# The NLP Index

Updated: 08/10/21 - Total repos: 6,657
hits:
time: ms
Added Title Abstract Authors Paper Graph Code
9/20/2021 STraTA: Self-Training with Task Augmentation for Better Few-shot Learning
Despite their recent successes in tackling many NLP tasks, large-scale pre-trained language models do not perform as well in few-shot settings where only a handful of training examples are available. To address this shortcoming, we propose STraTA, which stands for Self-Training with Task Augmentation, an approach that builds on two key ideas for effective leverage of unlabeled data. First, STraTA uses task augmentation, a novel technique that synthesizes a large amount of data for auxiliary-task fine-tuning from target-task unlabeled texts. Second, STraTA performs self-training by further fine-tuning the strong base model created by task augmentation on a broad distribution of pseudo-labeled data. Our experiments demonstrate that STraTA can substantially improve sample efficiency across 12 few-shot benchmarks. Remarkably, on the SST-2 sentiment dataset, STraTA, with only 8 training examples per class, achieves comparable results to standard fine-tuning with 67K training examples. Our analyses reveal that task augmentation and self-training are both complementary and independently effective.
Tu Vu, Minh-Thang Luong, Quoc V. Le, Grady Simon, Mohit Iyyer
19583
Jupyter Notebook
9/20/2021 fairseq S^2: A Scalable and Integrable Speech Synthesis Toolkit
This paper presents fairseq S^2, a fairseq extension for speech synthesis. We implement a number of autoregressive (AR) and non-AR text-to-speech models, and their multi-speaker variants. To enable training speech synthesis models with less curated data, a number of preprocessing tools are built and their importance is shown empirically. To facilitate faster iteration of development and analysis, a suite of automatic metrics is included. Apart from the features added specifically for this extension, fairseq S^2 also benefits from the scalability offered by fairseq and can be easily integrated with other state-of-the-art systems provided in this framework. The code, documentation, and pre-trained models are available at this https URL.
Changhan Wang, Wei-Ning Hsu, Yossi Adi, Adam Polyak, Ann Lee, Peng-Jen Chen, Jiatao Gu, Juan Pino
13898
Python
9/20/2021 Frequency Effects on Syntactic Rule Learning in Transformers
Pre-trained language models perform well on a variety of linguistic tasks that require symbolic reasoning, raising the question of whether such models implicitly represent abstract symbols and rules. We investigate this question using the case study of BERT's performance on English subject-verb agreement. Unlike prior work, we train multiple instances of BERT from scratch, allowing us to perform a series of controlled interventions at pre-training time. We show that BERT often generalizes well to subject-verb pairs that never occurred in training, suggesting a degree of rule-governed behavior. We also find, however, that performance is heavily influenced by word frequency, with experiments showing that both the absolute frequency of a verb form, as well as the frequency relative to the alternate inflection, are causally implicated in the predictions BERT makes at inference time. Closer analysis of these frequency effects reveals that BERT's behavior is consistent with a system that correctly applies the SVA rule in general but struggles to overcome strong training priors and to estimate agreement features (singular vs. plural) on infrequent lexical items.
Jason Wei, Dan Garrette, Tal Linzen, Ellie Pavlick
1041
Python
9/20/2021 Raise a Child in Large Language Model: Towards Effective and Generalizable Fine-tuning
Recent pretrained language models extend from millions to billions of parameters. Thus the need to fine-tune an extremely large pretrained model with a limited training corpus arises in various downstream tasks. In this paper, we propose a straightforward yet effective fine-tuning technique, Child-Tuning, which updates a subset of parameters (called child network) of large pretrained models via strategically masking out the gradients of the non-child network during the backward process. Experiments on various downstream tasks in GLUE benchmark show that Child-Tuning consistently outperforms the vanilla fine-tuning by 1.5~8.6 average score among four different pretrained models, and surpasses the prior fine-tuning techniques by 0.6~1.3 points. Furthermore, empirical results on domain transfer and task transfer show that Child-Tuning can obtain better generalization performance by large margins.
Runxin Xu, Fuli Luo, Zhiyuan Zhang, Chuanqi Tan, Baobao Chang, Songfang Huang, Fei Huang
768
Python
9/20/2021 Are Gender-Neutral Queries Really Gender-Neutral? Mitigating Gender Bias in Image Search
Internet search affects people's cognition of the world, so mitigating biases in search results and learning fair models is imperative for social good. We study a unique gender bias in image search in this work: the search images are often gender-imbalanced for gender-neutral natural language queries. We diagnose two typical image search models, the specialized model trained on in-domain datasets and the generalized representation model pre-trained on massive image and text data across the internet. Both models suffer from severe gender bias. Therefore, we introduce two novel debiasing approaches: an in-processing fair sampling method to address the gender imbalance issue for training models, and a post-processing feature clipping method base on mutual information to debias multimodal representations of pre-trained models. Extensive experiments on MS-COCO and Flickr30K benchmarks show that our methods significantly reduce the gender bias in image search models.
Jialu Wang, Yang Liu, Xin Eric Wang
343
Python
9/20/2021 Phrase Retrieval Learns Passage Retrieval, Too
Dense retrieval methods have shown great promise over sparse retrieval methods in a range of NLP problems. Among them, dense phrase retrieval-the most fine-grained retrieval unit-is appealing because phrases can be directly used as the output for question answering and slot filling tasks. In this work, we follow the intuition that retrieving phrases naturally entails retrieving larger text blocks and study whether phrase retrieval can serve as the basis for coarse-level retrieval including passages and documents. We first observe that a dense phrase-retrieval system, without any retraining, already achieves better passage retrieval accuracy (+3-5% in top-5 accuracy) compared to passage retrievers, which also helps achieve superior end-to-end QA performance with fewer passages. Then, we provide an interpretation for why phrase-level supervision helps learn better fine-grained entailment compared to passage-level supervision, and also show that phrase retrieval can be improved to achieve competitive performance in document-retrieval tasks such as entity linking and knowledge-grounded dialogue. Finally, we demonstrate how phrase filtering and vector quantization can reduce the size of our index by 4-10x, making dense phrase retrieval a practical and versatile solution in multi-granularity retrieval.
Jinhyuk Lee, Alexander Wettig, Danqi Chen
246
Python
9/20/2021 Block Pruning For Faster Transformers
Pre-training has improved model accuracy for both classification and generation tasks at the cost of introducing much larger and slower models. Pruning methods have proven to be an effective way of reducing model size, whereas distillation methods are proven for speeding up inference. We introduce a block pruning approach targeting both small and fast models. Our approach extends structured methods by considering blocks of any size and integrates this structure into the movement pruning paradigm for fine-tuning. We find that this approach learns to prune out full components of the underlying model, such as attention heads. Experiments consider classification and generation tasks, yielding among other results a pruned model that is a 2.4x faster, 74% smaller BERT on SQuAD v1, with a 1% drop on F1, competitive both with distilled models in speed and pruned models in size.
Francois Lagunas, Ella Charlaix, Victor Sanh, Alexander M. Rush
192
Jupyter Notebook
9/20/2021 The NiuTrans System for WNGT 2020 Efficiency Task
This paper describes the submissions of the NiuTrans Team to the WNGT 2020 Efficiency Shared Task. We focus on the efficient implementation of deep Transformer models \cite{wang-etal-2019-learning, li-etal-2019-niutrans} using NiuTensor (this https URL), a flexible toolkit for NLP tasks. We explored the combination of deep encoder and shallow decoder in Transformer models via model compression and knowledge distillation. The neural machine translation decoding also benefits from FP16 inference, attention caching, dynamic batching, and batch pruning. Our systems achieve promising results in both translation quality and efficiency, e.g., our fastest system can translate more than 40,000 tokens per second with an RTX 2080 Ti while maintaining 42.9 BLEU on \textit{newstest2018}. The code, models, and docker images are available at NiuTrans.NMT (this https URL).
Chi Hu, Bei Li, Ye Lin, Yinqiao Li, Yanyang Li, Chenglong Wang, Tong Xiao, Jingbo Zhu
88
C++
9/20/2021 The NiuTrans System for the WMT21 Efficiency Task
This paper describes the NiuTrans system for the WMT21 translation efficiency task (this http URL). Following last year's work, we explore various techniques to improve efficiency while maintaining translation quality. We investigate the combinations of lightweight Transformer architectures and knowledge distillation strategies. Also, we improve the translation efficiency with graph optimization, low precision, dynamic batching, and parallel pre/post-processing. Our system can translate 247,000 words per second on an NVIDIA A100, being 3$\times$ faster than last year's system. Our system is the fastest and has the lowest memory consumption on the GPU-throughput track. The code, model, and pipeline will be available at NiuTrans.NMT (this https URL).
Chenglong Wang, Chi Hu, Yongyu Mu, Zhongxiang Yan, Siming Wu, Minyi Hu, Hang Cao, Bei Li, Ye Lin, Tong Xiao, Jingbo Zhu
88
C++
9/20/2021 Building and Evaluating Open-Domain Dialogue Corpora with Clarifying Questions
Enabling open-domain dialogue systems to ask clarifying questions when appropriate is an important direction for improving the quality of the system response. Namely, for cases when a user request is not specific enough for a conversation system to provide an answer right away, it is desirable to ask a clarifying question to increase the chances of retrieving a satisfying answer. To address the problem of 'asking clarifying questions in open-domain dialogues': (1) we collect and release a new dataset focused on open-domain single- and multi-turn conversations, (2) we benchmark several state-of-the-art neural baselines, and (3) we propose a pipeline consisting of offline and online steps for evaluating the quality of clarifying questions in various dialogues. These contributions are suitable as a foundation for further research.
