# The NLP Index

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Added Title Abstract Authors Paper Graph Code
5/29/2022 Lossless Acceleration for Seq2seq Generation with Aggressive Decoding
Tao Ge, Heming Xia, Xin Sun, Si-Qing Chen, Furu Wei
5617
Python
5/29/2022 Simple and Effective Relation-based Embedding Propagation for Knowledge Representation Learning
Relational graph neural networks have garnered particular attention to encode graph context in knowledge graphs (KGs). Although they achieved competitive performance on small KGs, how to efficiently and effectively utilize graph context for large KGs remains an open problem. To this end, we propose the Relation-based Embedding Propagation (REP) method. It is a post-processing technique to adapt pre-trained KG embeddings with graph context. As relations in KGs are directional, we model the incoming head context and the outgoing tail context separately. Accordingly, we design relational context functions with no external parameters. Besides, we use averaging to aggregate context information, making REP more computation-efficient. We theoretically prove that such designs can avoid information distortion during propagation. Extensive experiments also demonstrate that REP has significant scalability while improving or maintaining prediction quality. Notably, it averagely brings about 10% relative improvement to triplet-based embedding methods on OGBL-WikiKG2 and takes 5%-83% time to achieve comparable results as the state-of-the-art GC-OTE.
Huijuan Wang, Siming Dai, Weiyue Su, Hui Zhong, Zeyang Fang, Zhengjie Huang, Shikun Feng, Zeyu Chen, Yu Sun, Dianhai Yu
1299
Python
5/29/2022 The Devil is in the Details: On the Pitfalls of Vocabulary Selection in Neural Machine Translation
Vocabulary selection, or lexical shortlisting, is a well-known technique to improve latency of Neural Machine Translation models by constraining the set of allowed output words during inference. The chosen set is typically determined by separately trained alignment model parameters, independent of the source-sentence context at inference time. While vocabulary selection appears competitive with respect to automatic quality metrics in prior work, we show that it can fail to select the right set of output words, particularly for semantically non-compositional linguistic phenomena such as idiomatic expressions, leading to reduced translation quality as perceived by humans. Trading off latency for quality by increasing the size of the allowed set is often not an option in real-world scenarios. We propose a model of vocabulary selection, integrated into the neural translation model, that predicts the set of allowed output words from contextualized encoder representations. This restores translation quality of an unconstrained system, as measured by human evaluations on WMT newstest2020 and idiomatic expressions, at an inference latency competitive with alignment-based selection using aggressive thresholds, thereby removing the dependency on separately trained alignment models.
Tobias Domhan, Eva Hasler, Ke Tran, Sony Trenous, Bill Byrne, Felix Hieber
1075
Python
5/29/2022 PLAID: An Efficient Engine for Late Interaction Retrieval
Pre-trained language models are increasingly important components across multiple information retrieval (IR) paradigms. Late interaction, introduced with the ColBERT model and recently refined in ColBERTv2, is a popular paradigm that holds state-of-the-art status across many benchmarks. To dramatically speed up the search latency of late interaction, we introduce the Performance-optimized Late Interaction Driver (PLAID). Without impacting quality, PLAID swiftly eliminates low-scoring passages using a novel centroid interaction mechanism that treats every passage as a lightweight bag of centroids. PLAID uses centroid interaction as well as centroid pruning, a mechanism for sparsifying the bag of centroids, within a highly-optimized engine to reduce late interaction search latency by up to 7$\times$ on a GPU and 45$\times$ on a CPU against vanilla ColBERTv2, while continuing to deliver state-of-the-art retrieval quality. This allows the PLAID engine with ColBERTv2 to achieve latency of tens of milliseconds on a GPU and tens or just few hundreds of milliseconds on a CPU at large scale, even at the largest scales we evaluate with 140M passages.
Keshav Santhanam, Omar Khattab, Christopher Potts, Matei Zaharia
486
Python
5/29/2022 BBTv2: Pure Black-Box Optimization Can Be Comparable to Gradient Descent for Few-Shot Learning
Black-Box Tuning (BBT) is a derivative-free approach to optimize continuous prompt tokens prepended to the input of language models. Although BBT has achieved comparable performance to full model tuning on simple classification tasks under few-shot settings, it requires pre-trained prompt embedding to match model tuning on hard tasks (e.g., entailment tasks), and therefore does not completely get rid of the dependence on gradients. In this paper we present BBTv2, a pure black-box optimization approach that can drive language models to achieve comparable results to gradient-based optimization. In particular, we prepend continuous prompt tokens to every layer of the language model and propose a divide-and-conquer algorithm to alternately optimize the prompt tokens at different layers. For the optimization at each layer, we perform derivative-free optimization in a low-dimensional subspace, which is then randomly projected to the original prompt parameter space. Experimental results show that BBTv2 not only outperforms BBT by a large margin, but also achieves comparable or even better performance than full model tuning and state-of-the-art parameter-efficient methods (e.g., Adapter, LoRA, BitFit, etc.) under few-shot learning settings, while maintaining much fewer tunable parameters.
Tianxiang Sun, Zhengfu He, Hong Qian, Xuanjing Huang, Xipeng Qiu
70
Python
5/29/2022 NaturalProver: Grounded Mathematical Proof Generation with Language Models
Theorem proving in natural mathematical language - the mixture of symbolic and natural language used by humans - plays a central role in mathematical advances and education, and tests aspects of reasoning that are core to intelligence. Yet it has remained underexplored with modern generative models. We study large-scale language models on two new generation tasks: suggesting the next step in a mathematical proof, and full proof generation. Naively applying language models to these problems yields proofs riddled with hallucinations and logical incoherence. We develop NaturalProver, a language model that generates proofs by conditioning on background references (e.g. theorems and definitions that are either retrieved or human-provided), and optionally enforces their presence with constrained decoding. On theorems from the NaturalProofs benchmark, NaturalProver improves the quality of next-step suggestions and generated proofs over fine-tuned GPT-3, according to human evaluations from university-level mathematics students. NaturalProver is capable of proving some theorems that require short (2-6 step) proofs, and providing next-step suggestions that are rated as correct and useful over 40% of the time, which is to our knowledge the first demonstration of these capabilities using neural language models.
Sean Welleck, Jiacheng Liu, Ximing Lu, Hannaneh Hajishirzi, Yejin Choi
70
Python
5/29/2022 Automated Crossword Solving
We present the Berkeley Crossword Solver, a state-of-the-art approach for automatically solving crossword puzzles. Our system works by generating answer candidates for each crossword clue using neural question answering models and then combines loopy belief propagation with local search to find full puzzle solutions. Compared to existing approaches, our system improves exact puzzle accuracy from 57% to 82% on crosswords from The New York Times and obtains 99.9% letter accuracy on themeless puzzles. Our system also won first place at the top human crossword tournament, which marks the first time that a computer program has surpassed human performance at this event. To facilitate research on question answering and crossword solving, we analyze our system's remaining errors and release a dataset of over six million question-answer pairs.
Eric Wallace, Nicholas Tomlin, Albert Xu, Kevin Yang, Eshaan Pathak, Matthew Ginsberg, Dan Klein
63
Python
5/29/2022 RankGen: Improving Text Generation with Large Ranking Models
Given an input sequence (or prefix), modern language models often assign high probabilities to output sequences that are repetitive, incoherent, or irrelevant to the prefix; as such, model-generated text also contains such artifacts. To address these issues, we present RankGen, an encoder model (1.2B parameters) that scores model generations given a prefix. RankGen can be flexibly incorporated as a scoring function in beam search and used to decode from any pretrained language model. We train RankGen using large-scale contrastive learning to map a prefix close to the ground-truth sequence that follows it and far away from two types of negatives: (1) random sequences from the same document as the prefix, and, which discourage topically-similar but irrelevant generations; (2) sequences generated from a large language model conditioned on the prefix, which discourage repetition and hallucination. Experiments across four different language models (345M-11B parameters) and two domains show that RankGen significantly outperforms decoding algorithms like nucleus, top-k, and typical sampling on both automatic metrics (85.0 vs 77.3 MAUVE) as well as human evaluations with English writers (74.5% human preference over nucleus sampling). Analysis reveals that RankGen outputs are more relevant to the prefix and improve continuity and coherence compared to baselines. We open source our model checkpoints, code, and human preferences with detailed explanations for future research.
Kalpesh Krishna, Yapei Chang, John Wieting, Mohit Iyyer
62
Python
5/29/2022 The VoicePrivacy 2020 Challenge Evaluation Plan
The VoicePrivacy Challenge aims to promote the development of privacy preservation tools for speech technology by gathering a new community to define the tasks of interest and the evaluation methodology, and benchmarking solutions through a series of challenges. In this document, we formulate the voice anonymization task selected for the VoicePrivacy 2020 Challenge and describe the datasets used for system development and evaluation. We also present the attack models and the associated objective and subjective evaluation metrics. We introduce two anonymization baselines and report objective evaluation results.
Natalia Tomashenko, Brij Mohan Lal Srivastava, Xin Wang, Emmanuel Vincent, Andreas Nautsch, Junichi Yamagishi, Nicholas Evans, Jose Patino, Jean-Francois Bonastre, Paul-Gauthier Noe, Massimiliano Todisco
46
Shell
5/29/2022 BanglaNLG: Benchmarks and Resources for Evaluating Low-Resource Natural Language Generation in Bangla
This work presents BanglaNLG, a comprehensive benchmark for evaluating natural language generation (NLG) models in Bangla, a widely spoken yet low-resource language in the web domain. We aggregate three challenging conditional text generation tasks under the BanglaNLG benchmark. Then, using a clean corpus of 27.5 GB of Bangla data, we pretrain BanglaT5, a sequence-to-sequence Transformer model for Bangla. BanglaT5 achieves state-of-the-art performance in all of these tasks, outperforming mT5 (base) by up to 5.4%. We are making the BanglaT5 language model and a leaderboard publicly available in the hope of advancing future research and evaluation on Bangla NLG. The resources can be found at this https URL.
Abhik Bhattacharjee, Tahmid Hasan, Wasi Uddin Ahmad, Rifat Shahriyar
29
Shell
5/29/2022 Fine-grained Image Captioning with CLIP Reward
Modern image captioning models are usually trained with text similarity objectives. However, since reference captions in public datasets often describe the most salient common objects, models trained with text similarity objectives tend to ignore specific and detailed aspects of an image that distinguish it from others. Toward more descriptive and distinctive caption generation, we propose using CLIP, a multimodal encoder trained on huge image-text pairs from web, to calculate multimodal similarity and use it as a reward function. We also propose a simple finetuning strategy of the CLIP text encoder to improve grammar that does not require extra text annotation. This completely eliminates the need for reference captions during the reward computation. To comprehensively evaluate descriptive captions, we introduce FineCapEval, a new dataset for caption evaluation with fine-grained criteria: overall, background, object, relations. In our experiments on text-to-image retrieval and FineCapEval, the proposed CLIP-guided model generates more distinctive captions than the CIDEr-optimized model. We also show that our unsupervised grammar finetuning of the CLIP text encoder alleviates the degeneration problem of the naive CLIP reward. Lastly, we show human analysis where the annotators strongly prefer the CLIP reward to the CIDEr and MLE objectives according to various criteria. Code and Data: this https URL
Jaemin Cho, Seunghyun Yoon, Ajinkya Kale, Franck Dernoncourt, Trung Bui, Mohit Bansal
28
Python
5/29/2022 Perturbation Augmentation for Fairer NLP
Unwanted and often harmful social biases are becoming ever more salient in NLP research, affecting both models and datasets. In this work, we ask: does training on demographically perturbed data lead to more fair language models? We collect a large dataset of human annotated text perturbations and train an automatic perturber on it, which we show to outperform heuristic alternatives. We find: (i) Language models (LMs) pre-trained on demographically perturbed corpora are more fair, at least, according to our current best metrics for measuring model fairness, and (ii) LMs finetuned on perturbed GLUE datasets exhibit less demographic bias on downstream tasks. We find that improved fairness does not come at the expense of accuracy. Although our findings appear promising, there are still some limitations, as well as outstanding questions about how best to evaluate the (un)fairness of large language models. We hope that this initial exploration of neural demographic perturbation will help drive more improvement towards fairer NLP.
Rebecca Qian, Candace Ross, Jude Fernandes, Eric Smith, Douwe Kiela, Adina Williams
27
Python
5/29/2022 Attentional Mixtures of Soft Prompt Tuning for Parameter-efficient Multi-task Knowledge Sharing
This work introduces ATTEMPT (Attentional Mixture of Prompt Tuning), a new modular, multi-task, and parameter-efficient language model (LM) tuning approach that combines knowledge transferred across different tasks via a mixture of soft prompts while keeping original LM unchanged. ATTEMPT interpolates a set of prompts trained on large-scale source tasks and a newly initialized target task prompt using instance-wise attention computed by a lightweight sub-network trained on multiple target tasks. ATTEMPT is parameter-efficient (e.g., updates 1,600 times fewer parameters than fine-tuning) and enables multi-task learning and flexible extensions; importantly, it is also more interpretable because it demonstrates which source tasks affect the final model decision on target tasks. Experimental results across 17 diverse datasets show that ATTEMPT improves prompt tuning by up to a 22% absolute performance gain and outperforms or matches fully fine-tuned or other parameter-efficient tuning approaches that use over ten times more parameters.
