausible references from knowledge sources, and adapt them so that they are more fluent in context of the dialog instance in question. More specifically, we use (1) a commonsense knowledge base to elicit a large number of plausible reactions given the dialog history (2) relevant instances retrieved from dialog corpus, using similar past as well as future contexts. We demonstrate that our automatically expanded reference sets lead to large improvements in correlations of automated metrics with human ratings of system outputs for DailyDialog dataset.
Varun Gangal, Harsh Jhamtani, Eduard Hovy, Taylor Berg-Kirkpatrick
2
Python
6/15/2021 How Good Is NLP? A Sober Look at NLP Tasks through the Lens of Social Impact
Recent years have seen many breakthroughs in natural language processing (NLP), transitioning it from a mostly theoretical field to one with many real-world applications. Noting the rising number of applications of other machine learning and AI techniques with pervasive societal impact, we anticipate the rising importance of developing NLP technologies for social good. Inspired by theories in moral philosophy and global priorities research, we aim to promote a guideline for social good in the context of NLP. We lay the foundations via moral philosophy's definition of social good, propose a framework to evaluate NLP tasks' direct and indirect real-world impact, and adopt the methodology of global priorities research to identify priority causes for NLP research. Finally, we use our theoretical framework to provide some practical guidelines for future NLP research for social good. Our data and codes are available at this http URL
Zhijing Jin, Geeticka Chauhan, Brian Tse, Mrinmaya Sachan, Rada Mihalcea
2
Python
6/15/2021 Reading StackOverflow Encourages Cheating: Adding Question Text Improves Extractive Code Generation
Answering a programming question using only its title is difficult as salient contextual information is omitted. Based on this observation, we present a corpus of over 40,000 StackOverflow question texts to be used in conjunction with their corresponding intents from the CoNaLa dataset (Yin et al., 2018). Using both the intent and question body, we use BART to establish a baseline BLEU score of 34.35 for this new task. We find further improvements of $2.8\%$ by combining the mined CoNaLa data with the labeled data to achieve a 35.32 BLEU score. We evaluate prior state-of-the-art CoNaLa models with this additional data and find that our proposed method of using the body and mined data beats the BLEU score of the prior state-of-the-art by $71.96\%$. Finally, we perform ablations to demonstrate that BART is an unsupervised multimodal learner and examine its extractive behavior. The code and data can be found this https URL.
Gabriel Orlanski, Alex Gittens
2
Python
6/15/2021 Emergent Communication of Generalizations
To build agents that can collaborate effectively with others, recent research has trained artificial agents to communicate with each other in Lewis-style referential games. However, this often leads to successful but uninterpretable communication. We argue that this is due to the game objective: communicating about a single object in a shared visual context is prone to overfitting and does not encourage language useful beyond concrete reference. In contrast, human language conveys a rich variety of abstract ideas. To promote such skills, we propose games that require communicating generalizations over sets of objects representing abstract visual concepts, optionally with separate contexts for each agent. We find that these games greatly improve systematicity and interpretability of the learned languages, according to several metrics in the literature. Finally, we propose a method for identifying logical operations embedded in the emergent languages by learning an approximate compositional reconstruction of the language.
Jesse Mu, Noah Goodman
2
Python
6/15/2021 Are Pretrained Transformers Robust in Intent Classification? A Missing Ingredient in Evaluation of Out-of-Scope Intent Detection
Pretrained Transformer-based models were reported to be robust in intent classification. In this work, we first point out the importance of in-domain out-of-scope detection in few-shot intent recognition tasks and then illustrate the vulnerability of pretrained Transformer-based models against samples that are in-domain but out-of-scope (ID-OOS). We empirically show that pretrained models do not perform well on both ID-OOS examples and general out-of-scope examples, especially on fine-grained few-shot intent detection tasks. To figure out how the models mistakenly classify ID-OOS intents as in-scope intents, we further conduct analysis on confidence scores and the overlapping keywords and provide several prospective directions for future work. We release the relevant resources to facilitate future research.
Jian-Guo Zhang, Kazuma Hashimoto, Yao Wan, Ye Liu, Caiming Xiong, Philip S. Yu
6
Python
6/15/2021 Variational Information Bottleneck for Effective Low-Resource Fine-Tuning
While large-scale pretrained language models have obtained impressive results when fine-tuned on a wide variety of tasks, they still often suffer from overfitting in low-resource scenarios. Since such models are general-purpose feature extractors, many of these features are inevitably irrelevant for a given target task. We propose to use Variational Information Bottleneck (VIB) to suppress irrelevant features when fine-tuning on low-resource target tasks, and show that our method successfully reduces overfitting. Moreover, we show that our VIB model finds sentence representations that are more robust to biases in natural language inference datasets, and thereby obtains better generalization to out-of-domain datasets. Evaluation on seven low-resource datasets in different tasks shows that our method significantly improves transfer learning in low-resource scenarios, surpassing prior work. Moreover, it improves generalization on 13 out of 15 out-of-domain natural language inference benchmarks. Our code is publicly available in this https URL.