84
Jupyter Notebook
9/20/2021 Uncertainty-Aware Machine Translation Evaluation
Several neural-based metrics have been recently proposed to evaluate machine translation quality. However, all of them resort to point estimates, which provide limited information at segment level. This is made worse as they are trained on noisy, biased and scarce human judgements, often resulting in unreliable quality predictions. In this paper, we introduce uncertainty-aware MT evaluation and analyze the trustworthiness of the predicted quality. We combine the COMET framework with two uncertainty estimation methods, Monte Carlo dropout and deep ensembles, to obtain quality scores along with confidence intervals. We compare the performance of our uncertainty-aware MT evaluation methods across multiple language pairs from the QT21 dataset and the WMT20 metrics task, augmented with MQM annotations. We experiment with varying numbers of references and further discuss the usefulness of uncertainty-aware quality estimation (without references) to flag possibly critical translation mistakes.
Taisiya Glushkova, Chrysoula Zerva, Ricardo Rei, Andre F. T. Martins
80
Python
9/20/2021 Empirical Analysis of Training Strategies of Transformer-based Japanese Chit-chat Systems
In recent years, several high-performance conversational systems have been proposed based on the Transformer encoder-decoder model. Although previous studies analyzed the effects of the model parameters and the decoding method on subjective dialogue evaluations with overall metrics, they did not analyze how the differences of fine-tuning datasets affect on user's detailed impression. In addition, the Transformer-based approach has only been verified for English, not for such languages with large inter-language distances as Japanese. In this study, we develop large-scale Transformer-based Japanese dialogue models and Japanese chit-chat datasets to examine the effectiveness of the Transformer-based approach for building chit-chat dialogue systems. We evaluated and analyzed the impressions of human dialogues in different fine-tuning datasets, model parameters, and the use of additional information.
Hiroaki Sugiyama, Masahiro Mizukami, Tsunehiro Arimoto, Hiromi Narimatsu, Yuya Chiba, Hideharu Nakajima, Toyomi Meguro
64
Python
9/20/2021 LM-Critic: Language Models for Unsupervised Grammatical Error Correction
Training a model for grammatical error correction (GEC) requires a set of labeled ungrammatical / grammatical sentence pairs, but manually annotating such pairs can be expensive. Recently, the Break-It-Fix-It (BIFI) framework has demonstrated strong results on learning to repair a broken program without any labeled examples, but this relies on a perfect critic (e.g., a compiler) that returns whether an example is valid or not, which does not exist for the GEC task. In this work, we show how to leverage a pretrained language model (LM) in defining an LM-Critic, which judges a sentence to be grammatical if the LM assigns it a higher probability than its local perturbations. We apply this LM-Critic and BIFI along with a large set of unlabeled sentences to bootstrap realistic ungrammatical / grammatical pairs for training a corrector. We evaluate our approach on GEC datasets across multiple domains (CoNLL-2014, BEA-2019, GMEG-wiki and GMEG-yahoo) and show that it outperforms existing methods in both the unsupervised setting (+7.7 F0.5) and the supervised setting (+0.5 F0.5).
Michihiro Yasunaga, Jure Leskovec, Percy Liang
29
Python
9/20/2021 Box Embeddings: An open-source library for representation learning using geometric structures
A major factor contributing to the success of modern representation learning is the ease of performing various vector operations. Recently, objects with geometric structures (eg. distributions, complex or hyperbolic vectors, or regions such as cones, disks, or boxes) have been explored for their alternative inductive biases and additional representational capacities. In this work, we introduce Box Embeddings, a Python library that enables researchers to easily apply and extend probabilistic box embeddings.
Tejas Chheda, Purujit Goyal, Trang Tran, Dhruvesh Patel, Michael Boratko, Shib Sankar Dasgupta, Andrew McCallum
23
Python
9/20/2021 CPT: A Pre-Trained Unbalanced Transformer for Both Chinese Language Understanding and Generation
In this paper, we take the advantage of previous pre-trained models (PTMs) and propose a novel Chinese Pre-trained Unbalanced Transformer (CPT). Different from previous Chinese PTMs, CPT is designed for both natural language understanding (NLU) and natural language generation (NLG) tasks. CPT consists of three parts: a shared encoder, an understanding decoder, and a generation decoder. Two specific decoders with a shared encoder are pre-trained with masked language modeling (MLM) and denoising auto-encoding (DAE) tasks, respectively. With the partially shared architecture and multi-task pre-training, CPT can (1) learn specific knowledge of both NLU or NLG tasks with two decoders and (2) be fine-tuned flexibly that fully exploits the potential of the model. Moreover, the unbalanced Transformer saves the computational and storage cost, which makes CPT competitive and greatly accelerates the inference of text generation. Experimental results on a wide range of Chinese NLU and NLG tasks show the effectiveness of CPT.
Yunfan Shao, Zhichao Geng, Yitao Liu, Junqi Dai, Fei Yang, Li Zhe, Hujun Bao, Xipeng Qiu
20
9/20/2021 Distantly-Supervised Named Entity Recognition with Noise-Robust Learning and Language Model Augmented Self-Training
We study the problem of training named entity recognition (NER) models using only distantly-labeled data, which can be automatically obtained by matching entity mentions in the raw text with entity types in a knowledge base. The biggest challenge of distantly-supervised NER is that the distant supervision may induce incomplete and noisy labels, rendering the straightforward application of supervised learning ineffective. In this paper, we propose (1) a noise-robust learning scheme comprised of a new loss function and a noisy label removal step, for training NER models on distantly-labeled data, and (2) a self-training method that uses contextualized augmentations created by pre-trained language models to improve the generalization ability of the NER model. On three benchmark datasets, our method achieves superior performance, outperforming existing distantly-supervised NER models by significant margins.
Yu Meng, Yunyi Zhang, Jiaxin Huang, Xuan Wang, Yu Zhang, Heng Ji, Jiawei Han
20
Python
9/20/2021 Language Models are Few-shot Multilingual Learners
General-purpose language models have demonstrated impressive capabilities, performing on par with state-of-the-art approaches on a range of downstream natural language processing (NLP) tasks and benchmarks when inferring instructions from very few examples. Here, we evaluate the multilingual skills of the GPT and T5 models in conducting multi-class classification on non-English languages without any parameter updates. We show that, given a few English examples as context, pre-trained language models can predict not only English test samples but also non-English ones. Finally, we find the in-context few-shot cross-lingual prediction results of language models are significantly better than random prediction, and they are competitive compared to the existing state-of-the-art cross-lingual models.
Genta Indra Winata, Andrea Madotto, Zhaojiang Lin, Rosanne Liu, Jason Yosinski, Pascale Fung
19
Python
9/20/2021 Performance-Efficiency Trade-offs in Unsupervised Pre-training for Speech Recognition
This paper is a study of performance-efficiency trade-offs in pre-trained models for automatic speech recognition (ASR). We focus on wav2vec 2.0, and formalize several architecture designs that influence both the model performance and its efficiency. Putting together all our observations, we introduce SEW (Squeezed and Efficient Wav2vec), a pre-trained model architecture with significant improvements along both performance and efficiency dimensions across a variety of training setups. For example, under the 100h-960h semi-supervised setup on LibriSpeech, SEW achieves a 1.9x inference speedup compared to wav2vec 2.0, with a 13.5% relative reduction in word error rate. With a similar inference time, SEW reduces word error rate by 25-50% across different model sizes.
Felix Wu, Kwangyoun Kim, Jing Pan, Kyu Han, Kilian Q. Weinberger, Yoav Artzi
18
Python
9/20/2021 Zero-Shot Dialogue State Tracking via Cross-Task Transfer
Zero-shot transfer learning for dialogue state tracking (DST) enables us to handle a variety of task-oriented dialogue domains without the expense of collecting in-domain data. In this work, we propose to transfer the \textit{cross-task} knowledge from general question answering (QA) corpora for the zero-shot DST task. Specifically, we propose TransferQA, a transferable generative QA model that seamlessly combines extractive QA and multi-choice QA via a text-to-text transformer framework, and tracks both categorical slots and non-categorical slots in DST. In addition, we introduce two effective ways to construct unanswerable questions, namely, negative question sampling and context truncation, which enable our model to handle "none" value slots in the zero-shot DST setting. The extensive experiments show that our approaches substantially improve the existing zero-shot and few-shot results on MultiWoz. Moreover, compared to the fully trained baseline on the Schema-Guided Dialogue dataset, our approach shows better generalization ability in unseen domains.
Zhaojiang Lin, Bing Liu, Andrea Madotto, Seungwhan Moon, Paul Crook, Zhenpeng Zhou, Zhiguang Wang, Zhou Yu, Eunjoon Cho, Rajen Subba, Pascale Fung
18
Python
9/20/2021 Topic-Aware Contrastive Learning for Abstractive Dialogue Summarization
Unlike well-structured text, such as news reports and encyclopedia articles, dialogue content often comes from two or more interlocutors, exchanging information with each other. In such a scenario, the topic of a conversation can vary upon progression and the key information for a certain topic is often scattered across multiple utterances of different speakers, which poses challenges to abstractly summarize dialogues. To capture the various topic information of a conversation and outline salient facts for the captured topics, this work proposes two topic-aware contrastive learning objectives, namely coherence detection and sub-summary generation objectives, which are expected to implicitly model the topic change and handle information scattering challenges for the dialogue summarization task. The proposed contrastive objectives are framed as auxiliary tasks for the primary dialogue summarization task, united via an alternative parameter updating strategy. Extensive experiments on benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed simple method significantly outperforms strong baselines and achieves new state-of-the-art performance. The code and trained models are publicly available via \href{this https URL}{this https URL}.