Akari Asai, Mohammadreza Salehi, Matthew E. Peters, Hannaneh Hajishirzi
25
5/29/2022 Large Language Models are Zero-Shot Reasoners
Pretrained large language models (LLMs) are widely used in many sub-fields of natural language processing (NLP) and generally known as excellent few-shot learners with task-specific exemplars. Notably, chain of thought (CoT) prompting, a recent technique for eliciting complex multi-step reasoning through step-by-step answer examples, achieved the state-of-the-art performances in arithmetics and symbolic reasoning, difficult system-2 tasks that do not follow the standard scaling laws for LLMs. While these successes are often attributed to LLMs' ability for few-shot learning, we show that LLMs are decent zero-shot reasoners by simply adding Let's think step by step'' before each answer. Experimental results demonstrate that our Zero-shot-CoT, using the same single prompt template, significantly outperforms zero-shot LLM performances on diverse benchmark reasoning tasks including arithmetics (MultiArith, GSM8K, AQUA-RAT, SVAMP), symbolic reasoning (Last Letter, Coin Flip), and other logical reasoning tasks (Date Understanding, Tracking Shuffled Objects), without any hand-crafted few-shot examples, e.g. increasing the accuracy on MultiArith from 17.7% to 78.7% and GSM8K from 10.4% to 40.7% with an off-the-shelf 175B parameter model. The versatility of this single prompt across very diverse reasoning tasks hints at untapped and understudied fundamental zero-shot capabilities of LLMs, suggesting high-level, multi-task broad cognitive capabilities may be extracted through simple prompting. We hope our work not only serves as the minimal strongest zero-shot baseline for the challenging reasoning benchmarks, but also highlights the importance of carefully exploring and analyzing the enormous zero-shot knowledge hidden inside LLMs before crafting finetuning datasets or few-shot exemplars.
Takeshi Kojima, Shixiang Shane Gu, Machel Reid, Yutaka Matsuo, Yusuke Iwasawa
17
Python
5/29/2022 StreamingQA: A Benchmark for Adaptation to New Knowledge over Time in Question Answering Models
Knowledge and language understanding of models evaluated through question answering (QA) has been usually studied on static snapshots of knowledge, like Wikipedia. However, our world is dynamic, evolves over time, and our models' knowledge becomes outdated. To study how semi-parametric QA models and their underlying parametric language models (LMs) adapt to evolving knowledge, we construct a new large-scale dataset, StreamingQA, with human written and generated questions asked on a given date, to be answered from 14 years of time-stamped news articles. We evaluate our models quarterly as they read new articles not seen in pre-training. We show that parametric models can be updated without full retraining, while avoiding catastrophic forgetting. For semi-parametric models, adding new articles into the search space allows for rapid adaptation, however, models with an outdated underlying LM under-perform those with a retrained LM. For questions about higher-frequency named entities, parametric updates are particularly beneficial. In our dynamic world, the StreamingQA dataset enables a more realistic evaluation of QA models, and our experiments highlight several promising directions for future research.
Adam Liska, Tomas Kocisky, Elena Gribovskaya, Tayfun Terzi, Eren Sezener, Devang Agrawal, Cyprien de Masson d'Autume, Tim Scholtes, Manzil Zaheer, Susannah Young, Ellen Gilsenan-McMahon, Sophia Austin, Phil Blunsom, Angeliki Lazaridou
16
Python
5/29/2022 Automatic Rule Induction for Efficient Semi-Supervised Learning
Semi-supervised learning has shown promise in allowing NLP models to generalize from small amounts of labeled data. Meanwhile, pretrained transformer models act as black-box correlation engines that are difficult to explain and sometimes behave unreliably. In this paper, we propose tackling both of these challenges via Automatic Rule Induction (ARI), a simple and general-purpose framework for the automatic discovery and integration of symbolic rules into pretrained transformer models. First, we extract weak symbolic rules from low-capacity machine learning models trained on small amounts of labeled data. Next, we use an attention mechanism to integrate these rules into high-capacity pretrained transformer models. Last, the rule-augmented system becomes part of a self-training framework to boost supervision signal on unlabeled data. These steps can be layered beneath a variety of existing weak supervision and semi-supervised NLP algorithms in order to improve performance and interpretability. Experiments across nine sequence classification and relation extraction tasks suggest that ARI can improve state-of-the-art methods with no manual effort and minimal computational overhead.
Reid Pryzant, Ziyi Yang, Yichong Xu, Chenguang Zhu, Michael Zeng
16
Python
5/29/2022 M3ED: Multi-modal Multi-scene Multi-label Emotional Dialogue Database
The emotional state of a speaker can be influenced by many different factors in dialogues, such as dialogue scene, dialogue topic, and interlocutor stimulus. The currently available data resources to support such multimodal affective analysis in dialogues are however limited in scale and diversity. In this work, we propose a Multi-modal Multi-scene Multi-label Emotional Dialogue dataset, M3ED, which contains 990 dyadic emotional dialogues from 56 different TV series, a total of 9,082 turns and 24,449 utterances. M3 ED is annotated with 7 emotion categories (happy, surprise, sad, disgust, anger, fear, and neutral) at utterance level, and encompasses acoustic, visual, and textual modalities. To the best of our knowledge, M3ED is the first multimodal emotional dialogue dataset in Chinese. It is valuable for cross-culture emotion analysis and recognition. We apply several state-of-the-art methods on the M3ED dataset to verify the validity and quality of the dataset. We also propose a general Multimodal Dialogue-aware Interaction framework, MDI, to model the dialogue context for emotion recognition, which achieves comparable performance to the state-of-the-art methods on the M3ED. The full dataset and codes are available.
Jinming Zhao, Tenggan Zhang, Jingwen Hu, Yuchen Liu, Qin Jin, Xinchao Wang, Haizhou Li
15
5/29/2022 FactPEGASUS: Factuality-Aware Pre-training and Fine-tuning for Abstractive Summarization
We present FactPEGASUS, an abstractive summarization model that addresses the problem of factuality during pre-training and fine-tuning: (1) We augment the sentence selection strategy of PEGASUS's (Zhang et al., 2020) pre-training objective to create pseudo-summaries that are both important and factual; (2) We introduce three complementary components for fine-tuning. The corrector removes hallucinations present in the reference summary, the contrastor uses contrastive learning to better differentiate nonfactual summaries from factual ones, and the connector bridges the gap between the pre-training and fine-tuning for better transfer of knowledge. Experiments on three downstream tasks demonstrate that FactPEGASUS substantially improves factuality evaluated by multiple automatic metrics and humans. Our thorough analysis suggests that FactPEGASUS is more factual than using the original pre-training objective in zero-shot and few-shot settings, retains factual behavior more robustly than strong baselines, and does not rely entirely on becoming more extractive to improve factuality. Our code and data are publicly available at: this https URL
David Wan, Mohit Bansal
12
Python
5/29/2022 Exploring Extreme Parameter Compression for Pre-trained Language Models
Recent work explored the potential of large-scale Transformer-based pre-trained models, especially Pre-trained Language Models (PLMs) in natural language processing. This raises many concerns from various perspectives, e.g., financial costs and carbon emissions. Compressing PLMs like BERT with negligible performance loss for faster inference and cheaper deployment has attracted much attention. In this work, we aim to explore larger compression ratios for PLMs, among which tensor decomposition is a potential but under-investigated one. Two decomposition and reconstruction protocols are further proposed to improve the effectiveness and efficiency during compression. Our compressed BERT with ${1}/{7}$ parameters in Transformer layers performs on-par with, sometimes slightly better than the original BERT in GLUE benchmark. A tiny version achieves $96.7\%$ performance of BERT-base with ${1}/{48}$ encoder parameters (i.e., less than 2M parameters excluding the embedding layer) and $2.7 \times$ faster on inference. To show that the proposed method is orthogonal to existing compression methods like knowledge distillation, we also explore the benefit of the proposed method on a distilled BERT.
Yuxin Ren, Benyou Wang, Lifeng Shang, Xin Jiang, Qun Liu
12
Python
5/29/2022 Other Roles Matter! Enhancing Role-Oriented Dialogue Summarization via Role Interactions
Role-oriented dialogue summarization is to generate summaries for different roles in the dialogue, e.g., merchants and consumers. Existing methods handle this task by summarizing each role's content separately and thus are prone to ignore the information from other roles. However, we believe that other roles' content could benefit the quality of summaries, such as the omitted information mentioned by other roles. Therefore, we propose a novel role interaction enhanced method for role-oriented dialogue summarization. It adopts cross attention and decoder self-attention interactions to interactively acquire other roles' critical information. The cross attention interaction aims to select other roles' critical dialogue utterances, while the decoder self-attention interaction aims to obtain key information from other roles' summaries. Experimental results have shown that our proposed method significantly outperforms strong baselines on two public role-oriented dialogue summarization datasets. Extensive analyses have demonstrated that other roles' content could help generate summaries with more complete semantics and correct topic structures.
Haitao Lin, Junnan Zhu, Lu Xiang, Yu Zhou, Jiajun Zhang, Chengqing Zong
12
Python
5/29/2022 Leveraging Pseudo-labeled Data to Improve Direct Speech-to-Speech Translation
Direct Speech-to-speech translation (S2ST) has drawn more and more attention recently. The task is very challenging due to data scarcity and complex speech-to-speech mapping. In this paper, we report our recent achievements in S2ST. Firstly, we build a S2ST Transformer baseline which outperforms the original Translatotron. Secondly, we utilize the external data by pseudo-labeling and obtain a new state-of-the-art result on the Fisher English-to-Spanish test set. Indeed, we exploit the pseudo data with a combination of popular techniques which are not trivial when applied to S2ST. Moreover, we evaluate our approach on both syntactically similar (Spanish-English) and distant (English-Chinese) language pairs. Our implementation is available at this https URL.
Qianqian Dong, Fengpeng Yue, Tom Ko, Mingxuan Wang, Qibing Bai, Yu Zhang
11
Python
5/29/2022 Visually-Augmented Language Modeling
Human language is grounded on multimodal knowledge including visual knowledge like colors, sizes, and shapes. However, current large-scale pre-trained language models rely on the text-only self-supervised training with massive text data, which precludes them from utilizing relevant visual information when necessary. To address this, we propose a novel pre-training framework, named VaLM, to Visually-augment text tokens with retrieved relevant images for Language Modeling. Specifically, VaLM builds on a novel text-vision alignment method via an image retrieval module to fetch corresponding images given a textual context. With the visually-augmented context, VaLM uses a visual knowledge fusion layer to enable multimodal grounded language modeling by attending on both text context and visual knowledge in images. We evaluate the proposed model on various multimodal commonsense reasoning tasks, which require visual information to excel. VaLM outperforms the text-only baseline with substantial gains of +8.66% and +37.81% accuracy on object color and size reasoning, respectively.
Weizhi Wang, Li Dong, Hao Cheng, Haoyu Song, Xiaodong Liu, Xifeng Yan, Jianfeng Gao, Furu Wei
10
Python
5/29/2022 Summarization as Indirect Supervision for Relation Extraction
Relation extraction (RE) models have been challenged by their reliance on training data with expensive annotations. Considering that summarization tasks aim at acquiring concise expressions of synoptical information from the longer context, these tasks naturally align with the objective of RE, i.e., extracting a kind of synoptical information that describes the relation of entity mentions. We present SuRE, which converts RE into a summarization formulation. SuRE leads to more precise and resource-efficient RE based on indirect supervision from summarization tasks. To achieve this goal, we develop sentence and relation conversion techniques that essentially bridge the formulation of summarization and RE tasks. We also incorporate constraint decoding techniques with Trie scoring to further enhance summarization-based RE with robust inference. Experiments on three RE datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of SuRE in both full-dataset and low-resource settings, showing that summarization is a promising source of indirect supervision to improve RE models.
Keming Lu, I-Hung Hsu, Wenxuan Zhou, Mingyu Derek Ma, Muhao Chen
9
5/29/2022 Twist Decoding: Diverse Generators Guide Each Other
Natural language generation technology has recently seen remarkable progress with large-scale training, and many natural language applications are now built upon a wide range of generation models. Combining diverse models may lead to further progress, but conventional ensembling (e.g., shallow fusion) requires that they share vocabulary/tokenization schemes. We introduce Twist decoding, a simple and general inference algorithm that generates text while benefiting from diverse models. Our method does not assume the vocabulary, tokenization or even generation order is shared. Our extensive evaluations on machine translation and scientific paper summarization demonstrate that Twist decoding substantially outperforms each model decoded in isolation over various scenarios, including cases where domain-specific and general-purpose models are both available. Twist decoding also consistently outperforms the popular reranking heuristic where output candidates from one model is rescored by another. We hope that our work will encourage researchers and practitioners to examine generation models collectively, not just independently, and to seek out models with complementary strengths to the currently available models.