3
Python
6/15/2021 Ruddit: Norms of Offensiveness for English Reddit Comments
On social media platforms, hateful and offensive language negatively impact the mental well-being of users and the participation of people from diverse backgrounds. Automatic methods to detect offensive language have largely relied on datasets with categorical labels. However, comments can vary in their degree of offensiveness. We create the first dataset of English language Reddit comments that has \textit{fine-grained, real-valued scores} between -1 (maximally supportive) and 1 (maximally offensive). The dataset was annotated using \emph{Best--Worst Scaling}, a form of comparative annotation that has been shown to alleviate known biases of using rating scales. We show that the method produces highly reliable offensiveness scores. Finally, we evaluate the ability of widely-used neural models to predict offensiveness scores on this new dataset.
Rishav Hada, Sohi Sudhir, Pushkar Mishra, Helen Yannakoudakis, Saif M. Mohammad, Ekaterina Shutova
2
Python
6/15/2021 Exploiting Language Relatedness for Low Web-Resource Language Model Adaptation: An Indic Languages Study
Recent research in multilingual language models (LM) has demonstrated their ability to effectively handle multiple languages in a single model. This holds promise for low web-resource languages (LRL) as multilingual models can enable transfer of supervision from high resource languages to LRLs. However, incorporating a new language in an LM still remains a challenge, particularly for languages with limited corpora and in unseen scripts. In this paper we argue that relatedness among languages in a language family may be exploited to overcome some of the corpora limitations of LRLs, and propose RelateLM. We focus on Indian languages, and exploit relatedness along two dimensions: (1) script (since many Indic scripts originated from the Brahmic script), and (2) sentence structure. RelateLM uses transliteration to convert the unseen script of limited LRL text into the script of a Related Prominent Language (RPL) (Hindi in our case). While exploiting similar sentence structures, RelateLM utilizes readily available bilingual dictionaries to pseudo translate RPL text into LRL corpora. Experiments on multiple real-world benchmark datasets provide validation to our hypothesis that using a related language as pivot, along with transliteration and pseudo translation based data augmentation, can be an effective way to adapt LMs for LRLs, rather than direct training or pivoting through English.
Yash Khemchandani, Sarvesh Mehtani, Vaidehi Patil, Abhijeet Awasthi, Partha Talukdar, Sunita Sarawagi
2
Python
6/15/2021 Ultra-Fine Entity Typing with Weak Supervision from a Masked Language Model
Recently, there is an effort to extend fine-grained entity typing by using a richer and ultra-fine set of types, and labeling noun phrases including pronouns and nominal nouns instead of just named entity mentions. A key challenge for this ultra-fine entity typing task is that human annotated data are extremely scarce, and the annotation ability of existing distant or weak supervision approaches is very limited. To remedy this problem, in this paper, we propose to obtain training data for ultra-fine entity typing by using a BERT Masked Language Model (MLM). Given a mention in a sentence, our approach constructs an input for the BERT MLM so that it predicts context dependent hypernyms of the mention, which can be used as type labels. Experimental results demonstrate that, with the help of these automatically generated labels, the performance of an ultra-fine entity typing model can be improved substantially. We also show that our approach can be applied to improve traditional fine-grained entity typing after performing simple type mapping.
Hongliang Dai, Yangqiu Song, Haixun Wang
3
6/15/2021 Narrative Question Answering with Cutting-Edge Open-Domain QA Techniques: A Comprehensive Study
Recent advancements in open-domain question answering (ODQA), i.e., finding answers from large open-domain corpus like Wikipedia, have led to human-level performance on many datasets. However, progress in QA over book stories (Book QA) lags behind despite its similar task formulation to ODQA. This work provides a comprehensive and quantitative analysis about the difficulty of Book QA: (1) We benchmark the research on the NarrativeQA dataset with extensive experiments with cutting-edge ODQA techniques. This quantifies the challenges Book QA poses, as well as advances the published state-of-the-art with a $\sim$7\% absolute improvement on Rouge-L. (2) We further analyze the detailed challenges in Book QA through human studies.\footnote{\url{this https URL}.} Our findings indicate that the event-centric questions dominate this task, which exemplifies the inability of existing QA models to handle event-oriented scenarios.