Junpeng Liu, Yanyan Zou, Hainan Zhang, Hongshen Chen, Zhuoye Ding, Caixia Yuan, Xiaojie Wang
18
9/20/2021 Rationales for Sequential Predictions
Sequence models are a critical component of modern NLP systems, but their predictions are difficult to explain. We consider model explanations though rationales, subsets of context that can explain individual model predictions. We find sequential rationales by solving a combinatorial optimization: the best rationale is the smallest subset of input tokens that would predict the same output as the full sequence. Enumerating all subsets is intractable, so we propose an efficient greedy algorithm to approximate this objective. The algorithm, which is called greedy rationalization, applies to any model. For this approach to be effective, the model should form compatible conditional distributions when making predictions on incomplete subsets of the context. This condition can be enforced with a short fine-tuning step. We study greedy rationalization on language modeling and machine translation. Compared to existing baselines, greedy rationalization is best at optimizing the combinatorial objective and provides the most faithful rationales. On a new dataset of annotated sequential rationales, greedy rationales are most similar to human rationales.
Keyon Vafa, Yuntian Deng, David M. Blei, Alexander M. Rush
15
Python
9/20/2021 Euphemistic Phrase Detection by Masked Language Model
It is a well-known approach for fringe groups and organizations to use euphemisms -- ordinary-sounding and innocent-looking words with a secret meaning -- to conceal what they are discussing. For instance, drug dealers often use "pot" for marijuana and "avocado" for heroin. From a social media content moderation perspective, though recent advances in NLP have enabled the automatic detection of such single-word euphemisms, no existing work is capable of automatically detecting multi-word euphemisms, such as "blue dream" (marijuana) and "black tar" (heroin). Our paper tackles the problem of euphemistic phrase detection without human effort for the first time, as far as we are aware. We first perform phrase mining on a raw text corpus (e.g., social media posts) to extract quality phrases. Then, we utilize word embedding similarities to select a set of euphemistic phrase candidates. Finally, we rank those candidates by a masked language model -- SpanBERT. Compared to strong baselines, we report 20-50% higher detection accuracies using our algorithm for detecting euphemistic phrases.
Wanzheng Zhu, Suma Bhat
14
Python
9/20/2021 EfficientBERT: Progressively Searching Multilayer Perceptron via Warm-up Knowledge Distillation
Pre-trained language models have shown remarkable results on various NLP tasks. Nevertheless, due to their bulky size and slow inference speed, it is hard to deploy them on edge devices. In this paper, we have a critical insight that improving the feed-forward network (FFN) in BERT has a higher gain than improving the multi-head attention (MHA) since the computational cost of FFN is 2$\sim$3 times larger than MHA. Hence, to compact BERT, we are devoted to designing efficient FFN as opposed to previous works that pay attention to MHA. Since FFN comprises a multilayer perceptron (MLP) that is essential in BERT optimization, we further design a thorough search space towards an advanced MLP and perform a coarse-to-fine mechanism to search for an efficient BERT architecture. Moreover, to accelerate searching and enhance model transferability, we employ a novel warm-up knowledge distillation strategy at each search stage. Extensive experiments show our searched EfficientBERT is 6.9$\times$ smaller and 4.4$\times$ faster than BERT$\rm_{BASE}$, and has competitive performances on GLUE and SQuAD Benchmarks. Concretely, EfficientBERT attains a 77.7 average score on GLUE \emph{test}, 0.7 higher than MobileBERT$\rm_{TINY}$, and achieves an 85.3/74.5 F1 score on SQuAD v1.1/v2.0 \emph{dev}, 3.2/2.7 higher than TinyBERT$_4$ even without data augmentation. The code is released at this https URL.
Chenhe Dong, Guangrun Wang, Hang Xu, Jiefeng Peng, Xiaozhe Ren, Xiaodan Liang
12
Python
9/20/2021 Pack Together: Entity and Relation Extraction with Levitated Marker
Named Entity Recognition (NER) and Relation Extraction (RE) are the core sub-tasks for information extraction. Many recent works formulate these two tasks as the span (pair) classification problem, and thus focus on investigating how to obtain a better span representation from the pre-trained encoder. However, a major limitation of existing works is that they ignore the dependencies between spans (pairs). In this work, we propose a novel span representation approach, named Packed Levitated Markers, to consider the dependencies between the spans (pairs) by strategically packing the markers in the encoder. In particular, we propose a group packing strategy to enable our model to process massive spans together to consider their dependencies with limited resources. Furthermore, for those more complicated span pair classification tasks, we design a subject-oriented packing strategy, which packs each subject and all its objects into an instance to model the dependencies between the same-subject span pairs. Our experiments show that our model with packed levitated markers outperforms the sequence labeling model by 0.4%-1.9% F1 on three flat NER tasks, beats the token concat model on six NER benchmarks, and obtains a 3.5%-3.6% strict relation F1 improvement with higher speed over previous SOTA models on ACE04 and ACE05. Code and models are publicly available at this https URL.
Deming Ye, Yankai Lin, Maosong Sun
11
Python
9/20/2021 ReasonBERT: Pre-trained to Reason with Distant Supervision
We present ReasonBert, a pre-training method that augments language models with the ability to reason over long-range relations and multiple, possibly hybrid contexts. Unlike existing pre-training methods that only harvest learning signals from local contexts of naturally occurring texts, we propose a generalized notion of distant supervision to automatically connect multiple pieces of text and tables to create pre-training examples that require long-range reasoning. Different types of reasoning are simulated, including intersecting multiple pieces of evidence, bridging from one piece of evidence to another, and detecting unanswerable cases. We conduct a comprehensive evaluation on a variety of extractive question answering datasets ranging from single-hop to multi-hop and from text-only to table-only to hybrid that require various reasoning capabilities and show that ReasonBert achieves remarkable improvement over an array of strong baselines. Few-shot experiments further demonstrate that our pre-training method substantially improves sample efficiency.
Xiang Deng, Yu Su, Alyssa Lees, You Wu, Cong Yu, Huan Sun
10
9/20/2021 TruthfulQA: Measuring How Models Mimic Human Falsehoods
We propose a benchmark to measure whether a language model is truthful in generating answers to questions. The benchmark comprises 817 questions that span 38 categories, including health, law, finance and politics. We crafted questions that some humans would answer falsely due to a false belief or misconception. To perform well, models must avoid generating false answers learned from imitating human texts. We tested GPT-3, GPT-Neo/J, GPT-2 and a T5-based model. The best model was truthful on 58% of questions, while human performance was 94%. Models generated many false answers that mimic popular misconceptions and have the potential to deceive humans. The largest models were generally the least truthful. For example, the 6B-parameter GPT-J model was 17% less truthful than its 125M-parameter counterpart. This contrasts with other NLP tasks, where performance improves with model size. However, this result is expected if false answers are learned from the training distribution. We suggest that scaling up models alone is less promising for improving truthfulness than fine-tuning using training objectives other than imitation of text from the web.
Stephanie Lin, Jacob Hilton, Owain Evans
10
Jupyter Notebook
9/20/2021 Types of Out-of-Distribution Texts and How to Detect Them
Despite agreement on the importance of detecting out-of-distribution (OOD) examples, there is little consensus on the formal definition of OOD examples and how to best detect them. We categorize these examples by whether they exhibit a background shift or a semantic shift, and find that the two major approaches to OOD detection, model calibration and density estimation (language modeling for text), have distinct behavior on these types of OOD data. Across 14 pairs of in-distribution and OOD English natural language understanding datasets, we find that density estimation methods consistently beat calibration methods in background shift settings, while performing worse in semantic shift settings. In addition, we find that both methods generally fail to detect examples from challenge data, highlighting a weak spot for current methods. Since no single method works well across all settings, our results call for an explicit definition of OOD examples when evaluating different detection methods.
Udit Arora, William Huang, He He
10
Python
9/20/2021 IndoBERTweet: A Pretrained Language Model for Indonesian Twitter with Effective Domain-Specific Vocabulary Initialization
We present IndoBERTweet, the first large-scale pretrained model for Indonesian Twitter that is trained by extending a monolingually-trained Indonesian BERT model with additive domain-specific vocabulary. We focus in particular on efficient model adaptation under vocabulary mismatch, and benchmark different ways of initializing the BERT embedding layer for new word types. We find that initializing with the average BERT subword embedding makes pretraining five times faster, and is more effective than proposed methods for vocabulary adaptation in terms of extrinsic evaluation over seven Twitter-based datasets.
Fajri Koto, Jey Han Lau, Timothy Baldwin
9
Python
9/20/2021 MuVER: Improving First-Stage Entity Retrieval with Multi-View Entity Representations
Entity retrieval, which aims at disambiguating mentions to canonical entities from massive KBs, is essential for many tasks in natural language processing. Recent progress in entity retrieval shows that the dual-encoder structure is a powerful and efficient framework to nominate candidates if entities are only identified by descriptions. However, they ignore the property that meanings of entity mentions diverge in different contexts and are related to various portions of descriptions, which are treated equally in previous works. In this work, we propose Multi-View Entity Representations (MuVER), a novel approach for entity retrieval that constructs multi-view representations for entity descriptions and approximates the optimal view for mentions via a heuristic searching method. Our method achieves the state-of-the-art performance on ZESHEL and improves the quality of candidates on three standard Entity Linking datasets
Xinyin Ma, Yong Jiang, Nguyen Bach, Tao Wang, Zhongqiang Huang, Fei Huang, Weiming Lu
8
Python
9/20/2021 Efficient Test Time Adapter Ensembling for Low-resource Language Varieties
Xinyi Wang, Yulia Tsvetkov, Sebastian Ruder, Graham Neubig
7
Python
9/20/2021 xGQA: Cross-Lingual Visual Question Answering
Recent advances in multimodal vision and language modeling have predominantly focused on the English language, mostly due to the lack of multilingual multimodal datasets to steer modeling efforts. In this work, we address this gap and provide xGQA, a new multilingual evaluation benchmark for the visual question answering task. We extend the established English GQA dataset to 7 typologically diverse languages, enabling us to detect and explore crucial challenges in cross-lingual visual question answering. We further propose new adapter-based approaches to adapt multimodal transformer-based models to become multilingual, and -- vice versa -- multilingual models to become multimodal. Our proposed methods outperform current state-of-the-art multilingual multimodal models (e.g., M3P) in zero-shot cross-lingual settings, but the accuracy remains low across the board; a performance drop of around 38 accuracy points in target languages showcases the difficulty of zero-shot cross-lingual transfer for this task. Our results suggest that simple cross-lingual transfer of multimodal models yields latent multilingual multimodal misalignment, calling for more sophisticated methods for vision and multilingual language modeling. The xGQA dataset is available online at: this https URL.