Jungo Kasai, Keisuke Sakaguchi, Ronan Le Bras, Hao Peng, Ximing Lu, Dragomir Radev, Yejin Choi, Noah A. Smith
8
Python
5/29/2022 Training Language Models with Memory Augmentation
Recent work has improved language models remarkably by equipping them with a non-parametric memory component. However, most existing approaches only introduce memories at testing time, or represent them using a separately trained encoder -- resulting in sub-optimal training of the language model. In this work, we present TRIME, a novel yet simple training approach designed for training language models with memory augmentation. Our approach uses a training objective that directly takes in-batch examples as accessible memory. We also present new methods for memory construction and data batching, which are used for adapting to different sets of memories -- local, long-term, and external memory -- at testing time. We evaluate our approach on multiple language modeling and machine translation benchmarks. We find that simply replacing the vanilla language modeling objective by ours greatly reduces the perplexity, without modifying the model architecture or incorporating extra context (e.g., 18.70 $\to$ 17.76 on WikiText-103). We further augment language models with long-range contexts and external knowledge and demonstrate significant gains over previous memory-augmented approaches.
Zexuan Zhong, Tao Lei, Danqi Chen
7
5/29/2022 Efficient Unsupervised Sentence Compression by Fine-tuning Transformers with Reinforcement Learning
Sentence compression reduces the length of text by removing non-essential content while preserving important facts and grammaticality. Unsupervised objective driven methods for sentence compression can be used to create customized models without the need for ground-truth training data, while allowing flexibility in the objective function(s) that are used for learning and inference. Recent unsupervised sentence compression approaches use custom objectives to guide discrete search; however, guided search is expensive at inference time. In this work, we explore the use of reinforcement learning to train effective sentence compression models that are also fast when generating predictions. In particular, we cast the task as binary sequence labelling and fine-tune a pre-trained transformer using a simple policy gradient approach. Our approach outperforms other unsupervised models while also being more efficient at inference time.
Demian Gholipour Ghalandari, Chris Hokamp, Georgiana Ifrim
6
Python
5/29/2022 Generating Natural Language Proofs with Verifier-Guided Search
Deductive reasoning (drawing conclusions from assumptions) is a challenging problem in NLP. In this work, we focus on proof generation: given a hypothesis and a set of supporting facts in natural language, the model generates a proof tree indicating how to deduce the hypothesis from supporting facts. Instead of generating the entire proof in one shot, prior work has demonstrated the promise of stepwise generation but achieved limited success on real-world data. Existing stepwise methods struggle to generate proof steps that are both valid and relevant. In this paper, we present a novel stepwise method NLProofS (Natural Language Proof Search), which learns to generate relevant steps conditioning on the hypothesis. At the core of our approach, we train an independent verifier to check the validity of proof steps. Instead of generating steps greedily, we search for proofs maximizing a global proof score judged by the verifier. NLProofS achieves state-of-the-art performance on EntailmentBank and RuleTaker. For example, it improves the percentage of correctly predicted proofs from 20.9% to 33.3% in the distractor setting of EntailmentBank. This is the first time stepwise methods have led to better generation of challenging human-authored proofs.
Kaiyu Yang, Jia Deng, Danqi Chen
6
5/29/2022 RuNNE-2022 Shared Task: Recognizing Nested Named Entities
The RuNNE Shared Task approaches the problem of nested named entity recognition. The annotation schema is designed in such a way, that an entity may partially overlap or even be nested into another entity. This way, the named entity "The Yermolova Theatre" of type "organization" houses another entity "Yermolova" of type "person". We adopt the Russian NEREL dataset for the RuNNE Shared Task. NEREL comprises news texts written in the Russian language and collected from the Wikinews portal. The annotation schema includes 29 entity types. The nestedness of named entities in NEREL reaches up to six levels. The RuNNE Shared Task explores two setups. (i) In the general setup all entities occur more or less with the same frequency. (ii) In the few-shot setup the majority of entity types occur often in the training set. However, some of the entity types are have lower frequency, being thus challenging to recognize. In the test set the frequency of all entity types is even. This paper reports on the results of the RuNNE Shared Task. Overall the shared task has received 156 submissions from nine teams. Half of the submissions outperform a straightforward BERT-based baseline in both setups. This paper overviews the shared task setup and discusses the submitted systems, discovering meaning insights for the problem of nested NER. The links to the evaluation platform and the data from the shared task are available in our github repository: this https URL.
Ekaterina Artemova, Maxim Zmeev, Natalia Loukachevitch, Igor Rozhkov, Tatiana Batura, Vladimir Ivanov, Elena Tutubalina
5
Python
5/29/2022 History Compression via Language Models in Reinforcement Learning
In a partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP), an agent typically uses a representation of the past to approximate the underlying MDP. We propose to utilize a frozen Pretrained Language Transformer (PLT) for history representation and compression to improve sample efficiency. To avoid training of the Transformer, we introduce FrozenHopfield, which automatically associates observations with original token embeddings. To form these associations, a modern Hopfield network stores the original token embeddings, which are retrieved by queries that are obtained by a random but fixed projection of observations. Our new method, HELM, enables actor-critic network architectures that contain a pretrained language Transformer for history representation as a memory module. Since a representation of the past need not be learned, HELM is much more sample efficient than competitors. On Minigrid and Procgen environments HELM achieves new state-of-the-art results. Our code is available at this https URL.
Fabian Paischer, Thomas Adler, Vihang Patil, Angela Bitto-Nemling, Markus Holzleitner, Sebastian Lehner, Hamid Eghbal-zadeh, Sepp Hochreiter
5
Python
5/29/2022 Transformers as Neural Augmentors: Class Conditional Sentence Generation via Variational Bayes
Data augmentation methods for Natural Language Processing tasks are explored in recent years, however they are limited and it is hard to capture the diversity on sentence level. Besides, it is not always possible to perform data augmentation on supervised tasks. To address those problems, we propose a neural data augmentation method, which is a combination of Conditional Variational Autoencoder and encoder-decoder Transformer model. While encoding and decoding the input sentence, our model captures the syntactic and semantic representation of the input language with its class condition. Following the developments in the past years on pre-trained language models, we train and evaluate our models on several benchmarks to strengthen the downstream tasks. We compare our method with 3 different augmentation techniques. The presented results show that, our model increases the performance of current models compared to other data augmentation techniques with a small amount of computation power.
M. Safak Bilici, Mehmet Fatih Amasyali
5
Python
5/29/2022 Teaching Broad Reasoning Skills via Decomposition-Guided Contexts
Question-answering datasets require a broad set of reasoning skills. We show how to use question decompositions to teach language models these broad reasoning skills in a robust fashion. Specifically, we use widely available QDMR representations to programmatically create synthetic contexts for real questions in six multihop reasoning datasets. These contexts are carefully designed to avoid common reasoning shortcuts prevalent in real contexts that prevent models from learning the right skills. This results in a pretraining dataset, named TeaBReaC, containing 525K multihop questions (with associated formal programs) covering about 900 reasoning patterns. We show that pretraining standard language models (LMs) on TeaBReaC before fine-tuning them on target datasets improves their performance by up to 13 EM points across 3 multihop QA datasets, with a 30 point gain on more complex questions. The resulting models also demonstrate higher robustness, with a 6-11 point improvement on two contrast sets. Furthermore, TeaBReaC pretraining substantially improves model performance and robustness even when starting with numeracy-aware LMs pretrained using recent methods (e.g., PReasM). Our work thus shows how one can effectively use decomposition-guided contexts to robustly teach multihop reasoning.
Harsh Trivedi, Niranjan Balasubramanian, Tushar Khot, Ashish Sabharwal
5
5/29/2022 Using Natural Sentences for Understanding Biases in Language Models
Evaluation of biases in language models is often limited to synthetically generated datasets. This dependence traces back to the need for a prompt-style dataset to trigger specific behaviors of language models. In this paper, we address this gap by creating a prompt dataset with respect to occupations collected from real-world natural sentences present in Wikipedia. We aim to understand the differences between using template-based prompts and natural sentence prompts when studying gender-occupation biases in language models. We find bias evaluations are very sensitive to the design choices of template prompts, and we propose using natural sentence prompts for systematic evaluations to step away from design choices that could introduce bias in the observations.
Sarah Alnegheimish, Alicia Guo, Yi Sun
4
Python
5/29/2022 Tracing Knowledge in Language Models Back to the Training Data
Neural language models (LMs) have been shown to memorize a great deal of factual knowledge. But when an LM generates an assertion, it is often difficult to determine where it learned this information and whether it is true. In this paper, we introduce a new benchmark for fact tracing: tracing language models' assertions back to the training examples that provided evidence for those predictions. Prior work has suggested that dataset-level influence methods might offer an effective framework for tracing predictions back to training data. However, such methods have not been evaluated for fact tracing, and researchers primarily have studied them through qualitative analysis or as a data cleaning technique for classification/regression tasks. We present the first experiments that evaluate influence methods for fact tracing, using well-understood information retrieval (IR) metrics. We compare two popular families of influence methods -- gradient-based and embedding-based -- and show that neither can fact-trace reliably; indeed, both methods fail to outperform an IR baseline (BM25) that does not even access the LM. We explore why this occurs (e.g., gradient saturation) and demonstrate that existing influence methods must be improved significantly before they can reliably attribute factual predictions in LMs.
Ekin Akyurek, Tolga Bolukbasi, Frederick Liu, Binbin Xiong, Ian Tenney, Jacob Andreas, Kelvin Guu
4
Python
5/29/2022 Knowledge Graph Question Answering Datasets and Their Generalizability: Are They Enough for Future Research?
Existing approaches on Question Answering over Knowledge Graphs (KGQA) have weak generalizability. That is often due to the standard i.i.d. assumption on the underlying dataset. Recently, three levels of generalization for KGQA were defined, namely i.i.d., compositional, zero-shot. We analyze 25 well-known KGQA datasets for 5 different Knowledge Graphs (KGs). We show that according to this definition many existing and online available KGQA datasets are either not suited to train a generalizable KGQA system or that the datasets are based on discontinued and out-dated KGs. Generating new datasets is a costly process and, thus, is not an alternative to smaller research groups and companies. In this work, we propose a mitigation method for re-splitting available KGQA datasets to enable their applicability to evaluate generalization, without any cost and manual effort. We test our hypothesis on three KGQA datasets, i.e., LC-QuAD, LC-QuAD 2.0 and QALD-9). Experiments on re-splitted KGQA datasets demonstrate its effectiveness towards generalizability. The code and a unified way to access 18 available datasets is online at this https URL as well as this https URL.
Longquan Jiang, Ricardo Usbeck
4
Python
5/29/2022 PEVL: Position-enhanced Pre-training and Prompt Tuning for Vision-language Models
Vision-language pre-training (VLP) has shown impressive performance on a wide range of cross-modal tasks, where VLP models without reliance on object detectors are becoming the mainstream due to their superior computation efficiency and competitive performance. However, the removal of object detectors also deprives the capability of VLP models in explicit object modeling, which is essential to various position-sensitive vision-language (VL) tasks, such as referring expression comprehension and visual commonsense reasoning. To address the challenge, we introduce PEVL that enhances the pre-training and prompt tuning of VLP models with explicit object position modeling. Specifically, PEVL reformulates discretized object positions and language in a unified language modeling framework, which facilitates explicit VL alignment during pre-training, and also enables flexible prompt tuning for various downstream tasks. We show that PEVL enables state-of-the-art performance of detector-free VLP models on position-sensitive tasks such as referring expression comprehension and phrase grounding, and also improves the performance on position-insensitive tasks with grounded inputs. We make the data and code for this paper publicly available at this https URL.
Yuan Yao, Qianyu Chen, Ao Zhang, Wei Ji, Zhiyuan Liu, Tat-Seng Chua, Maosong Sun
4
Python
5/29/2022 New Intent Discovery with Pre-training and Contrastive Learning
New intent discovery aims to uncover novel intent categories from user utterances to expand the set of supported intent classes. It is a critical task for the development and service expansion of a practical dialogue system. Despite its importance, this problem remains under-explored in the literature. Existing approaches typically rely on a large amount of labeled utterances and employ pseudo-labeling methods for representation learning and clustering, which are label-intensive, inefficient, and inaccurate. In this paper, we provide new solutions to two important research questions for new intent discovery: (1) how to learn semantic utterance representations and (2) how to better cluster utterances. Particularly, we first propose a multi-task pre-training strategy to leverage rich unlabeled data along with external labeled data for representation learning. Then, we design a new contrastive loss to exploit self-supervisory signals in unlabeled data for clustering. Extensive experiments on three intent recognition benchmarks demonstrate the high effectiveness of our proposed method, which outperforms state-of-the-art methods by a large margin in both unsupervised and semi-supervised scenarios. The source code will be available at \url{this https URL}.