Xiangyang Mou, Chenghao Yang, Mo Yu, Bingsheng Yao, Xiaoxiao Guo, Saloni Potdar, Hui Su
3
6/15/2021 Investigating Transfer Learning in Multilingual Pre-trained Language Models through Chinese Natural Language Inference
Multilingual transformers (XLM, mT5) have been shown to have remarkable transfer skills in zero-shot settings. Most transfer studies, however, rely on automatically translated resources (XNLI, XQuAD), making it hard to discern the particular linguistic knowledge that is being transferred, and the role of expert annotated monolingual datasets when developing task-specific models. We investigate the cross-lingual transfer abilities of XLM-R for Chinese and English natural language inference (NLI), with a focus on the recent large-scale Chinese dataset OCNLI. To better understand linguistic transfer, we created 4 categories of challenge and adversarial tasks (totaling 17 new datasets) for Chinese that build on several well-known resources for English (e.g., HANS, NLI stress-tests). We find that cross-lingual models trained on English NLI do transfer well across our Chinese tasks (e.g., in 3/4 of our challenge categories, they perform as well/better than the best monolingual models, even on 3/5 uniquely Chinese linguistic phenomena such as idioms, pro drop). These results, however, come with important caveats: cross-lingual models often perform best when trained on a mixture of English and high-quality monolingual NLI data (OCNLI), and are often hindered by automatically translated resources (XNLI-zh). For many phenomena, all models continue to struggle, highlighting the need for our new diagnostics to help benchmark Chinese and cross-lingual models. All new datasets/code are released at this https URL.
Hai Hu, He Zhou, Zuoyu Tian, Yiwen Zhang, Yina Ma, Yanting Li, Yixin Nie, Kyle Richardson
2
6/15/2021 cs60075_team2 at SemEval-2021 Task 1 : Lexical Complexity Prediction using Transformer-based Language Models pre-trained on various text corpora
This paper describes the performance of the team cs60075_team2 at SemEval 2021 Task 1 - Lexical Complexity Prediction. The main contribution of this paper is to fine-tune transformer-based language models pre-trained on several text corpora, some being general (E.g., Wikipedia, BooksCorpus), some being the corpora from which the CompLex Dataset was extracted, and others being from other specific domains such as Finance, Law, etc. We perform ablation studies on selecting the transformer models and how their individual complexity scores are aggregated to get the resulting complexity scores. Our method achieves a best Pearson Correlation of $0.784$ in sub-task 1 (single word) and $0.836$ in sub-task 2 (multiple word expressions).
Abhilash Nandy, Sayantan Adak, Tanurima Halder, Sai Mahesh Pokala
1
Jupyter Notebook
6/15/2021 How Did This Get Funded?! Automatically Identifying Quirky Scientific Achievements
Humor is an important social phenomenon, serving complex social and psychological functions. However, despite being studied for millennia humor is computationally not well understood, often considered an AI-complete problem. In this work, we introduce a novel setting in humor mining: automatically detecting funny and unusual scientific papers. We are inspired by the Ig Nobel prize, a satirical prize awarded annually to celebrate funny scientific achievements (example past winner: "Are cows more likely to lie down the longer they stand?"). This challenging task has unique characteristics that make it particularly suitable for automatic learning. We construct a dataset containing thousands of funny papers and use it to learn classifiers, combining findings from psychology and linguistics with recent advances in NLP. We use our models to identify potentially funny papers in a large dataset of over 630,000 articles. The results demonstrate the potential of our methods, and more broadly the utility of integrating state-of-the-art NLP methods with insights from more traditional disciplines.
Chen Shani, Nadav Borenstein, Dafna Shahaf
1
Python
6/15/2021 MultiOpEd: A Corpus of Multi-Perspective News Editorials
We propose MultiOpEd, an open-domain news editorial corpus that supports various tasks pertaining to the argumentation structure in news editorials, focusing on automatic perspective discovery. News editorial is a genre of persuasive text, where the argumentation structure is usually implicit. However, the arguments presented in an editorial typically center around a concise, focused thesis, which we refer to as their perspective. MultiOpEd aims at supporting the study of multiple tasks relevant to automatic perspective discovery, where a system is expected to produce a single-sentence thesis statement summarizing the arguments presented. We argue that identifying and abstracting such natural language perspectives from editorials is a crucial step toward studying the implicit argumentation structure in news editorials. We first discuss the challenges and define a few conceptual tasks towards our goal. To demonstrate the utility of MultiOpEd and the induced tasks, we study the problem of perspective summarization in a multi-task learning setting, as a case study. We show that, with the induced tasks as auxiliary tasks, we can improve the quality of the perspective summary generated. We hope that MultiOpEd will be a useful resource for future studies on argumentation in the news editorial domain.