Jonas Pfeiffer, Gregor Geigle, Aishwarya Kamath, Jan-Martin O. Steitz, Stefan Roth, Ivan Vuli?, Iryna Gurevych
6
9/20/2021 A Novel Global Feature-Oriented Relational Triple Extraction Model based on Table Filling
Table filling based relational triple extraction methods are attracting growing research interests due to their promising performance and their abilities on extracting triples from complex sentences. However, this kind of methods are far from their full potential because most of them only focus on using local features but ignore the global associations of relations and of token pairs, which increases the possibility of overlooking some important information during triple extraction. To overcome this deficiency, we propose a global feature-oriented triple extraction model that makes full use of the mentioned two kinds of global associations. Specifically, we first generate a table feature for each relation. Then two kinds of global associations are mined from the generated table features. Next, the mined global associations are integrated into the table feature of each relation. This "generate-mine-integrate" process is performed multiple times so that the table feature of each relation is refined step by step. Finally, each relation's table is filled based on its refined table feature, and all triples linked to this relation are extracted based on its filled table. We evaluate the proposed model on three benchmark datasets. Experimental results show our model is effective and it achieves state-of-the-art results on all of these datasets. The source code of our work is available at: this https URL.
Feiliang Ren, Longhui Zhang, Shujuan Yin, Xiaofeng Zhao, Shilei Liu, Bochao Li, Yaduo Liu
6
Python
9/20/2021 Leveraging Table Content for Zero-shot Text-to-SQL with Meta-Learning
Single-table text-to-SQL aims to transform a natural language question into a SQL query according to one single table. Recent work has made promising progress on this task by pre-trained language models and a multi-submodule framework. However, zero-shot table, that is, the invisible table in the training set, is currently the most critical bottleneck restricting the application of existing approaches to real-world scenarios. Although some work has utilized auxiliary tasks to help handle zero-shot tables, expensive extra manual annotation limits their practicality. In this paper, we propose a new approach for the zero-shot text-to-SQL task which does not rely on any additional manual annotations. Our approach consists of two parts. First, we propose a new model that leverages the abundant information of table content to help establish the mapping between questions and zero-shot tables. Further, we propose a simple but efficient meta-learning strategy to train our model. The strategy utilizes the two-step gradient update to force the model to learn a generalization ability towards zero-shot tables. We conduct extensive experiments on a public open-domain text-to-SQL dataset WikiSQL and a domain-specific dataset ESQL. Compared to existing approaches using the same pre-trained model, our approach achieves significant improvements on both datasets. Compared to the larger pre-trained model and the tabular-specific pre-trained model, our approach is still competitive. More importantly, on the zero-shot subsets of both the datasets, our approach further increases the improvements.
Yongrui Chen, Xinnan Guo, Chaojie Wang, Jian Qiu, Guilin Qi, Meng Wang, Huiying Li
6
Python
9/20/2021 Virtual Data Augmentation: A Robust and General Framework for Fine-tuning Pre-trained Models
Recent works have shown that powerful pre-trained language models (PLM) can be fooled by small perturbations or intentional attacks. To solve this issue, various data augmentation techniques are proposed to improve the robustness of PLMs. However, it is still challenging to augment semantically relevant examples with sufficient diversity. In this work, we present Virtual Data Augmentation (VDA), a general framework for robustly fine-tuning PLMs. Based on the original token embeddings, we construct a multinomial mixture for augmenting virtual data embeddings, where a masked language model guarantees the semantic relevance and the Gaussian noise provides the augmentation diversity. Furthermore, a regularized training strategy is proposed to balance the two aspects. Extensive experiments on six datasets show that our approach is able to improve the robustness of PLMs and alleviate the performance degradation under adversarial attacks. Our codes and data are publicly available at \textcolor{blue}{\url{this https URL}}.
Kun Zhou, Wayne Xin Zhao, Sirui Wang, Fuzheng Zhang, Wei Wu, Ji-Rong Wen
6
Python
9/20/2021 Hunspell for Sorani Kurdish Spell Checking and Morphological Analysis
Spell checking and morphological analysis are two fundamental tasks in text and natural language processing and are addressed in the early stages of the development of language technology. Despite the previous efforts, there is no progress in open-source to create such tools for Sorani Kurdish, also known as Central Kurdish, as a less-resourced language. In this paper, we present our efforts in annotating a lexicon with morphosyntactic tags and also, extracting morphological rules of Sorani Kurdish to build a morphological analyzer, a stemmer and a spell-checking system using Hunspell. This implementation can be used for further developments in the field by researchers and also, be integrated into text editors under a publicly available license.
6
Python
9/20/2021 Can Language Models be Biomedical Knowledge Bases?
Pre-trained language models (LMs) have become ubiquitous in solving various natural language processing (NLP) tasks. There has been increasing interest in what knowledge these LMs contain and how we can extract that knowledge, treating LMs as knowledge bases (KBs). While there has been much work on probing LMs in the general domain, there has been little attention to whether these powerful LMs can be used as domain-specific KBs. To this end, we create the BioLAMA benchmark, which is comprised of 49K biomedical factual knowledge triples for probing biomedical LMs. We find that biomedical LMs with recently proposed probing methods can achieve up to 18.51% Acc@5 on retrieving biomedical knowledge. Although this seems promising given the task difficulty, our detailed analyses reveal that most predictions are highly correlated with prompt templates without any subjects, hence producing similar results on each relation and hindering their capabilities to be used as domain-specific KBs. We hope that BioLAMA can serve as a challenging benchmark for biomedical factual probing.
Mujeen Sung, Jinhyuk Lee, Sean Yi, Minji Jeon, Sungdong Kim, Jaewoo Kang
5
Python
9/20/2021 Latent Hatred: A Benchmark for Understanding Implicit Hate Speech
Hate speech has grown significantly on social media, causing serious consequences for victims of all demographics. Despite much attention being paid to characterize and detect discriminatory speech, most work has focused on explicit or overt hate speech, failing to address a more pervasive form based on coded or indirect language. To fill this gap, this work introduces a theoretically-justified taxonomy of implicit hate speech and a benchmark corpus with fine-grained labels for each message and its implication. We present systematic analyses of our dataset using contemporary baselines to detect and explain implicit hate speech, and we discuss key features that challenge existing models. This dataset will continue to serve as a useful benchmark for understanding this multifaceted issue.
Mai ElSherief, Caleb Ziems, David Muchlinski, Vaishnavi Anupindi, Jordyn Seybolt, Munmun De Choudhury, Diyi Yang
5
9/20/2021 Is "moby dick" a Whale or a Bird? Named Entities and Terminology in Speech Translation
Automatic translation systems are known to struggle with rare words. Among these, named entities (NEs) and domain-specific terms are crucial, since errors in their translation can lead to severe meaning distortions. Despite their importance, previous speech translation (ST) studies have neglected them, also due to the dearth of publicly available resources tailored to their specific evaluation. To fill this gap, we i) present the first systematic analysis of the behavior of state-of-the-art ST systems in translating NEs and terminology, and ii) release NEuRoparl-ST, a novel benchmark built from European Parliament speeches annotated with NEs and terminology. Our experiments on the three language directions covered by our benchmark (en->es/fr/it) show that ST systems correctly translate 75-80% of terms and 65-70% of NEs, with very low performance (37-40%) on person names.
Marco Gaido, Susana Rodriguez, Matteo Negri, Luisa Bentivogli, Marco Turchi
5
Python
9/20/2021 Document-level Entity-based Extraction as Template Generation
Document-level entity-based extraction (EE), aiming at extracting entity-centric information such as entity roles and entity relations, is key to automatic knowledge acquisition from text corpora for various domains. Most document-level EE systems build extractive models, which struggle to model long-term dependencies among entities at the document level. To address this issue, we propose a generative framework for two document-level EE tasks: role-filler entity extraction (REE) and relation extraction (RE). We first formulate them as a template generation problem, allowing models to efficiently capture cross-entity dependencies, exploit label semantics, and avoid the exponential computation complexity of identifying N-ary relations. A novel cross-attention guided copy mechanism, TopK Copy, is incorporated into a pre-trained sequence-to-sequence model to enhance the capabilities of identifying key information in the input document. Experiments done on the MUC-4 and SciREX dataset show new state-of-the-art results on REE (+3.26%), binary RE (+4.8%), and 4-ary RE (+2.7%) in F1 score.