Yuwei Zhang, Haode Zhang, Li-Ming Zhan, Xiao-Ming Wu, Albert Y.S. Lam
4
5/29/2022 ACCoRD: A Multi-Document Approach to Generating Diverse Descriptions of Scientific Concepts
Systems that can automatically define unfamiliar terms hold the promise of improving the accessibility of scientific texts, especially for readers who may lack prerequisite background knowledge. However, current systems assume a single "best" description per concept, which fails to account for the many potentially useful ways a concept can be described. We present ACCoRD, an end-to-end system tackling the novel task of generating sets of descriptions of scientific concepts. Our system takes advantage of the myriad ways a concept is mentioned across the scientific literature to produce distinct, diverse descriptions of target scientific concepts in terms of different reference concepts. To support research on the task, we release an expert-annotated resource, the ACCoRD corpus, which includes 1,275 labeled contexts and 1,787 hand-authored concept descriptions. We conduct a user study demonstrating that (1) users prefer descriptions produced by our end-to-end system, and (2) users prefer multiple descriptions to a single "best" description.
Sonia K. Murthy, Kyle Lo, Daniel King, Chandra Bhagavatula, Bailey Kuehl, Sophie Johnson, Jonathan Borchardt, Daniel S. Weld, Tom Hope, Doug Downey
3
Python
5/29/2022 Psychiatric Scale Guided Risky Post Screening for Early Detection of Depression
Depression is a prominent health challenge to the world, and early risk detection (ERD) of depression from online posts can be a promising technique for combating the threat. Early depression detection faces the challenge of efficiently tackling streaming data, balancing the tradeoff between timeliness, accuracy and explainability. To tackle these challenges, we propose a psychiatric scale guided risky post screening method that can capture risky posts related to the dimensions defined in clinical depression scales, and providing interpretable diagnostic basis. A Hierarchical Attentional Network equipped with BERT (HAN-BERT) is proposed to further advance explainable predictions. For ERD, we propose an online algorithm based on an evolving queue of risky posts that can significantly reduce the number of model inferences to boost efficiency. Experiments show that our method outperforms the competitive feature-based and neural models under conventional depression detection settings, and achieves simultaneous improvement in both efficacy and efficiency for ERD.
Zhiling Zhang, Siyuan Chen, Mengyue Wu, Kenny Q. Zhu
3
Python
5/29/2022 ScAN: Suicide Attempt and Ideation Events Dataset
Suicide is an important public health concern and one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Suicidal behaviors, including suicide attempts (SA) and suicide ideations (SI), are leading risk factors for death by suicide. Information related to patients' previous and current SA and SI are frequently documented in the electronic health record (EHR) notes. Accurate detection of such documentation may help improve surveillance and predictions of patients' suicidal behaviors and alert medical professionals for suicide prevention efforts. In this study, we first built Suicide Attempt and Ideation Events (ScAN) dataset, a subset of the publicly available MIMIC III dataset spanning over 12k+ EHR notes with 19k+ annotated SA and SI events information. The annotations also contain attributes such as method of suicide attempt. We also provide a strong baseline model ScANER (Suicide Attempt and Ideation Events Retriever), a multi-task RoBERTa-based model with a retrieval module to extract all the relevant suicidal behavioral evidences from EHR notes of an hospital-stay and, and a prediction module to identify the type of suicidal behavior (SA and SI) concluded during the patient's stay at the hospital. ScANER achieved a macro-weighted F1-score of 0.83 for identifying suicidal behavioral evidences and a macro F1-score of 0.78 and 0.60 for classification of SA and SI for the patient's hospital-stay, respectively. ScAN and ScANER are publicly available.
Bhanu Pratap Singh Rawat, Samuel Kovaly, Wilfred R. Pigeon, Hong Yu
3
5/29/2022 Why only Micro-F1? Class Weighting of Measures for Relation Classification
Relation classification models are conventionally evaluated using only a single measure, e.g., micro-F1, macro-F1 or AUC. In this work, we analyze weighting schemes, such as micro and macro, for imbalanced datasets. We introduce a framework for weighting schemes, where existing schemes are extremes, and two new intermediate schemes. We show that reporting results of different weighting schemes better highlights strengths and weaknesses of a model.
David Harbecke, Yuxuan Chen, Leonhard Hennig, Christoph Alt
3
Python
5/29/2022 Understanding Factual Errors in Summarization: Errors, Summarizers, Datasets, Error Detectors
The propensity of abstractive summarization systems to make factual errors has been the subject of significant study, including work on models to detect factual errors and annotation of errors in current systems' outputs. However, the ever-evolving nature of summarization systems, error detectors, and annotated benchmarks make factuality evaluation a moving target; it is hard to get a clear picture of how techniques compare. In this work, we collect labeled factuality errors from across nine datasets of annotated summary outputs and stratify them in a new way, focusing on what kind of base summarization model was used. To support finer-grained analysis, we unify the labeled error types into a single taxonomy and project each of the datasets' errors into this shared labeled space. We then contrast five state-of-the-art error detection methods on this benchmark. Our findings show that benchmarks built on modern summary outputs (those from pre-trained models) show significantly different results than benchmarks using pre-Transformer models. Furthermore, no one factuality technique is superior in all settings or for all error types, suggesting that system developers should take care to choose the right system for their task at hand.
Liyan Tang, Tanya Goyal, Alexander R. Fabbri, Philippe Laban, Jiacheng Xu, Semih Yahvuz, Wojciech Kryscinski, Justin F. Rousseau, Greg Durrett
3
Jupyter Notebook
5/29/2022 Do Transformer Models Show Similar Attention Patterns to Task-Specific Human Gaze?
Learned self-attention functions in state-of-the-art NLP models often correlate with human attention. We investigate whether self-attention in large-scale pre-trained language models is as predictive of human eye fixation patterns during task-reading as classical cognitive models of human attention. We compare attention functions across two task-specific reading datasets for sentiment analysis and relation extraction. We find the predictiveness of large-scale pre-trained self-attention for human attention depends on `what is in the tail', e.g., the syntactic nature of rare contexts. Further, we observe that task-specific fine-tuning does not increase the correlation with human task-specific reading. Through an input reduction experiment we give complementary insights on the sparsity and fidelity trade-off, showing that lower-entropy attention vectors are more faithful.
Stephanie Brandl, Oliver Eberle, Jonas Pilot, Anders Sogaard
3
Python
5/29/2022 Instruction Induction: From Few Examples to Natural Language Task Descriptions
Large language models are able to perform a task by conditioning on a few input-output demonstrations - a paradigm known as in-context learning. We show that language models can explicitly infer an underlying task from a few demonstrations by prompting them to generate a natural language instruction that fits the examples. To explore this ability, we introduce the instruction induction challenge, compile a dataset consisting of 24 tasks, and define a novel evaluation metric based on executing the generated instruction. We discover that, to a large extent, the ability to generate instructions does indeed emerge when using a model that is both large enough and aligned to follow instructions; InstructGPT achieves 65.7% of human performance in our execution-based metric, while the original GPT-3 model reaches only 9.8% of human performance. This surprising result suggests that instruction induction might be a viable learning paradigm in and of itself, where instead of fitting a set of latent continuous parameters to the data, one searches for the best description in the natural language hypothesis space.
Or Honovich, Uri Shaham, Samuel R. Bowman, Omer Levy
3
5/29/2022 Productivity Assessment of Neural Code Completion
Neural code synthesis has reached a point where snippet generation is accurate enough to be considered for integration into human software development workflows. Commercial products aim to increase programmers' productivity, without being able to measure it directly. In this case study, we asked users of GitHub Copilot about its impact on their productivity, and sought to find a reflection of their perception in directly measurable user data. We find that the rate with which shown suggestions are accepted, rather than more specific metrics regarding the persistence of completions in the code over time, drives developers' perception of productivity.
Albert Ziegler, Eirini Kalliamvakou, Shawn Simister, Ganesh Sittampalam, Alice Li, Andrew Rice, Devon Rifkin, Edward Aftandilian
3
5/29/2022 Towards Understanding Gender-Seniority Compound Bias in Natural Language Generation
Women are often perceived as junior to their male counterparts, even within the same job titles. While there has been significant progress in the evaluation of gender bias in natural language processing (NLP), existing studies seldom investigate how biases toward gender groups change when compounded with other societal biases. In this work, we investigate how seniority impacts the degree of gender bias exhibited in pretrained neural generation models by introducing a novel framework for probing compound bias. We contribute a benchmark robustness-testing dataset spanning two domains, U.S. senatorship and professorship, created using a distant-supervision method. Our dataset includes human-written text with underlying ground truth and paired counterfactuals. We then examine GPT-2 perplexity and the frequency of gendered language in generated text. Our results show that GPT-2 amplifies bias by considering women as junior and men as senior more often than the ground truth in both domains. These results suggest that NLP applications built using GPT-2 may harm women in professional capacities.
Samhita Honnavalli, Aesha Parekh, Lily Ou, Sophie Groenwold, Sharon Levy, Vicente Ordonez, William Yang Wang
2
5/29/2022 HLATR: Enhance Multi-stage Text Retrieval with Hybrid List Aware Transformer Reranking
Deep pre-trained language models (e,g. BERT) are effective at large-scale text retrieval task. Existing text retrieval systems with state-of-the-art performance usually adopt a retrieve-then-reranking architecture due to the high computational cost of pre-trained language models and the large corpus size. Under such a multi-stage architecture, previous studies mainly focused on optimizing single stage of the framework thus improving the overall retrieval performance. However, how to directly couple multi-stage features for optimization has not been well studied. In this paper, we design Hybrid List Aware Transformer Reranking (HLATR) as a subsequent reranking module to incorporate both retrieval and reranking stage features. HLATR is lightweight and can be easily parallelized with existing text retrieval systems so that the reranking process can be performed in a single yet efficient processing. Empirical experiments on two large-scale text retrieval datasets show that HLATR can efficiently improve the ranking performance of existing multi-stage text retrieval methods.
Yanzhao Zhang, Dingkun Long, Guangwei Xu, Pengjun Xie
2
5/29/2022 What GPT Knows About Who is Who
Coreference resolution -- which is a crucial task for understanding discourse and language at large -- has yet to witness widespread benefits from large language models (LLMs). Moreover, coreference resolution systems largely rely on supervised labels, which are highly expensive and difficult to annotate, thus making it ripe for prompt engineering. In this paper, we introduce a QA-based prompt-engineering method and discern \textit{generative}, pre-trained LLMs' abilities and limitations toward the task of coreference resolution. Our experiments show that GPT-2 and GPT-Neo can return valid answers, but that their capabilities to identify coreferent mentions are limited and prompt-sensitive, leading to inconsistent results.
Xiaohan Yang, Eduardo Peynetti, Vasco Meerman, Chris Tanner
2
Jupyter Notebook
5/29/2022 GPoeT-2: A GPT-2 Based Poem Generator
This project aims to produce the next volume of machine-generated poetry, a complex art form that can be structured and unstructured, and carries depth in the meaning between the lines. GPoeT-2 is based on fine-tuning a state of the art natural language model (i.e. GPT-2) to generate limericks, typically humorous structured poems consisting of five lines with a AABBA rhyming scheme. With a two-stage generation system utilizing both forward and reverse language modeling, GPoeT-2 is capable of freely generating limericks in diverse topics while following the rhyming structure without any seed phrase or a posteriori constraints.Based on the automated generation process, we explore a wide variety of evaluation metrics to quantify "good poetry," including syntactical correctness, lexical diversity, and subject continuity. Finally, we present a collection of 94 categorized limericks that rank highly on the explored "good poetry" metrics to provoke human creativity.
Kai-Ling Lo, Rami Ariss, Philipp Kurz
2
Jupyter Notebook
5/29/2022 AEON: A Method for Automatic Evaluation of NLP Test Cases
Due to the labor-intensive nature of manual test oracle construction, various automated testing techniques have been proposed to enhance the reliability of Natural Language Processing (NLP) software. In theory, these techniques mutate an existing test case (e.g., a sentence with its label) and assume the generated one preserves an equivalent or similar semantic meaning and thus, the same label. However, in practice, many of the generated test cases fail to preserve similar semantic meaning and are unnatural (e.g., grammar errors), which leads to a high false alarm rate and unnatural test cases. Our evaluation study finds that 44% of the test cases generated by the state-of-the-art (SOTA) approaches are false alarms. These test cases require extensive manual checking effort, and instead of improving NLP software, they can even degrade NLP software when utilized in model training. To address this problem, we propose AEON for Automatic Evaluation Of NLP test cases. For each generated test case, it outputs scores based on semantic similarity and language naturalness. We employ AEON to evaluate test cases generated by four popular testing techniques on five datasets across three typical NLP tasks. The results show that AEON aligns the best with human judgment. In particular, AEON achieves the best average precision in detecting semantic inconsistent test cases, outperforming the best baseline metric by 10%. In addition, AEON also has the highest average precision of finding unnatural test cases, surpassing the baselines by more than 15%. Moreover, model training with test cases prioritized by AEON leads to models that are more accurate and robust, demonstrating AEON's potential in improving NLP software.