Siyi Liu, Sihao Chen, Xander Uyttendaele, Dan Roth
1
Python
6/15/2021 Lexical Semantic Change Discovery
While there is a large amount of research in the field of Lexical Semantic Change Detection, only few approaches go beyond a standard benchmark evaluation of existing models. In this paper, we propose a shift of focus from change detection to change discovery, i.e., discovering novel word senses over time from the full corpus vocabulary. By heavily fine-tuning a type-based and a token-based approach on recently published German data, we demonstrate that both models can successfully be applied to discover new words undergoing meaning change. Furthermore, we provide an almost fully automated framework for both evaluation and discovery.
Sinan Kurtyigit, Maike Park, Dominik Schlechtweg, Jonas Kuhn, Sabine Schulte im Walde
1
Python
6/15/2021 AUGNLG: Few-shot Natural Language Generation using Self-trained Data Augmentation
Natural Language Generation (NLG) is a key component in a task-oriented dialogue system, which converts the structured meaning representation (MR) to the natural language. For large-scale conversational systems, where it is common to have over hundreds of intents and thousands of slots, neither template-based approaches nor model-based approaches are scalable. Recently, neural NLGs started leveraging transfer learning and showed promising results in few-shot settings. This paper proposes AUGNLG, a novel data augmentation approach that combines a self-trained neural retrieval model with a few-shot learned NLU model, to automatically create MR-to-Text data from open-domain texts. The proposed system mostly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods on the FewShotWOZ data in both BLEU and Slot Error Rate. We further confirm improved results on the FewShotSGD data and provide comprehensive analysis results on key components of our system. Our code and data are available at this https URL.
Xinnuo Xu, Guoyin Wang, Young-Bum Kim, Sungjin Lee
1
Python
6/15/2021 Making Better Use of Bilingual Information for Cross-Lingual AMR Parsing
Abstract Meaning Representation (AMR) is a rooted, labeled, acyclic graph representing the semantics of natural language. As previous works show, although AMR is designed for English at first, it can also represent semantics in other languages. However, they find that concepts in their predicted AMR graphs are less specific. We argue that the misprediction of concepts is due to the high relevance between English tokens and AMR concepts. In this work, we introduce bilingual input, namely the translated texts as well as non-English texts, in order to enable the model to predict more accurate concepts. Besides, we also introduce an auxiliary task, requiring the decoder to predict the English sequences at the same time. The auxiliary task can help the decoder understand what exactly the corresponding English tokens are. Our proposed cross-lingual AMR parser surpasses previous state-of-the-art parser by 10.6 points on Smatch F1 score. The ablation study also demonstrates the efficacy of our proposed modules.
Yitao Cai, Zhe Lin, Xiaojun Wan
1
Python
6/15/2021 PROST: Physical Reasoning of Objects through Space and Time
We present a new probing dataset named PROST: Physical Reasoning about Objects Through Space and Time. This dataset contains 18,736 multiple-choice questions made from 14 manually curated templates, covering 10 physical reasoning concepts. All questions are designed to probe both causal and masked language models in a zero-shot setting. We conduct an extensive analysis which demonstrates that state-of-the-art pretrained models are inadequate at physical reasoning: they are influenced by the order in which answer options are presented to them, they struggle when the superlative in a question is inverted (e.g., most <-> least), and increasing the amount of pretraining data and parameters only yields minimal improvements. These results provide support for the hypothesis that current pretrained models' ability to reason about physical interactions is inherently limited by a lack of real world experience. By highlighting these limitations, we hope to motivate the development of models with a human-like understanding of the physical world.
Stephane Aroca-Ouellette, Cory Paik, Alessandro Roncone, Katharina Kann
1
Python
6/15/2021 Linguistically Informed Masking for Representation Learning in the Patent Domain
Domain-specific contextualized language models have demonstrated substantial effectiveness gains for domain-specific downstream tasks, like similarity matching, entity recognition or information retrieval. However successfully applying such models in highly specific language domains requires domain adaptation of the pre-trained models. In this paper we propose the empirically motivated Linguistically Informed Masking (LIM) method to focus domain-adaptative pre-training on the linguistic patterns of patents, which use a highly technical sublanguage. We quantify the relevant differences between patent, scientific and general-purpose language and demonstrate for two different language models (BERT and SciBERT) that domain adaptation with LIM leads to systematically improved representations by evaluating the performance of the domain-adapted representations of patent language on two independent downstream tasks, the IPC classification and similarity matching. We demonstrate the impact of balancing the learning from different information sources during domain adaptation for the patent domain. We make the source code as well as the domain-adaptive pre-trained patent language models publicly available at this https URL.