Kung-Hsiang Huang, Sam Tang, Nanyun Peng
5
Python
9/20/2021 SupCL-Seq: Supervised Contrastive Learning for Downstream Optimized Sequence Representations
While contrastive learning is proven to be an effective training strategy in computer vision, Natural Language Processing (NLP) is only recently adopting it as a self-supervised alternative to Masked Language Modeling (MLM) for improving sequence representations. This paper introduces SupCL-Seq, which extends the supervised contrastive learning from computer vision to the optimization of sequence representations in NLP. By altering the dropout mask probability in standard Transformer architectures, for every representation (anchor), we generate augmented altered views. A supervised contrastive loss is then utilized to maximize the system's capability of pulling together similar samples (e.g., anchors and their altered views) and pushing apart the samples belonging to the other classes. Despite its simplicity, SupCLSeq leads to large gains in many sequence classification tasks on the GLUE benchmark compared to a standard BERTbase, including 6% absolute improvement on CoLA, 5.4% on MRPC, 4.7% on RTE and 2.6% on STSB. We also show consistent gains over self supervised contrastively learned representations, especially in non-semantic tasks. Finally we show that these gains are not solely due to augmentation, but rather to a downstream optimized sequence representation. Code: this https URL
Hooman Sedghamiz, Shivam Raval, Enrico Santus, Tuka Alhanai, Mohammad Ghassemi
4
Python
9/20/2021 Towards Document-Level Paraphrase Generation with Sentence Rewriting and Reordering
Paraphrase generation is an important task in natural language processing. Previous works focus on sentence-level paraphrase generation, while ignoring document-level paraphrase generation, which is a more challenging and valuable task. In this paper, we explore the task of document-level paraphrase generation for the first time and focus on the inter-sentence diversity by considering sentence rewriting and reordering. We propose CoRPG (Coherence Relationship guided Paraphrase Generation), which leverages graph GRU to encode the coherence relationship graph and get the coherence-aware representation for each sentence, which can be used for re-arranging the multiple (possibly modified) input sentences. We create a pseudo document-level paraphrase dataset for training CoRPG. Automatic evaluation results show CoRPG outperforms several strong baseline models on the BERTScore and diversity scores. Human evaluation also shows our model can generate document paraphrase with more diversity and semantic preservation.
Zhe Lin, Yitao Cai, Xiaojun Wan
4
Python
9/20/2021 Adversarial Mixing Policy for Relaxing Locally Linear Constraints in Mixup
Mixup is a recent regularizer for current deep classification networks. Through training a neural network on convex combinations of pairs of examples and their labels, it imposes locally linear constraints on the model's input space. However, such strict linear constraints often lead to under-fitting which degrades the effects of regularization. Noticeably, this issue is getting more serious when the resource is extremely limited. To address these issues, we propose the Adversarial Mixing Policy (AMP), organized in a min-max-rand formulation, to relax the Locally Linear Constraints in Mixup. Specifically, AMP adds a small adversarial perturbation to the mixing coefficients rather than the examples. Thus, slight non-linearity is injected in-between the synthetic examples and synthetic labels. By training on these data, the deep networks are further regularized, and thus achieve a lower predictive error rate. Experiments on five text classification benchmarks and five backbone models have empirically shown that our methods reduce the error rate over Mixup variants in a significant margin (up to 31.3%), especially in low-resource conditions (up to 17.5%).
Guang Liu, Yuzhao Mao, Hailong Huang, Weiguo Gao, Xuan Li
4
Python
9/20/2021 An MRC Framework for Semantic Role Labeling
Semantic Role Labeling (SRL) aims at recognizing the predicate-argument structure of a sentence and can be decomposed into two subtasks: predicate disambiguation and argument labeling. Prior work deals with these two tasks independently, which ignores the semantic connection between the two tasks. In this paper, we propose to use the machine reading comprehension (MRC) framework to bridge this gap. We formalize predicate disambiguation as multiple-choice machine reading comprehension, where the descriptions of candidate senses of a given predicate are used as options to select the correct sense. The chosen predicate sense is then used to determine the semantic roles for that predicate, and these semantic roles are used to construct the query for another MRC model for argument labeling. In this way, we are able to leverage both the predicate semantics and the semantic role semantics for argument labeling. We also propose to select a subset of all the possible semantic roles for computational efficiency. Experiments show that the proposed framework achieves state-of-the-art results on both span and dependency benchmarks.
Nan Wang, Jiwei Li, Yuxian Meng, Xiaofei Sun, Jun He
4
Python
9/20/2021 Multilingual Translation via Grafting Pre-trained Language Models
Can pre-trained BERT for one language and GPT for another be glued together to translate texts? Self-supervised training using only monolingual data has led to the success of pre-trained (masked) language models in many NLP tasks. However, directly connecting BERT as an encoder and GPT as a decoder can be challenging in machine translation, for GPT-like models lack a cross-attention component that is needed in seq2seq decoders. In this paper, we propose Graformer to graft separately pre-trained (masked) language models for machine translation. With monolingual data for pre-training and parallel data for grafting training, we maximally take advantage of the usage of both types of data. Experiments on 60 directions show that our method achieves average improvements of 5.8 BLEU in x2en and 2.9 BLEU in en2x directions comparing with the multilingual Transformer of the same size.
Zewei Sun, Mingxuan Wang, Lei Li
4
Python
9/20/2021 Broaden the Vision: Geo-Diverse Visual Commonsense Reasoning
Commonsense is defined as the knowledge that is shared by everyone. However, certain types of commonsense knowledge are correlated with culture and geographic locations and they are only shared locally. For example, the scenarios of wedding ceremonies vary across regions due to different customs influenced by historical and religious factors. Such regional characteristics, however, are generally omitted in prior work. In this paper, we construct a Geo-Diverse Visual Commonsense Reasoning dataset (GD-VCR) to test vision-and-language models' ability to understand cultural and geo-location-specific commonsense. In particular, we study two state-of-the-art Vision-and-Language models, VisualBERT and ViLBERT trained on VCR, a standard multimodal commonsense benchmark with images primarily from Western regions. We then evaluate how well the trained models can generalize to answering the questions in GD-VCR. We find that the performance of both models for non-Western regions including East Asia, South Asia, and Africa is significantly lower than that for Western region. We analyze the reasons behind the performance disparity and find that the performance gap is larger on QA pairs that: 1) are concerned with culture-related scenarios, e.g., weddings, religious activities, and festivals; 2) require high-level geo-diverse commonsense reasoning rather than low-order perception and recognition. Dataset and code are released at this https URL.
Da Yin, Liunian Harold Li, Ziniu Hu, Nanyun Peng, Kai-Wei Chang
4
Python
9/20/2021 Unsupervised Keyphrase Extraction by Jointly Modeling Local and Global Context
Embedding based methods are widely used for unsupervised keyphrase extraction (UKE) tasks. Generally, these methods simply calculate similarities between phrase embeddings and document embedding, which is insufficient to capture different context for a more effective UKE model. In this paper, we propose a novel method for UKE, where local and global contexts are jointly modeled. From a global view, we calculate the similarity between a certain phrase and the whole document in the vector space as transitional embedding based models do. In terms of the local view, we first build a graph structure based on the document where phrases are regarded as vertices and the edges are similarities between vertices. Then, we proposed a new centrality computation method to capture local salient information based on the graph structure. Finally, we further combine the modeling of global and local context for ranking. We evaluate our models on three public benchmarks (Inspec, DUC 2001, SemEval 2010) and compare with existing state-of-the-art models. The results show that our model outperforms most models while generalizing better on input documents with different domains and length. Additional ablation study shows that both the local and global information is crucial for unsupervised keyphrase extraction tasks.
Xinnian Liang, Shuangzhi Wu, Mu Li, Zhoujun Li
4
Python
9/20/2021 SPARQLing Database Queries from Intermediate Question Decompositions
To translate natural language questions into executable database queries, most approaches rely on a fully annotated training set. Annotating a large dataset with queries is difficult as it requires query-language expertise. We reduce this burden using grounded in databases intermediate question representations. These representations are simpler to collect and were originally crowdsourced within the Break dataset (Wolfson et al., 2020). Our pipeline consists of two parts: a neural semantic parser that converts natural language questions into the intermediate representations and a non-trainable transpiler to the SPARQL query language (a standard language for accessing knowledge graphs and semantic web). We chose SPARQL because its queries are structurally closer to our intermediate representations (compared to SQL). We observe that the execution accuracy of queries constructed by our model on the challenging Spider dataset is comparable with the state-of-the-art text-to-SQL methods trained with annotated SQL queries. Our code and data are publicly available (see this https URL).
Irina Saparina, Anton Osokin
4
Python
9/20/2021 Entity-Based Knowledge Conflicts in Question Answering
Knowledge-dependent tasks typically use two sources of knowledge: parametric, learned at training time, and contextual, given as a passage at inference time. To understand how models use these sources together, we formalize the problem of knowledge conflicts, where the contextual information contradicts the learned information. Analyzing the behaviour of popular models, we measure their over-reliance on memorized information (the cause of hallucinations), and uncover important factors that exacerbate this behaviour. Lastly, we propose a simple method to mitigate over-reliance on parametric knowledge, which minimizes hallucination, and improves out-of-distribution generalization by 4%-7%. Our findings demonstrate the importance for practitioners to evaluate model tendency to hallucinate rather than read, and show that our mitigation strategy encourages generalization to evolving information (i.e., time-dependent queries). To encourage these practices, we have released our framework for generating knowledge conflicts.