Jen-tse Huang, Jianping Zhang, Wenxuan Wang, Pinjia He, Yuxin Su, Michael R. Lyu
2
Python
5/29/2022 Context Matters for Image Descriptions for Accessibility: Challenges for Referenceless Evaluation Metrics
Few images on the Web receive alt-text descriptions that would make them accessible to blind and low vision (BLV) users. Image-based NLG systems have progressed to the point where they can begin to address this persistent societal problem, but these systems will not be fully successful unless we evaluate them on metrics that guide their development correctly. Here, we argue against current referenceless metrics -- those that don't rely on human-generated ground-truth descriptions -- on the grounds that they do not align with the needs of BLV users. The fundamental shortcoming of these metrics is that they cannot take context into account, whereas contextual information is highly valued by BLV users. To substantiate these claims, we present a study with BLV participants who rated descriptions along a variety of dimensions. An in-depth analysis reveals that the lack of context-awareness makes current referenceless metrics inadequate for advancing image accessibility, requiring a rethinking of referenceless evaluation metrics for image-based NLG systems.
Elisa Kreiss, Cynthia Bennett, Shayan Hooshmand, Eric Zelikman, Meredith Ringel Morris, Christopher Potts
2
HTML
5/29/2022 Persian Natural Language Inference: A Meta-learning approach
Incorporating information from other languages can improve the results of tasks in low-resource languages. A powerful method of building functional natural language processing systems for low-resource languages is to combine multilingual pre-trained representations with cross-lingual transfer learning. In general, however, shared representations are learned separately, either across tasks or across languages. This paper proposes a meta-learning approach for inferring natural language in Persian. Alternately, meta-learning uses different task information (such as QA in Persian) or other language information (such as natural language inference in English). Also, we investigate the role of task augmentation strategy for forming additional high-quality tasks. We evaluate the proposed method using four languages and an auxiliary task. Compared to the baseline approach, the proposed model consistently outperforms it, improving accuracy by roughly six percent. We also examine the effect of finding appropriate initial parameters using zero-shot evaluation and CCA similarity.
Heydar Soudani, Mohammad Hassan Mojab, Hamid Beigy
2
Python
5/29/2022 Hero-Gang Neural Model For Named Entity Recognition
Named entity recognition (NER) is a fundamental and important task in NLP, aiming at identifying named entities (NEs) from free text. Recently, since the multi-head attention mechanism applied in the Transformer model can effectively capture longer contextual information, Transformer-based models have become the mainstream methods and have achieved significant performance in this task. Unfortunately, although these models can capture effective global context information, they are still limited in the local feature and position information extraction, which is critical in NER. In this paper, to address this limitation, we propose a novel Hero-Gang Neural structure (HGN), including the Hero and Gang module, to leverage both global and local information to promote NER. Specifically, the Hero module is composed of a Transformer-based encoder to maintain the advantage of the self-attention mechanism, and the Gang module utilizes a multi-window recurrent module to extract local features and position information under the guidance of the Hero module. Afterward, the proposed multi-window attention effectively combines global information and multiple local features for predicting entity labels. Experimental results on several benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed model.
Jinpeng Hu, Yaling Shen, Yang Liu, Xiang Wan, Tsung-Hui Chang
2
Python
5/29/2022 Learning to Model Editing Processes
Most existing sequence generation models produce outputs in one pass, usually left-to-right. However, this is in contrast with a more natural approach that humans use in generating content; iterative refinement and editing. Recent work has introduced edit-based models for various tasks (such as neural machine translation and text style transfer), but these generally model a single edit step. In this work, we propose modeling editing processes, modeling the whole process of iteratively generating sequences. We form a conceptual framework to describe the likelihood of multi-step edits, and describe neural models that can learn a generative model of sequences based on these multistep edits. We introduce baseline results and metrics on this task, finding that modeling editing processes improves performance on a variety of axes on both our proposed task and related downstream tasks compared to previous single-step models of edits.
Machel Reid, Graham Neubig
2
5/29/2022 Accuracy on In-Domain Samples Matters When Building Out-of-Domain detectors: A Reply to Marek et al. (2021)
We have noticed that Marek et al. (2021) try to re-implement our paper Zheng et al. (2020a) in their work "OodGAN: Generative Adversarial Network for Out-of-Domain Data Generation". Our paper proposes a model to generate pseudo OOD samples that are akin to IN-Domain (IND) input utterances. These pseudo OOD samples can be used to improve the OOD detection performance by optimizing an entropy regularization term when building the IND classifier. Marek et al. (2021) report a large gap between their re-implemented results and ours on the CLINC150 dataset (Larson et al., 2019). This paper discusses some key observations that may have led to such a large gap. Most of these observations originate from our experiments because Marek et al. (2021) have not released their codes1. One of the most important observations is that stronger IND classifiers usually exhibit a more robust ability to detect OOD samples. We hope these observations help other researchers, including Marek et al. (2021), to develop better OOD detectors in their applications.
Yinhe Zheng, Guanyi Chen
2
Python
5/29/2022 MuCPAD: A Multi-Domain Chinese Predicate-Argument Dataset
During the past decade, neural network models have made tremendous progress on in-domain semantic role labeling (SRL). However, performance drops dramatically under the out-of-domain setting. In order to facilitate research on cross-domain SRL, this paper presents MuCPAD, a multi-domain Chinese predicate-argument dataset, which consists of 30,897 sentences and 92,051 predicates from six different domains. MuCPAD exhibits three important features. 1) Based on a frame-free annotation methodology, we avoid writing complex frames for new predicates. 2) We explicitly annotate omitted core arguments to recover more complete semantic structure, considering that omission of content words is ubiquitous in multi-domain Chinese texts. 3) We compile 53 pages of annotation guidelines and adopt strict double annotation for improving data quality. This paper describes in detail the annotation methodology and annotation process of MuCPAD, and presents in-depth data analysis. We also give benchmark results on cross-domain SRL based on MuCPAD.
Yahui Liu, Haoping Yang, Chen Gong, Qingrong Xia, Zhenghua Li, Min Zhang
2
5/29/2022 Prompt Tuning for Discriminative Pre-trained Language Models
Recent works have shown promising results of prompt tuning in stimulating pre-trained language models (PLMs) for natural language processing (NLP) tasks. However, to the best of our knowledge, existing works focus on prompt-tuning generative PLMs that are pre-trained to generate target tokens, such as BERT. It is still unknown whether and how discriminative PLMs, e.g., ELECTRA, can be effectively prompt-tuned. In this work, we present DPT, the first prompt tuning framework for discriminative PLMs, which reformulates NLP tasks into a discriminative language modeling problem. Comprehensive experiments on text classification and question answering show that, compared with vanilla fine-tuning, DPT achieves significantly higher performance, and also prevents the unstable problem in tuning large PLMs in both full-set and low-resource settings. The source code and experiment details of this paper can be obtained from this https URL.
Yuan Yao, Bowen Dong, Ao Zhang, Zhengyan Zhang, Ruobing Xie, Zhiyuan Liu, Leyu Lin, Maosong Sun, Jianyong Wang
2
Python
5/29/2022 Summarize and Generate to Back-translate: Unsupervised Translation of Programming Languages
Back-translation is widely known for its effectiveness for neural machine translation when little to no parallel data is available. In this approach, a source-to-target model is coupled with a target-to-source model trained in parallel. The target-to-source model generates noisy sources, while the source-to-target model is trained to reconstruct the targets and vice versa. Recent developments of multilingual pre-trained sequence-to-sequence models for programming languages have been very effective for a broad spectrum of downstream software engineering tasks. Hence, it is compelling to train them to build programming language translation systems via back-translation. However, these models cannot be further trained via back-translation since they learn to output sequences in the same language as the inputs during pre-training. As an alternative, we propose performing back-translation via code summarization and generation. In code summarization, a model learns to generate natural language (NL) summaries given code snippets. In code generation, the model learns to do the opposite. Therefore, target-to-source generation in back-translation can be viewed as target-to-NL-to-source generation. We show that our proposed approach performs competitively with state-of-the-art methods.
Wasi Uddin Ahmad, Saikat Chakraborty, Baishakhi Ray, Kai-Wei Chang
2
Python
Yuhan Li, Wei Shen, Jianbo Gao, Yadong Wang
2
Python
5/29/2022 Table Retrieval May Not Necessitate Table-specific Model Design
Tables are an important form of structured data for both human and machine readers alike, providing answers to questions that cannot, or cannot easily, be found in texts. Recent work has designed special models and training paradigms for table-related tasks such as table-based question answering and table retrieval. Though effective, they add complexity in both modeling and data acquisition compared to generic text solutions and obscure which elements are truly beneficial. In this work, we focus on the task of table retrieval, and ask: "is table-specific model design necessary for table retrieval, or can a simpler text-based model be effectively used to achieve a similar result?" First, we perform an analysis on a table-based portion of the Natural Questions dataset (NQ-table), and find that structure plays a negligible role in more than 70% of the cases. Based on this, we experiment with a general Dense Passage Retriever (DPR) based on text and a specialized Dense Table Retriever (DTR) that uses table-specific model designs. We find that DPR performs well without any table-specific design and training, and even achieves superior results compared to DTR when fine-tuned on properly linearized tables. We then experiment with three modules to explicitly encode table structures, namely auxiliary row/column embeddings, hard attention masks, and soft relation-based attention biases. However, none of these yielded significant improvements, suggesting that table-specific model design may not be necessary for table retrieval.
Zhiruo Wang, Zhengbao Jiang, Eric Nyberg, Graham Neubig
2
Python
5/29/2022 K-12BERT: BERT for K-12 education
Online education platforms are powered by various NLP pipelines, which utilize models like BERT to aid in content curation. Since the inception of the pre-trained language models like BERT, there have also been many efforts toward adapting these pre-trained models to specific domains. However, there has not been a model specifically adapted for the education domain (particularly K-12) across subjects to the best of our knowledge. In this work, we propose to train a language model on a corpus of data curated by us across multiple subjects from various sources for K-12 education. We also evaluate our model, K12-BERT, on downstream tasks like hierarchical taxonomy tagging.
Vasu Goel, Dhruv Sahnan, Venktesh V, Gaurav Sharma, Deep Dwivedi, Mukesh Mohania
1
Jupyter Notebook
5/29/2022 When does Parameter-Efficient Transfer Learning Work for Machine Translation?
Parameter-efficient fine-tuning methods (PEFTs) offer the promise of adapting large pre-trained models while only tuning a small number of parameters. They have been shown to be competitive with full model fine-tuning for many downstream tasks. However, prior work indicates that PEFTs may not work as well for machine translation (MT), and there is no comprehensive study showing when PEFTs work for MT. We conduct a comprehensive empirical study of PEFTs for MT, considering (1) various parameter budgets, (2) a diverse set of language-pairs, and (3) different pre-trained models. We find that 'adapters', in which small feed-forward networks are added after every layer, are indeed on par with full model fine-tuning when the parameter budget corresponds to 10% of total model parameters. Nevertheless, as the number of tuned parameters decreases, the performance of PEFTs decreases. The magnitude of this decrease depends on the language pair, with PEFTs particularly struggling for distantly related language-pairs. We find that using PEFTs with a larger pre-trained model outperforms full fine-tuning with a smaller model, and for smaller training data sizes, PEFTs outperform full fine-tuning for the same pre-trained model.
Ahmet Ustun, Asa Cooper Stickland
1
Python
5/29/2022 Bootstrapping Text Anonymization Models with Distant Supervision
We propose a novel method to bootstrap text anonymization models based on distant supervision. Instead of requiring manually labeled training data, the approach relies on a knowledge graph expressing the background information assumed to be publicly available about various individuals. This knowledge graph is employed to automatically annotate text documents including personal data about a subset of those individuals. More precisely, the method determines which text spans ought to be masked in order to guarantee $k$-anonymity, assuming an adversary with access to both the text documents and the background information expressed in the knowledge graph. The resulting collection of labeled documents is then used as training data to fine-tune a pre-trained language model for text anonymization. We illustrate this approach using a knowledge graph extracted from Wikidata and short biographical texts from Wikipedia. Evaluation results with a RoBERTa-based model and a manually annotated collection of 553 summaries showcase the potential of the approach, but also unveil a number of issues that may arise if the knowledge graph is noisy or incomplete. The results also illustrate that, contrary to most sequence labeling problems, the text anonymization task may admit several alternative solutions.
Anthi Papadopoulou, Pierre Lison, Lilja Ovrelid, Ildiko Pilan
1
5/29/2022 DeepStruct: Pretraining of Language Models for Structure Prediction
We introduce a method for improving the structural understanding abilities of language models. Unlike previous approaches that finetune the models with task-specific augmentation, we pretrain language models on a collection of task-agnostic corpora to generate structures from text. Our structure pretraining enables zero-shot transfer of the learned knowledge that models have about the structure tasks. We study the performance of this approach on 28 datasets, spanning 10 structure prediction tasks including open information extraction, joint entity and relation extraction, named entity recognition, relation classification, semantic role labeling, event extraction, coreference resolution, factual probe, intent detection, and dialogue state tracking. We further enhance the pretraining with the task-specific training sets. We show that a 10B parameter language model transfers non-trivially to most tasks and obtains state-of-the-art performance on 21 of 28 datasets that we evaluate.