Sophia Althammer, Mark Buckley, Sebastian Hofstatter, Allan Hanbury
1
Python
6/15/2021 End-to-End Training of Multi-Document Reader and Retriever for Open-Domain Question Answering
We present an end-to-end differentiable training method for retrieval-augmented open-domain question answering systems that combine information from multiple retrieved documents when generating answers. We model retrieval decisions as latent variables over sets of relevant documents. Since marginalizing over sets of retrieved documents is computationally hard, we approximate this using an expectation-maximization algorithm. We iteratively estimate the value of our latent variable (the set of relevant documents for a given question) and then use this estimate to update the retriever and reader parameters. We hypothesize that such end-to-end training allows training signals to flow to the reader and then to the retriever better than staged-wise training. This results in a retriever that is able to select more relevant documents for a question and a reader that is trained on more accurate documents to generate an answer. Experiments on three benchmark datasets demonstrate that our proposed method outperforms all existing approaches of comparable size by 2-3% absolute exact match points, achieving new state-of-the-art results. Our results also demonstrate the feasibility of learning to retrieve to improve answer generation without explicit supervision of retrieval decisions.
Devendra Singh Sachan, Siva Reddy, William Hamilton, Chris Dyer, Dani Yogatama
6
6/15/2021 NAST: A Non-Autoregressive Generator with Word Alignment for Unsupervised Text Style Transfer
Autoregressive models have been widely used in unsupervised text style transfer. Despite their success, these models still suffer from the content preservation problem that they usually ignore part of the source sentence and generate some irrelevant words with strong styles. In this paper, we propose a Non-Autoregressive generator for unsupervised text Style Transfer (NAST), which alleviates the problem from two aspects. First, we observe that most words in the transferred sentence can be aligned with related words in the source sentence, so we explicitly model word alignments to suppress irrelevant words. Second, existing models trained with the cycle loss align sentences in two stylistic text spaces, which lacks fine-grained control at the word level. The proposed non-autoregressive generator focuses on the connections between aligned words, which learns the word-level transfer between styles. For experiments, we integrate the proposed generator into two base models and evaluate them on two style transfer tasks. The results show that NAST can significantly improve the overall performance and provide explainable word alignments. Moreover, the non-autoregressive generator achieves over 10x speedups at inference. Our codes are available at this https URL.
Fei Huang, Zikai Chen, Chen Henry Wu, Qihan Guo, Xiaoyan Zhu, Minlie Huang
2
6/15/2021 A Review of Human Evaluation for Style Transfer
This paper reviews and summarizes human evaluation practices described in 97 style transfer papers with respect to three main evaluation aspects: style transfer, meaning preservation, and fluency. In principle, evaluations by human raters should be the most reliable. However, in style transfer papers, we find that protocols for human evaluations are often underspecified and not standardized, which hampers the reproducibility of research in this field and progress toward better human and automatic evaluation methods.
Eleftheria Briakou, Sweta Agrawal, Ke Zhang, Joel Tetreault, Marine Carpuat
1
6/15/2021 X2Parser: Cross-Lingual and Cross-Domain Framework for Task-Oriented Compositional Semantic Parsing
Task-oriented compositional semantic parsing (TCSP) handles complex nested user queries and serves as an essential component of virtual assistants. Current TCSP models rely on numerous training data to achieve decent performance but fail to generalize to low-resource target languages or domains. In this paper, we present X2Parser, a transferable Cross-lingual and Cross-domain Parser for TCSP. Unlike previous models that learn to generate the hierarchical representations for nested intents and slots, we propose to predict flattened intents and slots representations separately and cast both prediction tasks into sequence labeling problems. After that, we further propose a fertility-based slot predictor that first learns to dynamically detect the number of labels for each token, and then predicts the slot types. Experimental results illustrate that our model can significantly outperform existing strong baselines in cross-lingual and cross-domain settings, and our model can also achieve a good generalization ability on target languages of target domains. Furthermore, our model tackles the problem in an efficient non-autoregressive way that reduces the latency by up to 66% compared to the generative model.