Shayne Longpre, Kartik Perisetla, Anthony Chen, Nikhil Ramesh, Chris DuBois, Sameer Singh
3
Python
9/20/2021 Pre-train or Annotate? Domain Adaptation with a Constrained Budget
Recent work has demonstrated that pre-training in-domain language models can boost performance when adapting to a new domain. However, the costs associated with pre-training raise an important question: given a fixed budget, what steps should an NLP practitioner take to maximize performance? In this paper, we study domain adaptation under budget constraints, and approach it as a customer choice problem between data annotation and pre-training. Specifically, we measure the annotation cost of three procedural text datasets and the pre-training cost of three in-domain language models. Then we evaluate the utility of different combinations of pre-training and data annotation under varying budget constraints to assess which combination strategy works best. We find that, for small budgets, spending all funds on annotation leads to the best performance; once the budget becomes large enough, a combination of data annotation and in-domain pre-training works more optimally. We therefore suggest that task-specific data annotation should be part of an economical strategy when adapting an NLP model to a new domain.
Fan Bai, Alan Ritter, Wei Xu
3
9/20/2021 Reference-Centric Models for Grounded Collaborative Dialogue
We present a grounded neural dialogue model that successfully collaborates with people in a partially-observable reference game. We focus on a setting where two agents each observe an overlapping part of a world context and need to identify and agree on some object they share. Therefore, the agents should pool their information and communicate pragmatically to solve the task. Our dialogue agent accurately grounds referents from the partner's utterances using a structured reference resolver, conditions on these referents using a recurrent memory, and uses a pragmatic generation procedure to ensure the partner can resolve the references the agent produces. We evaluate on the OneCommon spatial grounding dialogue task (Udagawa and Aizawa 2019), involving a number of dots arranged on a board with continuously varying positions, sizes, and shades. Our agent substantially outperforms the previous state of the art for the task, obtaining a 20% relative improvement in successful task completion in self-play evaluations and a 50% relative improvement in success in human evaluations.
Daniel Fried, Justin T. Chiu, Dan Klein
3
Jupyter Notebook
9/20/2021 Adversarial Examples for Evaluating Math Word Problem Solvers
Standard accuracy metrics have shown that Math Word Problem (MWP) solvers have achieved high performance on benchmark datasets. However, the extent to which existing MWP solvers truly understand language and its relation with numbers is still unclear. In this paper, we generate adversarial attacks to evaluate the robustness of state-of-the-art MWP solvers. We propose two methods Question Reordering and Sentence Paraphrasing to generate adversarial attacks. We conduct experiments across three neural MWP solvers over two benchmark datasets. On average, our attack method is able to reduce the accuracy of MWP solvers by over 40 percentage points on these datasets. Our results demonstrate that existing MWP solvers are sensitive to linguistic variations in the problem text. We verify the validity and quality of generated adversarial examples through human evaluation.
Vivek Kumar, Rishabh Maheshwary, Vikram Pudi
3
9/20/2021 AfroMT: Pretraining Strategies and Reproducible Benchmarks for Translation of 8 African Languages
Reproducible benchmarks are crucial in driving progress of machine translation research. However, existing machine translation benchmarks have been mostly limited to high-resource or well-represented languages. Despite an increasing interest in low-resource machine translation, there are no standardized reproducible benchmarks for many African languages, many of which are used by millions of speakers but have less digitized textual data. To tackle these challenges, we propose AfroMT, a standardized, clean, and reproducible machine translation benchmark for eight widely spoken African languages. We also develop a suite of analysis tools for system diagnosis taking into account the unique properties of these languages. Furthermore, we explore the newly considered case of low-resource focused pretraining and develop two novel data augmentation-based strategies, leveraging word-level alignment information and pseudo-monolingual data for pretraining multilingual sequence-to-sequence models. We demonstrate significant improvements when pretraining on 11 languages, with gains of up to 2 BLEU points over strong baselines. We also show gains of up to 12 BLEU points over cross-lingual transfer baselines in data-constrained scenarios. All code and pretrained models will be released as further steps towards larger reproducible benchmarks for African languages.
Machel Reid, Junjie Hu, Graham Neubig, Yutaka Matsuo
3
9/20/2021 Knowledge Enhanced Fine-Tuning for Better Handling Unseen Entities in Dialogue Generation
Although pre-training models have achieved great success in dialogue generation, their performance drops dramatically when the input contains an entity that does not appear in pre-training and fine-tuning datasets (unseen entity). To address this issue, existing methods leverage an external knowledge base to generate appropriate responses. In real-world scenario, the entity may not be included by the knowledge base or suffer from the precision of knowledge retrieval. To deal with this problem, instead of introducing knowledge base as the input, we force the model to learn a better semantic representation by predicting the information in the knowledge base, only based on the input context. Specifically, with the help of a knowledge base, we introduce two auxiliary training objectives: 1) Interpret Masked Word, which conjectures the meaning of the masked entity given the context; 2) Hypernym Generation, which predicts the hypernym of the entity based on the context. Experiment results on two dialogue corpus verify the effectiveness of our methods under both knowledge available and unavailable settings.
Leyang Cui, Yu Wu, Shujie Liu, Yue Zhang
3
Python
9/20/2021 A Strong Baseline for Query Efficient Attacks in a Black Box Setting
Existing black box search methods have achieved high success rate in generating adversarial attacks against NLP models. However, such search methods are inefficient as they do not consider the amount of queries required to generate adversarial attacks. Also, prior attacks do not maintain a consistent search space while comparing different search methods. In this paper, we propose a query efficient attack strategy to generate plausible adversarial examples on text classification and entailment tasks. Our attack jointly leverages attention mechanism and locality sensitive hashing (LSH) to reduce the query count. We demonstrate the efficacy of our approach by comparing our attack with four baselines across three different search spaces. Further, we benchmark our results across the same search space used in prior attacks. In comparison to attacks proposed, on an average, we are able to reduce the query count by 75% across all datasets and target models. We also demonstrate that our attack achieves a higher success rate when compared to prior attacks in a limited query setting.
Rishabh Maheshwary, Saket Maheshwary, Vikram Pudi
3
9/20/2021 SWEAT: Scoring Polarization of Topics across Different Corpora
Understanding differences of viewpoints across corpora is a fundamental task for computational social sciences. In this paper, we propose the Sliced Word Embedding Association Test (SWEAT), a novel statistical measure to compute the relative polarization of a topical wordset across two distributional representations. To this end, SWEAT uses two additional wordsets, deemed to have opposite valence, to represent two different poles. We validate our approach and illustrate a case study to show the usefulness of the introduced measure.
Federico Bianchi, Marco Marelli, Paolo Nicoli, Matteo Palmonari
3
Python
9/20/2021 Non-Parametric Unsupervised Domain Adaptation for Neural Machine Translation
Recently, $k$NN-MT has shown the promising capability of directly incorporating the pre-trained neural machine translation (NMT) model with domain-specific token-level $k$-nearest-neighbor ($k$NN) retrieval to achieve domain adaptation without retraining. Despite being conceptually attractive, it heavily relies on high-quality in-domain parallel corpora, limiting its capability on unsupervised domain adaptation, where in-domain parallel corpora are scarce or nonexistent. In this paper, we propose a novel framework that directly uses in-domain monolingual sentences in the target language to construct an effective datastore for $k$-nearest-neighbor retrieval. To this end, we first introduce an autoencoder task based on the target language, and then insert lightweight adapters into the original NMT model to map the token-level representation of this task to the ideal representation of translation task. Experiments on multi-domain datasets demonstrate that our proposed approach significantly improves the translation accuracy with target-side monolingual data, while achieving comparable performance with back-translation.
Xin Zheng, Zhirui Zhang, Shujian Huang, Boxing Chen, Jun Xie, Weihua Luo, Jiajun Chen
3
Python
9/20/2021 D-REX: Dialogue Relation Extraction with Explanations
Existing research studies on cross-sentence relation extraction in long-form multi-party conversations aim to improve relation extraction without considering the explainability of such methods. This work addresses that gap by focusing on extracting explanations that indicate that a relation exists while using only partially labeled data. We propose our model-agnostic framework, D-REX, a policy-guided semi-supervised algorithm that explains and ranks relations. We frame relation extraction as a re-ranking task and include relation- and entity-specific explanations as an intermediate step of the inference process. We find that about 90% of the time, human annotators prefer D-REX's explanations over a strong BERT-based joint relation extraction and explanation model. Finally, our evaluations on a dialogue relation extraction dataset show that our method is simple yet effective and achieves a state-of-the-art F1 score on relation extraction, improving upon existing methods by 13.5%.
Alon Albalak, Varun Embar, Yi-Lin Tuan, Lise Getoor, William Yang Wang
2
Python
9/20/2021 BERT, mBERT, or BiBERT? A Study on Contextualized Embeddings for Neural Machine Translation
The success of bidirectional encoders using masked language models, such as BERT, on numerous natural language processing tasks has prompted researchers to attempt to incorporate these pre-trained models into neural machine translation (NMT) systems. However, proposed methods for incorporating pre-trained models are non-trivial and mainly focus on BERT, which lacks a comparison of the impact that other pre-trained models may have on translation performance. In this paper, we demonstrate that simply using the output (contextualized embeddings) of a tailored and suitable bilingual pre-trained language model (dubbed BiBERT) as the input of the NMT encoder achieves state-of-the-art translation performance. Moreover, we also propose a stochastic layer selection approach and a concept of dual-directional translation model to ensure the sufficient utilization of contextualized embeddings. In the case of without using back translation, our best models achieve BLEU scores of 30.45 for En->De and 38.61 for De->En on the IWSLT'14 dataset, and 31.26 for En->De and 34.94 for De->En on the WMT'14 dataset, which exceeds all published numbers.