Chenguang Wang, Xiao Liu, Zui Chen, Haoyun Hong, Jie Tang, Dawn Song
1
5/29/2022 Towards Automated Document Revision: Grammatical Error Correction, Fluency Edits, and Beyond
Natural language processing technology has rapidly improved automated grammatical error correction tasks, and the community begins to explore document-level revision as one of the next challenges. To go beyond sentence-level automated grammatical error correction to NLP-based document-level revision assistant, there are two major obstacles: (1) there are few public corpora with document-level revisions being annotated by professional editors, and (2) it is not feasible to elicit all possible references and evaluate the quality of revision with such references because there are infinite possibilities of revision. This paper tackles these challenges. First, we introduce a new document-revision corpus, TETRA, where professional editors revised academic papers sampled from the ACL anthology which contain few trivial grammatical errors that enable us to focus more on document- and paragraph-level edits such as coherence and consistency. Second, we explore reference-less and interpretable methods for meta-evaluation that can detect quality improvements by document revision. We show the uniqueness of TETRA compared with existing document revision corpora and demonstrate that a fine-tuned pre-trained language model can discriminate the quality of documents after revision even when the difference is subtle. This promising result will encourage the community to further explore automated document revision models and metrics in future.
Masato Mita, Keisuke Sakaguchi, Masato Hagiwara, Tomoya Mizumoto, Jun Suzuki, Kentaro Inui
1
5/29/2022 The Curious Case of Control
Children acquiring English make systematic errors on subject control sentences even after they have reached near-adult competence (C. Chomsky, 1969), possibly due to heuristics based on semantic roles (Maratsos, 1974). Given the advanced fluency of large generative language models, we ask whether model outputs are consistent with these heuristics, and to what degree different models are consistent with each other. We find that models can be categorized by behavior into three separate groups, with broad differences between the groups. The outputs of models in the largest group are consistent with positional heuristics that succeed on subject control but fail on object control. This result is surprising, given that object control is orders of magnitude more frequent in the text data used to train such models. We examine to what degree the models are sensitive to prompting with agent-patient information, finding that raising the salience of agent and patient relations results in significant changes in the outputs of most models. Based on this observation, we leverage an existing dataset of semantic proto-role annotations (White, et al. 2020) to explore the connections between control and labeling event participants with properties typically associated with agents and patients.
Elias Stengel-Eskin, Benjamin Van Durme
1
Jupyter Notebook
5/29/2022 The Importance of Being Parameters: An Intra-Distillation Method for Serious Gains
Recent model pruning methods have demonstrated the ability to remove redundant parameters without sacrificing model performance. Common methods remove redundant parameters according to the parameter sensitivity, a gradient-based measure reflecting the contribution of the parameters. In this paper, however, we argue that redundant parameters can be trained to make beneficial contributions. We first highlight the large sensitivity (contribution) gap among high-sensitivity and low-sensitivity parameters and show that the model generalization performance can be significantly improved after balancing the contribution of all parameters. Our goal is to balance the sensitivity of all parameters and encourage all of them to contribute equally. We propose a general task-agnostic method, namely intra-distillation, appended to the regular training loss to balance parameter sensitivity. Moreover, we also design a novel adaptive learning method to control the strength of intra-distillation loss for faster convergence. Our experiments show the strong effectiveness of our methods on machine translation, natural language understanding, and zero-shot cross-lingual transfer across up to 48 languages, e.g., a gain of 3.54 BLEU on average across 8 language pairs from the IWSLT'14 translation dataset.
Haoran Xu, Philipp Koehn, Kenton Murray
1
Python
5/29/2022 On Measuring Social Biases in Prompt-Based Multi-Task Learning
Large language models trained on a mixture of NLP tasks that are converted into a text-to-text format using prompts, can generalize into novel forms of language and handle novel tasks. A large body of work within prompt engineering attempts to understand the effects of input forms and prompts in achieving superior performance. We consider an alternative measure and inquire whether the way in which an input is encoded affects social biases promoted in outputs. In this paper, we study T0, a large-scale multi-task text-to-text language model trained using prompt-based learning. We consider two different forms of semantically equivalent inputs: question-answer format and premise-hypothesis format. We use an existing bias benchmark for the former BBQ and create the first bias benchmark in natural language inference BBNLI with hand-written hypotheses while also converting each benchmark into the other form. The results on two benchmarks suggest that given two different formulations of essentially the same input, T0 conspicuously acts more biased in question answering form, which is seen during training, compared to premise-hypothesis form which is unlike its training examples. Code and data are released under this https URL.
Afra Feyza Akyurek, Sejin Paik, Muhammed Yusuf Kocyigit, Seda Akbiyik, Serife Leman Runyun, Derry Wijaya
1
Python
5/29/2022 Challenges in Measuring Bias via Open-Ended Language Generation
Researchers have devised numerous ways to quantify social biases vested in pretrained language models. As some language models are capable of generating coherent completions given a set of textual prompts, several prompting datasets have been proposed to measure biases between social groups -- posing language generation as a way of identifying biases. In this opinion paper, we analyze how specific choices of prompt sets, metrics, automatic tools and sampling strategies affect bias results. We find out that the practice of measuring biases through text completion is prone to yielding contradicting results under different experiment settings. We additionally provide recommendations for reporting biases in open-ended language generation for a more complete outlook of biases exhibited by a given language model. Code to reproduce the results is released under this https URL.
Afra Feyza Akyurek, Muhammed Yusuf Kocyigit, Sejin Paik, Derry Wijaya
1
Python
5/29/2022 Interpretable Proof Generation via Iterative Backward Reasoning
We present IBR, an Iterative Backward Reasoning model to solve the proof generation tasks on rule-based Question Answering (QA), where models are required to reason over a series of textual rules and facts to find out the related proof path and derive the final answer. We handle the limitations of existed works in two folds: 1) enhance the interpretability of reasoning procedures with detailed tracking, by predicting nodes and edges in the proof path iteratively backward from the question; 2) promote the efficiency and accuracy via reasoning on the elaborate representations of nodes and history paths, without any intermediate texts that may introduce external noise during proof generation. There are three main modules in IBR, QA and proof strategy prediction to obtain the answer and offer guidance for the following procedure; parent node prediction to determine a node in the existing proof that a new child node will link to; child node prediction to find out which new node will be added to the proof. Experiments on both synthetic and paraphrased datasets demonstrate that IBR has better in-domain performance as well as cross-domain transferability than several strong baselines. Our code and models are available at this https URL .
Hanhao Qu, Yu Cao, Jun Gao, Liang Ding, Ruifeng Xu
1
Python
5/29/2022 DivEMT: Neural Machine Translation Post-Editing Effort Across Typologically Diverse Languages
We introduce DivEMT, the first publicly available post-editing study of Neural Machine Translation (NMT) over a typologically diverse set of target languages. Using a strictly controlled setup, 18 professional translators were instructed to translate or post-edit the same set of English documents into Arabic, Dutch, Italian, Turkish, Ukrainian, and Vietnamese. During the process, their edits, keystrokes, editing times, pauses, and perceived effort were recorded, enabling an in-depth, cross-lingual evaluation of NMT quality and its post-editing process. Using this new dataset, we assess the impact on translation productivity of two state-of-the-art NMT systems, namely: Google Translate and the open-source multilingual model mBART50. We find that, while post-editing is consistently faster than translation from scratch, the magnitude of its contribution varies largely across systems and languages, ranging from doubled productivity in Dutch and Italian to marginal gains in Arabic, Turkish and Ukrainian, for some of the evaluated modalities. Moreover, the observed cross-language variability appears to partly reflect source-target relatedness and type of target morphology, while remaining hard to predict even based on state-of-the-art automatic MT quality metrics. We publicly release the complete dataset, including all collected behavioural data, to foster new research on the ability of state-of-the-art NMT systems to generate text in typologically diverse languages.
Gabriele Sarti, Arianna Bisazza, Ana Guerberof Arenas, Antonio Toral
1
Jupyter Notebook
5/29/2022 Beyond the Granularity: Multi-Perspective Dialogue Collaborative Selection for Dialogue State Tracking
In dialogue state tracking, dialogue history is a crucial material, and its utilization varies between different models. However, no matter how the dialogue history is used, each existing model uses its own consistent dialogue history during the entire state tracking process, regardless of which slot is updated. Apparently, it requires different dialogue history to update different slots in different turns. Therefore, using consistent dialogue contents may lead to insufficient or redundant information for different slots, which affects the overall performance. To address this problem, we devise DiCoS-DST to dynamically select the relevant dialogue contents corresponding to each slot for state updating. Specifically, it first retrieves turn-level utterances of dialogue history and evaluates their relevance to the slot from a combination of three perspectives: (1) its explicit connection to the slot name; (2) its relevance to the current turn dialogue; (3) Implicit Mention Oriented Reasoning. Then these perspectives are combined to yield a decision, and only the selected dialogue contents are fed into State Generator, which explicitly minimizes the distracting information passed to the downstream state prediction. Experimental results show that our approach achieves new state-of-the-art performance on MultiWOZ 2.1 and MultiWOZ 2.2, and achieves superior performance on multiple mainstream benchmark datasets (including Sim-M, Sim-R, and DSTC2).
Jinyu Guo, Kai Shuang, Jijie Li, Zihan Wang, Yixuan Liu
1
Python
5/29/2022 Weakly Supervised Text Classification using Supervision Signals from a Language Model
Solving text classification in a weakly supervised manner is important for real-world applications where human annotations are scarce. In this paper, we propose to query a masked language model with cloze style prompts to obtain supervision signals. We design a prompt which combines the document itself and "this article is talking about [MASK]." A masked language model can generate words for the [MASK] token. The generated words which summarize the content of a document can be utilized as supervision signals. We propose a latent variable model to learn a word distribution learner which associates generated words to pre-defined categories and a document classifier simultaneously without using any annotated data. Evaluation on three datasets, AGNews, 20Newsgroups, and UCINews, shows that our method can outperform baselines by 2%, 4%, and 3%.
Ziqian Zeng, Weimin Ni, Tianqing Fang, Xiang Li, Xinran Zhao, Yangqiu Song
1
Python
5/29/2022 Who Are We Talking About? Handling Person Names in Speech Translation
Recent work has shown that systems for speech translation (ST) -- similarly to automatic speech recognition (ASR) -- poorly handle person names. This shortcoming does not only lead to errors that can seriously distort the meaning of the input, but also hinders the adoption of such systems in application scenarios (like computer-assisted interpreting) where the translation of named entities, like person names, is crucial. In this paper, we first analyse the outputs of ASR/ST systems to identify the reasons of failures in person name transcription/translation. Besides the frequency in the training data, we pinpoint the nationality of the referred person as a key factor. We then mitigate the problem by creating multilingual models, and further improve our ST systems by forcing them to jointly generate transcripts and translations, prioritising the former over the latter. Overall, our solutions result in a relative improvement in token-level person name accuracy by 47.8% on average for three language pairs (en->es,fr,it).
Marco Gaido, Matteo Negri, Marco Turchi
1
Python
5/29/2022 Would You Ask it that Way? Measuring and Improving Question Naturalness for Knowledge Graph Question Answering
Knowledge graph question answering (KGQA) facilitates information access by leveraging structured data without requiring formal query language expertise from the user. Instead, users can express their information needs by simply asking their questions in natural language (NL). Datasets used to train KGQA models that would provide such a service are expensive to construct, both in terms of expert and crowdsourced labor. Typically, crowdsourced labor is used to improve template-based pseudo-natural questions generated from formal queries. However, the resulting datasets often fall short of representing genuinely natural and fluent language. In the present work, we investigate ways to characterize and remedy these shortcomings. We create the IQN-KGQA test collection by sampling questions from existing KGQA datasets and evaluating them with regards to five different aspects of naturalness. Then, the questions are rewritten to improve their fluency. Finally, the performance of existing KGQA models is compared on the original and rewritten versions of the NL questions. We find that some KGQA systems fare worse when presented with more realistic formulations of NL questions. The IQN-KGQA test collection is a resource to help evaluate KGQA systems in a more realistic setting. The construction of this test collection also sheds light on the challenges of constructing large-scale KGQA datasets with genuinely NL questions.
Trond Linjordet, Krisztian Balog
1
5/29/2022 ClusterEA: Scalable Entity Alignment with Stochastic Training and Normalized Mini-batch Similarities
Entity alignment (EA) aims at finding equivalent entities in different knowledge graphs (KGs). Embedding-based approaches have dominated the EA task in recent years. Those methods face problems that come from the geometric properties of embedding vectors, including hubness and isolation. To solve these geometric problems, many normalization approaches have been adopted to EA. However, the increasing scale of KGs renders it is hard for EA models to adopt the normalization processes, thus limiting their usage in real-world applications. To tackle this challenge, we present ClusterEA, a general framework that is capable of scaling up EA models and enhancing their results by leveraging normalization methods on mini-batches with a high entity equivalent rate. ClusterEA contains three components to align entities between large-scale KGs, including stochastic training, ClusterSampler, and SparseFusion. It first trains a large-scale Siamese GNN for EA in a stochastic fashion to produce entity embeddings. Based on the embeddings, a novel ClusterSampler strategy is proposed for sampling highly overlapped mini-batches. Finally, ClusterEA incorporates SparseFusion, which normalizes local and global similarity and then fuses all similarity matrices to obtain the final similarity matrix. Extensive experiments with real-life datasets on EA benchmarks offer insight into the proposed framework, and suggest that it is capable of outperforming the state-of-the-art scalable EA framework by up to 8 times in terms of Hits@1.