Zihan Liu, Genta Indra Winata, Peng Xu, Pascale Fung
1
6/15/2021 Auto-tagging of Short Conversational Sentences using Natural Language Processing Methods
In this study, we aim to find a method to auto-tag sentences specific to a domain. Our training data comprises short conversational sentences extracted from chat conversations between company's customer representatives and web site visitors. We manually tagged approximately 14 thousand visitor inputs into ten basic categories, which will later be used in a transformer-based language model with attention mechanisms for the ultimate goal of developing a chatbot application that can produce meaningful dialogue. We considered three different state-of-the-art models and reported their auto-tagging capabilities. We achieved the best performance with the bidirectional encoder representation from transformers (BERT) model. Implementation of the models used in these experiments can be cloned from our GitHub repository and tested for similar auto-tagging problems without much effort.
Sukru Ozan, D. Emre Tasar
0
Jupyter Notebook
6/15/2021 A Targeted Assessment of Incremental Processing in Neural LanguageModels and Humans
We present a targeted, scaled-up comparison of incremental processing in humans and neural language models by collecting by-word reaction time data for sixteen different syntactic test suites across a range of structural phenomena. Human reaction time data comes from a novel online experimental paradigm called the Interpolated Maze task. We compare human reaction times to by-word probabilities for four contemporary language models, with different architectures and trained on a range of data set sizes. We find that across many phenomena, both humans and language models show increased processing difficulty in ungrammatical sentence regions with human and model accuracy' scores (a la Marvin and Linzen(2018)) about equal. However, although language model outputs match humans in direction, we show that models systematically under-predict the difference in magnitude of incremental processing difficulty between grammatical and ungrammatical sentences. Specifically, when models encounter syntactic violations they fail to accurately predict the longer reaction times observed in the human data. These results call into question whether contemporary language models are approaching human-like performance for sensitivity to syntactic violations.
Ethan Gotlieb Wilcox, Pranali Vani, Roger P. Levy
0
Jupyter Notebook
6/15/2021 Automatic Construction of Context-Aware Sentiment Lexicon in the Financial Domain Using Direction-Dependent Words
Increasing attention has been drawn to the sentiment analysis of financial documents. The most popular examples of such documents include analyst reports and economic news, the analysis of which is frequently used to capture the trends in market sentiments. On the other hand, the significance of the role sentiment analysis plays in the financial domain has given rise to the efforts to construct a financial domain-specific sentiment lexicon. Sentiment lexicons lend a hand for solving various text mining tasks, such as unsupervised classification of text data, while alleviating the arduous human labor required for manual labeling. One of the challenges in the construction of an effective sentiment lexicon is that the semantic orientation of a word may change depending on the context in which it appears. For instance, the word profit" usually conveys positive sentiments; however, when the word is juxtaposed with another word decrease," the sentiment associated with the phrase profit decreases" now becomes negative. Hence, the sentiment of a given word may shift as one begins to consider the context surrounding the word. In this paper, we address this issue by incorporating context when building sentiment lexicon from a given corpus. Specifically, we construct a lexicon named Senti-DD for the Sentiment lexicon composed of Direction-Dependent words, which expresses each term a pair of a directional word and a direction-dependent word. Experiment results show that higher classification performance is achieved with Senti-DD, proving the effectiveness of our method for automatically constructing a context-aware sentiment lexicon in the financial domain.
Jihye Park, Hye Jin Lee, Sungzoon Cho
0
Jupyter Notebook
6/15/2021 AGGGEN: Ordering and Aggregating while Generating
We present AGGGEN (pronounced 'again'), a data-to-text model which re-introduces two explicit sentence planning stages into neural data-to-text systems: input ordering and input aggregation. In contrast to previous work using sentence planning, our model is still end-to-end: AGGGEN performs sentence planning at the same time as generating text by learning latent alignments (via semantic facts) between input representation and target text. Experiments on the WebNLG and E2E challenge data show that by using fact-based alignments our approach is more interpretable, expressive, robust to noise, and easier to control, while retaining the advantages of end-to-end systems in terms of fluency. Our code is available at this https URL.
Xinnuo Xu, Ondrej Dusek, Verena Rieser, Ioannis Konstas
1
Lex
6/15/2021 Modeling the Unigram Distribution
The unigram distribution is the non-contextual probability of finding a specific word form in a corpus. While of central importance to the study of language, it is commonly approximated by each word's sample frequency in the corpus. This approach, being highly dependent on sample size, assigns zero probability to any out-of-vocabulary (oov) word form. As a result, it produces negatively biased probabilities for any oov word form, while positively biased probabilities to in-corpus words. In this work, we argue in favor of properly modeling the unigram distribution -- claiming it should be a central task in natural language processing. With this in mind, we present a novel model for estimating it in a language (a neuralization of Goldwater et al.'s (2011) model) and show it produces much better estimates across a diverse set of 7 languages than the naÃÂÃÂ¯ve use of neural character-level language models.