Haoran Xu, Benjamin Van Durme, Kenton Murray
2
Python
9/20/2021 Subword Mapping and Anchoring across Languages
State-of-the-art multilingual systems rely on shared vocabularies that sufficiently cover all considered languages. To this end, a simple and frequently used approach makes use of subword vocabularies constructed jointly over several languages. We hypothesize that such vocabularies are suboptimal due to false positives (identical subwords with different meanings across languages) and false negatives (different subwords with similar meanings). To address these issues, we propose Subword Mapping and Anchoring across Languages (SMALA), a method to construct bilingual subword vocabularies. SMALA extracts subword alignments using an unsupervised state-of-the-art mapping technique and uses them to create cross-lingual anchors based on subword similarities. We demonstrate the benefits of SMALA for cross-lingual natural language inference (XNLI), where it improves zero-shot transfer to an unseen language without task-specific data, but only by sharing subword embeddings. Moreover, in neural machine translation, we show that joint subword vocabularies obtained with SMALA lead to higher BLEU scores on sentences that contain many false positives and false negatives.
Giorgos Vernikos, Andrei Popescu-Belis
2
Python
9/20/2021 BenchIE: Open Information Extraction Evaluation Based on Facts, Not Tokens
Intrinsic evaluations of OIE systems are carried out either manually -- with human evaluators judging the correctness of extractions -- or automatically, on standardized benchmarks. The latter, while much more cost-effective, is less reliable, primarily because of the incompleteness of the existing OIE benchmarks: the ground truth extractions do not include all acceptable variants of the same fact, leading to unreliable assessment of models' performance. Moreover, the existing OIE benchmarks are available for English only. In this work, we introduce BenchIE: a benchmark and evaluation framework for comprehensive evaluation of OIE systems for English, Chinese and German. In contrast to existing OIE benchmarks, BenchIE takes into account informational equivalence of extractions: our gold standard consists of fact synsets, clusters in which we exhaustively list all surface forms of the same fact. We benchmark several state-of-the-art OIE systems using BenchIE and demonstrate that these systems are significantly less effective than indicated by existing OIE benchmarks. We make BenchIE (data and evaluation code) publicly available.
Kiril Gashteovski, Mingying Yu, Bhushan Kotnis, Carolin Lawrence, Goran Glavas, Mathias Niepert
2
Python
9/20/2021 Uncovering Main Causalities for Long-tailed Information Extraction
Information Extraction (IE) aims to extract structural information from unstructured texts. In practice, long-tailed distributions caused by the selection bias of a dataset, may lead to incorrect correlations, also known as spurious correlations, between entities and labels in the conventional likelihood models. This motivates us to propose counterfactual IE (CFIE), a novel framework that aims to uncover the main causalities behind data in the view of causal inference. Specifically, 1) we first introduce a unified structural causal model (SCM) for various IE tasks, describing the relationships among variables; 2) with our SCM, we then generate counterfactuals based on an explicit language structure to better calculate the direct causal effect during the inference stage; 3) we further propose a novel debiasing approach to yield more robust predictions. Experiments on three IE tasks across five public datasets show the effectiveness of our CFIE model in mitigating the spurious correlation issues.
Guoshun Nan, Jiaqi Zeng, Rui Qiao, Zhijiang Guo, Wei Lu
2
Python
9/20/2021 Benchmarking Commonsense Knowledge Base Population with an Effective Evaluation Dataset
Reasoning over commonsense knowledge bases (CSKB) whose elements are in the form of free-text is an important yet hard task in NLP. While CSKB completion only fills the missing links within the domain of the CSKB, CSKB population is alternatively proposed with the goal of reasoning unseen assertions from external resources. In this task, CSKBs are grounded to a large-scale eventuality (activity, state, and event) graph to discriminate whether novel triples from the eventuality graph are plausible or not. However, existing evaluations on the population task are either not accurate (automatic evaluation with randomly sampled negative examples) or of small scale (human annotation). In this paper, we benchmark the CSKB population task with a new large-scale dataset by first aligning four popular CSKBs, and then presenting a high-quality human-annotated evaluation set to probe neural models' commonsense reasoning ability. We also propose a novel inductive commonsense reasoning model that reasons over graphs. Experimental results show that generalizing commonsense reasoning on unseen assertions is inherently a hard task. Models achieving high accuracy during training perform poorly on the evaluation set, with a large gap between human performance. We will make the data publicly available for future contributions. Codes and data are available at this https URL.
Tianqing Fang, Weiqi Wang, Sehyun Choi, Shibo Hao, Hongming Zhang, Yangqiu Song, Bin He
2
Python
9/20/2021 An Evaluation Dataset and Strategy for Building Robust Multi-turn Response Selection Model
Multi-turn response selection models have recently shown comparable performance to humans in several benchmark datasets. However, in the real environment, these models often have weaknesses, such as making incorrect predictions based heavily on superficial patterns without a comprehensive understanding of the context. For example, these models often give a high score to the wrong response candidate containing several keywords related to the context but using the inconsistent tense. In this study, we analyze the weaknesses of the open-domain Korean Multi-turn response selection models and publish an adversarial dataset to evaluate these weaknesses. We also suggest a strategy to build a robust model in this adversarial environment.
Kijong Han, Seojin Lee, Wooin Lee, Joosung Lee, Dong-hun Lee
2
9/20/2021 Show Me How To Revise: Improving Lexically Constrained Sentence Generation with XLNet
Lexically constrained sentence generation allows the incorporation of prior knowledge such as lexical constraints into the output. This technique has been applied to machine translation, and dialog response generation. Previous work usually used Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling to generate lexically constrained sentences, but they randomly determined the position to be edited and the action to be taken, resulting in many invalid refinements. To overcome this challenge, we used a classifier to instruct the MCMC-based models where and how to refine the candidate sentences. First, we developed two methods to create synthetic data on which the pre-trained model is fine-tuned to obtain a reliable classifier. Next, we proposed a two-step approach, "Predict and Revise", for constrained sentence generation. During the predict step, we leveraged the classifier to compute the learned prior for the candidate sentence. During the revise step, we resorted to MCMC sampling to revise the candidate sentence by conducting a sampled action at a sampled position drawn from the learned prior. We compared our proposed models with many strong baselines on two tasks, generating sentences with lexical constraints and text infilling. Experimental results have demonstrated that our proposed model performs much better than the previous work in terms of sentence fluency and diversity. Our code and pre-trained models are available at this https URL.
Xingwei He, Victor O.K. Li
2
Python
9/20/2021 Explain Me the Painting: Multi-Topic Knowledgeable Art Description Generation
Have you ever looked at a painting and wondered what is the story behind it? This work presents a framework to bring art closer to people by generating comprehensive descriptions of fine-art paintings. Generating informative descriptions for artworks, however, is extremely challenging, as it requires to 1) describe multiple aspects of the image such as its style, content, or composition, and 2) provide background and contextual knowledge about the artist, their influences, or the historical period. To address these challenges, we introduce a multi-topic and knowledgeable art description framework, which modules the generated sentences according to three artistic topics and, additionally, enhances each description with external knowledge. The framework is validated through an exhaustive analysis, both quantitative and qualitative, as well as a comparative human evaluation, demonstrating outstanding results in terms of both topic diversity and information veracity.
Zechen Bai, Yuta Nakashima, Noa Garcia
2
9/20/2021 Logic-level Evidence Retrieval and Graph-based Verification Network for Table-based Fact Verification
Table-based fact verification task aims to verify whether the given statement is supported by the given semi-structured table. Symbolic reasoning with logical operations plays a crucial role in this task. Existing methods leverage programs that contain rich logical information to enhance the verification process. However, due to the lack of fully supervised signals in the program generation process, spurious programs can be derived and employed, which leads to the inability of the model to catch helpful logical operations. To address the aforementioned problems, in this work, we formulate the table-based fact verification task as an evidence retrieval and reasoning framework, proposing the Logic-level Evidence Retrieval and Graph-based Verification network (LERGV). Specifically, we first retrieve logic-level program-like evidence from the given table and statement as supplementary evidence for the table. After that, we construct a logic-level graph to capture the logical relations between entities and functions in the retrieved evidence, and design a graph-based verification network to perform logic-level graph-based reasoning based on the constructed graph to classify the final entailment relation. Experimental results on the large-scale benchmark TABFACT show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Qi Shi, Yu Zhang, Qingyu Yin, Ting Liu
2
9/20/2021 Rethinking Zero-shot Neural Machine Translation: From a Perspective of Latent Variables
Zero-shot translation, directly translating between language pairs unseen in training, is a promising capability of multilingual neural machine translation (NMT). However, it usually suffers from capturing spurious correlations between the output language and language invariant semantics due to the maximum likelihood training objective, leading to poor transfer performance on zero-shot translation. In this paper, we introduce a denoising autoencoder objective based on pivot language into traditional training objective to improve the translation accuracy on zero-shot directions. The theoretical analysis from the perspective of latent variables shows that our approach actually implicitly maximizes the probability distributions for zero-shot directions. On two benchmark machine translation datasets, we demonstrate that the proposed method is able to effectively eliminate the spurious correlations and significantly outperforms state-of-the-art methods with a remarkable performance. Our code is available at this https URL.
Weizhi Wang, Zhirui Zhang, Yichao Du, Boxing Chen, Jun Xie, Weihua Luo
2
Python
9/20/2021 Transformer-based Lexically Constrained Headline Generation
This paper explores a variant of automatic headline generation methods, where a generated headline is required to include a given phrase such as a company or a product name. Previous methods using Transformer-based models generate a headline including a given phrase by providing the encoder with additional information corresponding to the given phrase. However, these methods cannot always include the phrase in the generated headline. Inspired by previous RNN-based methods generating token sequences in backward and forward directions from the given phrase, we propose a simple Transformer-based method that guarantees to include the given phrase in the high-quality generated headline. We also consider a new headline generation strategy that takes advantage of the controllable generation order of Transformer. Our experiments with the Japanese News Corpus demonstrate that our methods, which are guaranteed to include the phrase in the generated headline, achieve ROUGE scores comparable to previous Transformer-based methods. We also show that our generation strategy performs better than previous strategies.