Yunjun Gao, Xiaoze Liu, Junyang Wu, Tianyi Li, Pengfei Wang, Lu Chen
1
Python
5/29/2022 Life after BERT: What do Other Muppets Understand about Language?
Existing pre-trained transformer analysis works usually focus only on one or two model families at a time, overlooking the variability of the architecture and pre-training objectives. In our work, we utilize the oLMpics benchmark and psycholinguistic probing datasets for a diverse set of 29 models including T5, BART, and ALBERT. Additionally, we adapt the oLMpics zero-shot setup for autoregressive models and evaluate GPT networks of different sizes. Our findings show that none of these models can resolve compositional questions in a zero-shot fashion, suggesting that this skill is not learnable using existing pre-training objectives. Furthermore, we find that global model decisions such as architecture, directionality, size of the dataset, and pre-training objective are not predictive of a model's linguistic capabilities.
Vladislav Lialin, Kevin Zhao, Namrata Shivagunde, Anna Rumshisky
1
Jupyter Notebook
5/29/2022 Searching for PETs: Using Distributional and Sentiment-Based Methods to Find Potentially Euphemistic Terms
This paper presents a linguistically driven proof of concept for finding potentially euphemistic terms, or PETs. Acknowledging that PETs tend to be commonly used expressions for a certain range of sensitive topics, we make use of distributional similarities to select and filter phrase candidates from a sentence and rank them using a set of simple sentiment-based metrics. We present the results of our approach tested on a corpus of sentences containing euphemisms, demonstrating its efficacy for detecting single and multi-word PETs from a broad range of topics. We also discuss future potential for sentiment-based methods on this task.
Patrick Lee, Martha Gavidia, Anna Feldman, Jing Peng
1
Jupyter Notebook
5/29/2022 Design and Implementation of a Quantum Kernel for Natural Language Processing
Natural language processing (NLP) is the field that attempts to make human language accessible to computers, and it relies on applying a mathematical model to express the meaning of symbolic language. One such model, DisCoCat, defines how to express both the meaning of individual words as well as their compositional nature. This model can be naturally implemented on quantum computers, leading to the field quantum NLP (QNLP). Recent experimental work used quantum machine learning techniques to map from text to class label using the expectation value of the quantum encoded sentence. Theoretical work has been done on computing the similarity of sentences but relies on an unrealized quantum memory store. The main goal of this thesis is to leverage the DisCoCat model to design a quantum-based kernel function that can be used by a support vector machine (SVM) for NLP tasks. Two similarity measures were studied: (i) the transition amplitude approach and (ii) the SWAP test. A simple NLP meaning classification task from previous work was used to train the word embeddings and evaluate the performance of both models. The Python module lambeq and its related software stack was used for implementation. The explicit model from previous work was used to train word embeddings and achieved a testing accuracy of $93.09 \pm 0.01$%. It was shown that both the SVM variants achieved a higher testing accuracy of $95.72 \pm 0.01$% for approach (i) and $97.14 \pm 0.01$% for (ii). The SWAP test was then simulated under a noise model defined by the real quantum device, ibmq_guadalupe. The explicit model achieved an accuracy of $91.94 \pm 0.01$% while the SWAP test SVM achieved 96.7% on the testing dataset, suggesting that the kernelized classifiers are resilient to noise. These are encouraging results and motivate further investigations of our proposed kernelized QNLP paradigm.
Matt Wright
1
Jupyter Notebook
5/29/2022 Building a Dialogue Corpus Annotated with Expressed and Experienced Emotions
In communication, a human would recognize the emotion of an interlocutor and respond with an appropriate emotion, such as empathy and comfort. Toward developing a dialogue system with such a human-like ability, we propose a method to build a dialogue corpus annotated with two kinds of emotions. We collect dialogues from Twitter and annotate each utterance with the emotion that a speaker put into the utterance (expressed emotion) and the emotion that a listener felt after listening to the utterance (experienced emotion). We built a dialogue corpus in Japanese using this method, and its statistical analysis revealed the differences between expressed and experienced emotions. We conducted experiments on recognition of the two kinds of emotions. The experimental results indicated the difficulty in recognizing experienced emotions and the effectiveness of multi-task learning of the two kinds of emotions. We hope that the constructed corpus will facilitate the study on emotion recognition in a dialogue and emotion-aware dialogue response generation.
Tatsuya Ide, Daisuke Kawahara
1
Python
5/29/2022 Prompt-and-Rerank: A Method for Zero-Shot and Few-Shot Arbitrary Textual Style Transfer with Small Language Models
We propose a method for arbitrary textual style transfer (TST)--the task of transforming a text into any given style--utilizing general-purpose pre-trained language models. Our method, Prompt-and-Rerank, is based on a mathematical formulation of the TST task, decomposing it into three constituent components: textual similarity, target style strength, and fluency. Specifically, our method first uses zero-shot or few-shot prompting to obtain a set of candidate generations in the target style, and then re-ranks these candidates according to a combination of the three components above. Empirically, our method enables small pre-trained language models to perform on par with state-of-the-art large-scale models while consuming two orders of magnitude less compute and memory. Finally, we conduct a systematic investigation of the effect of model size and prompt design (e.g., prompt paraphrasing and delimiter-pair choice) on style transfer quality across seven diverse textual style transfer datasets.
Mirac Suzgun, Luke Melas-Kyriazi, Dan Jurafsky
1
5/29/2022 Letters From the Past: Modeling Historical Sound Change Through Diachronic Character Embeddings
While a great deal of work has been done on NLP approaches to lexical semantic change detection, other aspects of language change have received less attention from the NLP community. In this paper, we address the detection of sound change through historical spelling. We propose that a sound change can be captured by comparing the relative distance through time between their distributions using PPMI character embeddings. We verify this hypothesis in synthetic data and then test the method's ability to trace the well-known historical change of lenition of plosives in Danish historical sources. We show that the models are able to identify several of the changes under consideration and to uncover meaningful contexts in which they appeared. The methodology has the potential to contribute to the study of open questions such as the relative chronology of sound shifts and their geographical distribution.
Sidsel Boldsen, Patrizia Paggio
1
Jupyter Notebook
5/29/2022 Principled Paraphrase Generation with Parallel Corpora
Round-trip Machine Translation (MT) is a popular choice for paraphrase generation, which leverages readily available parallel corpora for supervision. In this paper, we formalize the implicit similarity function induced by this approach, and show that it is susceptible to non-paraphrase pairs sharing a single ambiguous translation. Based on these insights, we design an alternative similarity metric that mitigates this issue by requiring the entire translation distribution to match, and implement a relaxation of it through the Information Bottleneck method. Our approach incorporates an adversarial term into MT training in order to learn representations that encode as much information about the reference translation as possible, while keeping as little information about the input as possible. Paraphrases can be generated by decoding back to the source from this representation, without having to generate pivot translations. In addition to being more principled and efficient than round-trip MT, our approach offers an adjustable parameter to control the fidelity-diversity trade-off, and obtains better results in our experiments.
Aitor Ormazabal, Mikel Artetxe, Gorka Labaka, Aitor Soroa, Eneko Agirre
0
5/29/2022 The AI Teacher Test: Measuring the Pedagogical Ability of Blender and GPT-3 in Educational Dialogues
How can we test whether state-of-the-art generative models, such as Blender and GPT-3, are good AI teachers, capable of replying to a student in an educational dialogue? Designing an AI teacher test is challenging: although evaluation methods are much-needed, there is no off-the-shelf solution to measuring pedagogical ability. This paper reports on a first attempt at an AI teacher test. We built a solution around the insight that you can run conversational agents in parallel to human teachers in real-world dialogues, simulate how different agents would respond to a student, and compare these counterpart responses in terms of three abilities: speak like a teacher, understand a student, help a student. Our method builds on the reliability of comparative judgments in education and uses a probabilistic model and Bayesian sampling to infer estimates of pedagogical ability. We find that, even though conversational agents (Blender in particular) perform well on conversational uptake, they are quantifiably worse than real teachers on several pedagogical dimensions, especially with regard to helpfulness (Blender: {\Delta} ability = -0.75; GPT-3: {\Delta} ability = -0.93).
Anais Tack, Chris Piech
0
Python
5/29/2022 Linear Connectivity Reveals Generalization Strategies
It is widely accepted in the mode connectivity literature that when two neural networks are trained similarly on the same data, they are connected by a path through parameter space over which test set accuracy is maintained. Under some circumstances, including transfer learning from pretrained models, these paths are presumed to be linear. In contrast to existing results, we find that among text classifiers (trained on MNLI, QQP, and CoLA), some pairs of finetuned models have large barriers of increasing loss on the linear paths between them. On each task, we find distinct clusters of models which are linearly connected on the test loss surface, but are disconnected from models outside the cluster -- models that occupy separate basins on the surface. By measuring performance on specially-crafted diagnostic datasets, we find that these clusters correspond to different generalization strategies: one cluster behaves like a bag of words model under domain shift, while another cluster uses syntactic heuristics. Our work demonstrates how the geometry of the loss surface can guide models towards different heuristic functions.
Jeevesh Juneja, Rachit Bansal, Kyunghyun Cho, Joao Sedoc, Naomi Saphra
0
Python
5/29/2022 Long-term Control for Dialogue Generation: Methods and Evaluation
Current approaches for controlling dialogue response generation are primarily focused on high-level attributes like style, sentiment, or topic. In this work, we focus on constrained long-term dialogue generation, which involves more fine-grained control and requires a given set of control words to appear in generated responses. This setting requires a model to not only consider the generation of these control words in the immediate context, but also produce utterances that will encourage the generation of the words at some time in the (possibly distant) future. We define the problem of constrained long-term control for dialogue generation, identify gaps in current methods for evaluation, and propose new metrics that better measure long-term control. We also propose a retrieval-augmented method that improves performance of long-term controlled generation via logit modification techniques. We show through experiments on three task-oriented dialogue datasets that our metrics better assess dialogue control relative to current alternatives and that our method outperforms state-of-the-art constrained generation baselines.
Ramya Ramakrishnan, Hashan Buddhika Narangodage, Mauro Schilman, Kilian Q. Weinberger, Ryan McDonald
0
Python
5/29/2022 The Document Vectors Using Cosine Similarity Revisited
The current state-of-the-art test accuracy (97.42\%) on the IMDB movie reviews dataset was reported by \citet{thongtan-phienthrakul-2019-sentiment} and achieved by the logistic regression classifier trained on the Document Vectors using Cosine Similarity (DV-ngrams-cosine) proposed in their paper and the Bag-of-N-grams (BON) vectors scaled by Naive Bayesian weights. While large pre-trained Transformer-based models have shown SOTA results across many datasets and tasks, the aforementioned model has not been surpassed by them, despite being much simpler and pre-trained on the IMDB dataset only. In this paper, we describe an error in the evaluation procedure of this model, which was found when we were trying to analyze its excellent performance on the IMDB dataset. We further show that the previously reported test accuracy of 97.42\% is invalid and should be corrected to 93.68\%. We also analyze the model performance with different amounts of training data (subsets of the IMDB dataset) and compare it to the Transformer-based RoBERTa model. The results show that while RoBERTa has a clear advantage for larger training sets, the DV-ngrams-cosine performs better than RoBERTa when the labelled training set is very small (10 or 20 documents). Finally, we introduce a sub-sampling scheme based on Naive Bayesian weights for the training process of the DV-ngrams-cosine, which leads to faster training and better quality.
Zhang Bingyu, Nikolay Arefyev
0
Jupyter Notebook
5/29/2022 Assessing the Limits of the Distributional Hypothesis in Semantic Spaces: Trait-based Relational Knowledge and the Impact of Co-occurrences
The increase in performance in NLP due to the prevalence of distributional models and deep learning has brought with it a reciprocal decrease in interpretability. This has spurred a focus on what neural networks learn about natural language with less of a focus on how. Some work has focused on the data used to develop data-driven models, but typically this line of work aims to highlight issues with the data, e.g. highlighting and offsetting harmful biases. This work contributes to the relatively untrodden path of what is required in data for models to capture meaningful representations of natural language. This entails evaluating how well English and Spanish semantic spaces capture a particular type of relational knowledge, namely the traits associated with concepts (e.g. bananas-yellow), and exploring the role of co-occurrences in this context.