Irene Nikkarinen, Tiago Pimentel, Damian E. Blasi, Ryan Cotterell
1
Python
6/15/2021 RedditBias: A Real-World Resource for Bias Evaluation and Debiasing of Conversational Language Models
Text representation models are prone to exhibit a range of societal biases, reflecting the non-controlled and biased nature of the underlying pretraining data, which consequently leads to severe ethical issues and even bias amplification. Recent work has predominantly focused on measuring and mitigating bias in pretrained language models. Surprisingly, the landscape of bias measurements and mitigation resources and methods for conversational language models is still very scarce: it is limited to only a few types of bias, artificially constructed resources, and completely ignores the impact that debiasing methods may have on the final performance in dialog tasks, e.g., conversational response generation. In this work, we present RedditBias, the first conversational data set grounded in the actual human conversations from Reddit, allowing for bias measurement and mitigation across four important bias dimensions: gender, race, religion, and queerness. Further, we develop an evaluation framework which simultaneously 1) measures bias on the developed RedditBias resource, and 2) evaluates model capability in dialog tasks after model debiasing. We use the evaluation framework to benchmark the widely used conversational DialoGPT model along with the adaptations of four debiasing methods. Our results indicate that DialoGPT is biased with respect to religious groups and that some debiasing techniques can remove this bias while preserving downstream task performance.
Soumya Barikeri, Anne Lauscher, Ivan Vulic, Goran Glavas
0
Python
6/15/2021 Retrieve & Memorize: Dialog Policy Learning with Multi-Action Memory
Dialogue policy learning, a subtask that determines the content of system response generation and then the degree of task completion, is essential for task-oriented dialogue systems. However, the unbalanced distribution of system actions in dialogue datasets often causes difficulty in learning to generate desired actions and responses. In this paper, we propose a retrieve-and-memorize framework to enhance the learning of system actions. Specially, we first design a neural context-aware retrieval module to retrieve multiple candidate system actions from the training set given a dialogue context. Then, we propose a memory-augmented multi-decoder network to generate the system actions conditioned on the candidate actions, which allows the network to adaptively select key information in the candidate actions and ignore noises. We conduct experiments on the large-scale multi-domain task-oriented dialogue dataset MultiWOZ 2.0 and MultiWOZ 2.1.~Experimental results show that our method achieves competitive performance among several state-of-the-art models in the context-to-response generation task.
Yunhao Li, Yunyi Yang, Xiaojun Quan, Jianxing Yu
1
Python
6/15/2021 Fragmented and Valuable: Following Sentiment Changes in Food Tweets
We analysed sentiment and frequencies related to smell, taste and temperature expressed by food tweets in the Latvian language. To get a better understanding of the role of smell, taste and temperature in the mental map of food associations, we looked at such categories as 'tasty' and 'healthy', which turned out to be mutually exclusive. By analysing the occurrence frequency of words associated with these categories, we discovered that food discourse overall was permeated by tasty' while the category of 'healthy' was relatively small. Finally, we used the analysis of temporal dynamics to see if we can trace seasonality or other temporal aspects in smell, taste and temperature as reflected in food tweets. Understanding the composition of social media content with relation to smell, taste and temperature in food tweets allows us to develop our work further - on food culture/seasonality and its relation to temperature, on our limited capacity to express smell-related sentiments, and the lack of the paradigm of taste in discussing food healthiness.
Maija Kale, Matiss Rikters
0
Python
6/15/2021 Multi-hop Graph Convolutional Network with High-order Chebyshev Approximation for Text Reasoning
Graph convolutional network (GCN) has become popular in various natural language processing (NLP) tasks with its superiority in long-term and non-consecutive word interactions. However, existing single-hop graph reasoning in GCN may miss some important non-consecutive dependencies. In this study, we define the spectral graph convolutional network with the high-order dynamic Chebyshev approximation (HDGCN), which augments the multi-hop graph reasoning by fusing messages aggregated from direct and long-term dependencies into one convolutional layer. To alleviate the over-smoothing in high-order Chebyshev approximation, a multi-vote-based cross-attention (MVCAttn) with linear computation complexity is also proposed. The empirical results on four transductive and inductive NLP tasks and the ablation study verify the efficacy of the proposed model. Our source code is available at this https URL.
Shuoran Jiang, Qingcai Chen, Xin Liu, Baotian Hu, Lisai Zhang
0
Python
6/15/2021 Extractive Research Slide Generation Using Windowed Labeling Ranking
Presentation slides describing the content of scientific and technical papers are an efficient and effective way to present that work. However, manually generating presentation slides is labor intensive. We propose a method to automatically generate slides for scientific papers based on a corpus of 5000 paper-slide pairs compiled from conference proceedings websites. The sentence labeling module of our method is based on SummaRuNNer, a neural sequence model for extractive summarization. Instead of ranking sentences based on semantic similarities in the whole document, our algorithm measures importance and novelty of sentences by combining semantic and lexical features within a sentence window. Our method outperforms several baseline methods including SummaRuNNer by a significant margin in terms of ROUGE score.
Athar Sefid, Jian Wu, Prasenjit Mitra, Lee Giles
0
Python
6/15/2021 Relative Importance in Sentence Processing
Determining the relative importance of the elements in a sentence is a key factor for effortless natural language understanding. For human language processing, we can approximate patterns of relative importance by measuring reading fixations using eye-tracking technology. In neural language models, gradient-based saliency methods indicate the relative importance of a token for the target objective. In this work, we compare patterns of relative importance in English language processing by humans and models and analyze the underlying linguistic patterns. We find that human processing patterns in English correlate strongly with saliency-based importance in language models and not with attention-based importance. Our results indicate that saliency could be a cognitively more plausible metric for interpreting neural language models. The code is available on GitHub: this https URL
Nora Hollenstein, Lisa Beinborn
0
Python
6/15/2021 Great Service! Fine-grained Parsing of Implicit Arguments
Broad-coverage meaning representations in NLP mostly focus on explicitly expressed content. More importantly, the scarcity of datasets annotating diverse implicit roles limits empirical studies into their linguistic nuances. For example, in the web review "Great service!", the provider and consumer are implicit arguments of different types. We examine an annotated corpus of fine-grained implicit arguments (Cui and Hershcovich, 2020) by carefully re-annotating it, resolving several inconsistencies. Subsequently, we present the first transition-based neural parser that can handle implicit arguments dynamically, and experiment with two different transition systems on the improved dataset. We find that certain types of implicit arguments are more difficult to parse than others and that the simpler system is more accurate in recovering implicit arguments, despite having a lower overall parsing score, attesting current reasoning limitations of NLP models. This work will facilitate a better understanding of implicit and underspecified language, by incorporating it holistically into meaning representations.
Ruixiang Cui, Daniel Hershcovich
0
Python
6/15/2021 Measuring Conversational Uptake: A Case Study on Student-Teacher Interactions
In conversation, uptake happens when a speaker builds on the contribution of their interlocutor by, for example, acknowledging, repeating or reformulating what they have said. In education, teachers' uptake of student contributions has been linked to higher student achievement. Yet measuring and improving teachers' uptake at scale is challenging, as existing methods require expensive annotation by experts. We propose a framework for computationally measuring uptake, by (1) releasing a dataset of student-teacher exchanges extracted from US math classroom transcripts annotated for uptake by experts; (2) formalizing uptake as pointwise Jensen-Shannon Divergence (pJSD), estimated via next utterance classification; (3) conducting a linguistically-motivated comparison of different unsupervised measures and (4) correlating these measures with educational outcomes. We find that although repetition captures a significant part of uptake, pJSD outperforms repetition-based baselines, as it is capable of identifying a wider range of uptake phenomena like question answering and reformulation. We apply our uptake measure to three different educational datasets with outcome indicators. Unlike baseline measures, pJSD correlates significantly with instruction quality in all three, providing evidence for its generalizability and for its potential to serve as an automated professional development tool for teachers.
Dorottya Demszky, Jing Liu, Zid Mancenido, Julie Cohen, Heather Hill, Dan Jurafsky, Tatsunori Hashimoto
0
6/15/2021 Question Generation for Adaptive Education
Intelligent and adaptive online education systems aim to make high-quality education available for a diverse range of students. However, existing systems usually depend on a pool of hand-made questions, limiting how fine-grained and open-ended they can be in adapting to individual students. We explore targeted question generation as a controllable sequence generation task. We first show how to fine-tune pre-trained language models for deep knowledge tracing (LM-KT). This model accurately predicts the probability of a student answering a question correctly, and generalizes to questions not seen in training. We then use LM-KT to specify the objective and data for training a model to generate questions conditioned on the student and target difficulty. Our results show we succeed at generating novel, well-calibrated language translation questions for second language learners from a real online education platform.
Megha Srivastava, Noah Goodman
0