0
Python
5/29/2022 RVAE-LAMOL: Residual Variational Autoencoder to Enhance Lifelong Language Learning
Lifelong Language Learning (LLL) aims to train a neural network to learn a stream of NLP tasks while retaining knowledge from previous tasks. However, previous works which followed data-free constraint still suffer from catastrophic forgetting issue, where the model forgets what it just learned from previous tasks. In order to alleviate catastrophic forgetting, we propose the residual variational autoencoder (RVAE) to enhance LAMOL, a recent LLL model, by mapping different tasks into a limited unified semantic space. In this space, previous tasks are easy to be correct to their own distribution by pseudo samples. Furthermore, we propose an identity task to make the model is discriminative to recognize the sample belonging to which task. For training RVAE-LAMOL better, we propose a novel training scheme Alternate Lag Training. In the experiments, we test RVAE-LAMOL on permutations of three datasets from DecaNLP. The experimental results demonstrate that RVAE-LAMOL outperforms naÃ¯ve LAMOL on all permutations and generates more meaningful pseudo-samples.
Han Wang, Ruiliu Fu, Xuejun Zhang, Jun Zhou
0
5/29/2022 LOPS: Learning Order Inspired Pseudo-Label Selection for Weakly Supervised Text Classification
Weakly supervised text classification methods typically train a deep neural classifier based on pseudo-labels. The quality of pseudo-labels is crucial to final performance but they are inevitably noisy due to their heuristic nature, so selecting the correct ones has a huge potential for performance boost. One straightforward solution is to select samples based on the softmax probability scores in the neural classifier corresponding to their pseudo-labels. However, we show through our experiments that such solutions are ineffective and unstable due to the erroneously high-confidence predictions from poorly calibrated models. Recent studies on the memorization effects of deep neural models suggest that these models first memorize training samples with clean labels and then those with noisy labels. Inspired by this observation, we propose a novel pseudo-label selection method LOPS that takes learning order of samples into consideration. We hypothesize that the learning order reflects the probability of wrong annotation in terms of ranking, and therefore, propose to select the samples that are learnt earlier. LOPS can be viewed as a strong performance-boost plug-in to most of existing weakly-supervised text classification methods, as confirmed in extensive experiments on four real-world datasets.
Dheeraj Mekala, Chengyu Dong, Jingbo Shang
0
Python
5/29/2022 Leveraging Dependency Grammar for Fine-Grained Offensive Language Detection using Graph Convolutional Networks
The last few years have witnessed an exponential rise in the propagation of offensive text on social media. Identification of this text with high precision is crucial for the well-being of society. Most of the existing approaches tend to give high toxicity scores to innocuous statements (e.g., "I am a gay man"). These false positives result from over-generalization on the training data where specific terms in the statement may have been used in a pejorative sense (e.g., "gay"). Emphasis on such words alone can lead to discrimination against the classes these systems are designed to protect. In this paper, we address the problem of offensive language detection on Twitter, while also detecting the type and the target of the offence. We propose a novel approach called SyLSTM, which integrates syntactic features in the form of the dependency parse tree of a sentence and semantic features in the form of word embeddings into a deep learning architecture using a Graph Convolutional Network. Results show that the proposed approach significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art BERT model with orders of magnitude fewer number of parameters.
Divyam Goel, Raksha Sharma
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5/29/2022 Fine-tuning Pre-trained Language Models for Few-shot Intent Detection: Supervised Pre-training and Isotropization
It is challenging to train a good intent classifier for a task-oriented dialogue system with only a few annotations. Recent studies have shown that fine-tuning pre-trained language models with a small amount of labeled utterances from public benchmarks in a supervised manner is extremely helpful. However, we find that supervised pre-training yields an anisotropic feature space, which may suppress the expressive power of the semantic representations. Inspired by recent research in isotropization, we propose to improve supervised pre-training by regularizing the feature space towards isotropy. We propose two regularizers based on contrastive learning and correlation matrix respectively, and demonstrate their effectiveness through extensive experiments. Our main finding is that it is promising to regularize supervised pre-training with isotropization to further improve the performance of few-shot intent detection. The source code can be found at this https URL.
Haode Zhang, Haowen Liang, Yuwei Zhang, Liming Zhan, Xiao-Ming Wu, Xiaolei Lu, Albert Y.S. Lam
0
Python
5/29/2022 Phylogeny-Inspired Adaptation of Multilingual Models to New Languages
Large pretrained multilingual models, trained on dozens of languages, have delivered promising results due to cross-lingual learning capabilities on variety of language tasks. Further adapting these models to specific languages, especially ones unseen during pre-training, is an important goal towards expanding the coverage of language technologies. In this study, we show how we can use language phylogenetic information to improve cross-lingual transfer leveraging closely related languages in a structured, linguistically-informed manner. We perform adapter-based training on languages from diverse language families (Germanic, Uralic, Tupian, Uto-Aztecan) and evaluate on both syntactic and semantic tasks, obtaining more than 20% relative performance improvements over strong commonly used baselines, especially on languages unseen during pre-training.
Fahim Faisal, Antonios Anastasopoulos
0
Python
5/29/2022 Evaluating Subtitle Segmentation for End-to-end Generation Systems
Subtitles appear on screen as short pieces of text, segmented based on formal constraints (length) and syntactic/semantic criteria. Subtitle segmentation can be evaluated with sequence segmentation metrics against a human reference. However, standard segmentation metrics cannot be applied when systems generate outputs different than the reference, e.g. with end-to-end subtitling systems. In this paper, we study ways to conduct reference-based evaluations of segmentation accuracy irrespective of the textual content. We first conduct a systematic analysis of existing metrics for evaluating subtitle segmentation. We then introduce $Sigma$, a new Subtitle Segmentation Score derived from an approximate upper-bound of BLEU on segmentation boundaries, which allows us to disentangle the effect of good segmentation from text quality. To compare $Sigma$ with existing metrics, we further propose a boundary projection method from imperfect hypotheses to the true reference. Results show that all metrics are able to reward high quality output but for similar outputs system ranking depends on each metric's sensitivity to error type. Our thorough analyses suggest $Sigma$ is a promising segmentation candidate but its reliability over other segmentation metrics remains to be validated through correlations with human judgements.
Alina Karakanta, Francois Buet, Mauro Cettolo, Francois Yvon
0
Python
5/29/2022 Progressive Class Semantic Matching for Semi-supervised Text Classification
Semi-supervised learning is a promising way to reduce the annotation cost for text-classification. Combining with pre-trained language models (PLMs), e.g., BERT, recent semi-supervised learning methods achieved impressive performance. In this work, we further investigate the marriage between semi-supervised learning and a pre-trained language model. Unlike existing approaches that utilize PLMs only for model parameter initialization, we explore the inherent topic matching capability inside PLMs for building a more powerful semi-supervised learning approach. Specifically, we propose a joint semi-supervised learning process that can progressively build a standard $K$-way classifier and a matching network for the input text and the Class Semantic Representation (CSR). The CSR will be initialized from the given labeled sentences and progressively updated through the training process. By means of extensive experiments, we show that our method can not only bring remarkable improvement to baselines, but also overall be more stable, and achieves state-of-the-art performance in semi-supervised text classification.
Hai-Ming Xu, Lingqiao Liu, Ehsan Abbasnejad
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5/29/2022 You Don't Know My Favorite Color: Preventing Dialogue Representations from Revealing Speakers' Private Personas
Social chatbots, also known as chit-chat chatbots, evolve rapidly with large pretrained language models. Despite the huge progress, privacy concerns have arisen recently: training data of large language models can be extracted via model inversion attacks. On the other hand, the datasets used for training chatbots contain many private conversations between two individuals. In this work, we further investigate the privacy leakage of the hidden states of chatbots trained by language modeling which has not been well studied yet. We show that speakers' personas can be inferred through a simple neural network with high accuracy. To this end, we propose effective defense objectives to protect persona leakage from hidden states. We conduct extensive experiments to demonstrate that our proposed defense objectives can greatly reduce the attack accuracy from 37.6% to 0.5%. Meanwhile, the proposed objectives preserve language models' powerful generation ability.
Haoran Li, Yangqiu Song, Lixin Fan
0
Python
5/29/2022 Benchmark Data and Evaluation Framework for Intent Discovery Around COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy
The COVID-19 pandemic has made a huge global impact and cost millions of lives. As COVID-19 vaccines were rolled out, they were quickly met with widespread hesitancy. To address the concerns of hesitant people, we launched VIRA, a public dialogue system aimed at addressing questions and concerns surrounding the COVID-19 vaccines. Here, we release VIRADialogs, a dataset of over 8k dialogues conducted by actual users with VIRA, providing a unique real-world conversational dataset. In light of rapid changes in users' intents, due to updates in guidelines or as a response to new information, we highlight the important task of intent discovery in this use-case. We introduce a novel automatic evaluation framework for intent discovery, leveraging the existing intent classifier of a given dialogue system. We use this framework to report baseline intent-discovery results over VIRADialogs, that highlight the difficulty of this task.
Shai Gretz, Assaf Toledo, Roni Friedman, Dan Lahav, Rose Weeks, Naor Bar-Zeev, Joao Sedoc, Pooja Sangha, Yoav Katz, Noam Slonim
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5/29/2022 Target-aware Abstractive Related Work Generation with Contrastive Learning
The related work section is an important component of a scientific paper, which highlights the contribution of the target paper in the context of the reference papers. Authors can save their time and effort by using the automatically generated related work section as a draft to complete the final related work. Most of the existing related work section generation methods rely on extracting off-the-shelf sentences to make a comparative discussion about the target work and the reference papers. However, such sentences need to be written in advance and are hard to obtain in practice. Hence, in this paper, we propose an abstractive target-aware related work generator (TAG), which can generate related work sections consisting of new sentences. Concretely, we first propose a target-aware graph encoder, which models the relationships between reference papers and the target paper with target-centered attention mechanisms. In the decoding process, we propose a hierarchical decoder that attends to the nodes of different levels in the graph with keyphrases as semantic indicators. Finally, to generate a more informative related work, we propose multi-level contrastive optimization objectives, which aim to maximize the mutual information between the generated related work with the references and minimize that with non-references. Extensive experiments on two public scholar datasets show that the proposed model brings substantial improvements over several strong baselines in terms of automatic and tailored human evaluations.
Xiuying Chen, Hind Alamro, Mingzhe Li, Shen Gao, Rui Yan, Xin Gao, Xiangliang Zhang
0
Python
5/29/2022 Noun2Verb: Probabilistic frame semantics for word class conversion
Humans can flexibly extend word usages across different grammatical classes, a phenomenon known as word class conversion. Noun-to-verb conversion, or denominal verb (e.g., to Google a cheap flight), is one of the most prevalent forms of word class conversion. However, existing natural language processing systems are impoverished in interpreting and generating novel denominal verb usages. Previous work has suggested that novel denominal verb usages are comprehensible if the listener can compute the intended meaning based on shared knowledge with the speaker. Here we explore a computational formalism for this proposal couched in frame semantics. We present a formal framework, Noun2Verb, that simulates the production and comprehension of novel denominal verb usages by modeling shared knowledge of speaker and listener in semantic frames. We evaluate an incremental set of probabilistic models that learn to interpret and generate novel denominal verb usages via paraphrasing. We show that a model where the speaker and listener cooperatively learn the joint distribution over semantic frame elements better explains the empirical denominal verb usages than state-of-the-art language models, evaluated against data from 1) contemporary English in both adult and child speech, 2) contemporary Mandarin Chinese, and 3) the historical development of English. Our work grounds word class conversion in probabilistic frame semantics and bridges the gap between natural language processing systems and humans in lexical creativity.
Lei Yu, Yang Xu
0
Python
5/29/2022 Twitter-Based Gender Recognition Using Transformers
Social media contains useful information about people and the society that could help advance research in many different areas (e.g. by applying opinion mining, emotion/sentiment analysis, and statistical analysis) such as business and finance, health, socio-economic inequality and gender vulnerability. User demographics provide rich information that could help study the subject further. However, user demographics such as gender are considered private and are not freely available. In this study, we propose a model based on transformers to predict the user's gender from their images and tweets. We fine-tune a model based on Vision Transformers (ViT) to stratify female and male images. Next, we fine-tune another model based on Bidirectional Encoders Representations from Transformers (BERT) to recognize the user's gender by their tweets. This is highly beneficial, because not all users provide an image that indicates their gender. The gender of such users could be detected form their tweets. The combination model improves the accuracy of image and text classification models by 6.98% and 4.43%, respectively. This shows that the image and text classification models are capable of complementing each other by providing additional information to one another. We apply our method to the PAN-2018 dataset, and obtain an accuracy of 85.52%.
Zahra Movahedi Nia, Ali Ahmadi, Bruce Mellado, Jianhong Wu, James Orbinski, Ali Agary, Jude Dzevela Kong
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5/29/2022 Joint Generation of Captions and Subtitles with Dual Decoding
As the amount of audio-visual content increases, the need to develop automatic captioning and subtitling solutions to match the expectations of a growing international audience appears as the only viable way to boost throughput and lower the related post-production costs. Automatic captioning and subtitling often need to be tightly intertwined to achieve an appropriate level of consistency and synchronization with each other and with the video signal. In this work, we assess a dual decoding scheme to achieve a strong coupling between these two tasks and show how adequacy and consistency are increased, with virtually no additional cost in terms of model size and training complexity.
Jitao Xu, Francois Buet, Josep Crego, Elise Bertin-Lemee, Francois Yvon
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Python