Kosuke Yamada, Yuta Hitomi, Hideaki Tamori, Ryohei Sasano, Naoaki Okazaki, Kentaro Inui, Koichi Takeda
1
Python
9/20/2021 Artificial Text Detection via Examining the Topology of Attention Maps
The impressive capabilities of recent generative models to create texts that are challenging to distinguish from the human-written ones can be misused for generating fake news, product reviews, and even abusive content. Despite the prominent performance of existing methods for artificial text detection, they still lack interpretability and robustness towards unseen models. To this end, we propose three novel types of interpretable topological features for this task based on Topological Data Analysis (TDA) which is currently understudied in the field of NLP. We empirically show that the features derived from the BERT model outperform count- and neural-based baselines up to 10\% on three common datasets, and tend to be the most robust towards unseen GPT-style generation models as opposed to existing methods. The probing analysis of the features reveals their sensitivity to the surface and syntactic properties. The results demonstrate that TDA is a promising line with respect to NLP tasks, specifically the ones that incorporate surface and structural information.
Laida Kushnareva, Daniil Cherniavskii, Vladislav Mikhailov, Ekaterina Artemova, Serguei Barannikov, Alexander Bernstein, Irina Piontkovskaya, Dmitri Piontkovski, Evgeny Burnaev
1
9/20/2021 SPECTRA: Sparse Structured Text Rationalization
Selective rationalization aims to produce decisions along with rationales (e.g., text highlights or word alignments between two sentences). Commonly, rationales are modeled as stochastic binary masks, requiring sampling-based gradient estimators, which complicates training and requires careful hyperparameter tuning. Sparse attention mechanisms are a deterministic alternative, but they lack a way to regularize the rationale extraction (e.g., to control the sparsity of a text highlight or the number of alignments). In this paper, we present a unified framework for deterministic extraction of structured explanations via constrained inference on a factor graph, forming a differentiable layer. Our approach greatly eases training and rationale regularization, generally outperforming previous work on what comes to performance and plausibility of the extracted rationales. We further provide a comparative study of stochastic and deterministic methods for rationale extraction for classification and natural language inference tasks, jointly assessing their predictive power, quality of the explanations, and model variability.
Nuno Miguel Guerreiro, Andre F. T. Martins
1
Python
9/20/2021 The Stem Cell Hypothesis: Dilemma behind Multi-Task Learning with Transformer Encoders
Han He, Jinho D. Choi
1
Python
9/20/2021 Speaker-Oriented Latent Structures for Dialogue-Based Relation Extraction
Dialogue-based relation extraction (DiaRE) aims to detect the structural information from unstructured utterances in dialogues. Existing relation extraction models may be unsatisfactory under such a conversational setting, due to the entangled logic and information sparsity issues in utterances involving multiple speakers. To this end, we introduce SOLS, a novel model which can explicitly induce speaker-oriented latent structures for better DiaRE. Specifically, we learn latent structures to capture the relationships among tokens beyond the utterance boundaries, alleviating the entangled logic issue. During the learning process, our speaker-specific regularization method progressively highlights speaker-related key clues and erases the irrelevant ones, alleviating the information sparsity issue. Experiments on three public datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach.
Guoshun Nan, Guoqing Luo, Sicong Leng, Yao Xiao, Wei Lu
1
Python
9/20/2021 Comparing Text Representations: A Theory-Driven Approach
Much of the progress in contemporary NLP has come from learning representations, such as masked language model (MLM) contextual embeddings, that turn challenging problems into simple classification tasks. But how do we quantify and explain this effect? We adapt general tools from computational learning theory to fit the specific characteristics of text datasets and present a method to evaluate the compatibility between representations and tasks. Even though many tasks can be easily solved with simple bag-of-words (BOW) representations, BOW does poorly on hard natural language inference tasks. For one such task we find that BOW cannot distinguish between real and randomized labelings, while pre-trained MLM representations show 72x greater distinction between real and random labelings than BOW. This method provides a calibrated, quantitative measure of the difficulty of a classification-based NLP task, enabling comparisons between representations without requiring empirical evaluations that may be sensitive to initializations and hyperparameters. The method provides a fresh perspective on the patterns in a dataset and the alignment of those patterns with specific labels.
Gregory Yauney, David Mimno
1
Python
9/20/2021 Exophoric Pronoun Resolution in Dialogues with Topic Regularization
Resolving pronouns to their referents has long been studied as a fundamental natural language understanding problem. Previous works on pronoun coreference resolution (PCR) mostly focus on resolving pronouns to mentions in text while ignoring the exophoric scenario. Exophoric pronouns are common in daily communications, where speakers may directly use pronouns to refer to some objects present in the environment without introducing the objects first. Although such objects are not mentioned in the dialogue text, they can often be disambiguated by the general topics of the dialogue. Motivated by this, we propose to jointly leverage the local context and global topics of dialogues to solve the out-of-text PCR problem. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of adding topic regularization for resolving exophoric pronouns.
Xintong Yu, Hongming Zhang, Yangqiu Song, Changshui Zhang, Kun Xu, Dong Yu
1
Python
9/20/2021 Topic Transferable Table Question Answering
Weakly-supervised table question-answering(TableQA) models have achieved state-of-art performance by using pre-trained BERT transformer to jointly encoding a question and a table to produce structured query for the question. However, in practical settings TableQA systems are deployed over table corpora having topic and word distributions quite distinct from BERT's pretraining corpus. In this work we simulate the practical topic shift scenario by designing novel challenge benchmarks WikiSQL-TS and WikiTQ-TS, consisting of train-dev-test splits in five distinct topic groups, based on the popular WikiSQL and WikiTableQuestions datasets. We empirically show that, despite pre-training on large open-domain text, performance of models degrades significantly when they are evaluated on unseen topics. In response, we propose T3QA (Topic Transferable Table Question Answering) a pragmatic adaptation framework for TableQA comprising of: (1) topic-specific vocabulary injection into BERT, (2) a novel text-to-text transformer generator (such as T5, GPT2) based natural language question generation pipeline focused on generating topic specific training data, and (3) a logical form reranker. We show that T3QA provides a reasonably good baseline for our topic shift benchmarks. We believe our topic split benchmarks will lead to robust TableQA solutions that are better suited for practical deployment.
Saneem Ahmed Chemmengath, Vishwajeet Kumar, Samarth Bharadwaj, Jaydeep Sen, Mustafa Canim, Soumen Chakrabarti, Alfio Gliozzo, Karthik Sankaranarayanan
1
9/20/2021 A system for information extraction from scientific texts in Russian
In this paper, we present a system for information extraction from scientific texts in the Russian language. The system performs several tasks in an end-to-end manner: term recognition, extraction of relations between terms, and term linking with entities from the knowledge base. These tasks are extremely important for information retrieval, recommendation systems, and classification. The advantage of the implemented methods is that the system does not require a large amount of labeled data, which saves time and effort for data labeling and therefore can be applied in low- and mid-resource settings. The source code is publicly available and can be used for different research purposes.
Elena Bruches, Anastasia Mezentseva, Tatiana Batura
1
Python
9/20/2021 Perturbation CheckLists for Evaluating NLG Evaluation Metrics
Natural Language Generation (NLG) evaluation is a multifaceted task requiring assessment of multiple desirable criteria, e.g., fluency, coherency, coverage, relevance, adequacy, overall quality, etc. Across existing datasets for 6 NLG tasks, we observe that the human evaluation scores on these multiple criteria are often not correlated. For example, there is a very low correlation between human scores on fluency and data coverage for the task of structured data to text generation. This suggests that the current recipe of proposing new automatic evaluation metrics for NLG by showing that they correlate well with scores assigned by humans for a single criteria (overall quality) alone is inadequate. Indeed, our extensive study involving 25 automatic evaluation metrics across 6 different tasks and 18 different evaluation criteria shows that there is no single metric which correlates well with human scores on all desirable criteria, for most NLG tasks. Given this situation, we propose CheckLists for better design and evaluation of automatic metrics. We design templates which target a specific criteria (e.g., coverage) and perturb the output such that the quality gets affected only along this specific criteria (e.g., the coverage drops). We show that existing evaluation metrics are not robust against even such simple perturbations and disagree with scores assigned by humans to the perturbed output. The proposed templates thus allow for a fine-grained assessment of automatic evaluation metrics exposing their limitations and will facilitate better design, analysis and evaluation of such metrics.
Ananya B. Sai, Tanay Dixit, Dev Yashpal Sheth, Sreyas Mohan, Mitesh M. Khapra
1
Python
9/20/2021 Revisiting Tri-training of Dependency Parsers
We compare two orthogonal semi-supervised learning techniques, namely tri-training and pretrained word embeddings, in the task of dependency parsing. We explore language-specific FastText and ELMo embeddings and multilingual BERT embeddings. We focus on a low resource scenario as semi-supervised learning can be expected to have the most impact here. Based on treebank size and available ELMo models, we select Hungarian, Uyghur (a zero-shot language for mBERT) and Vietnamese. Furthermore, we include English in a simulated low-resource setting. We find that pretrained word embeddings make more effective use of unlabelled data than tri-training but that the two approaches can be successfully combined.
Joachim Wagner, Jennifer Foster
1
Python
9/20/2021 KnowMAN: Weakly Supervised Multinomial Adversarial Networks
The absence of labeled data for training neural models is often addressed by leveraging knowledge about the specific task, resulting in heuristic but noisy labels. The knowledge is captured in labeling functions, which detect certain regularities or patterns in the training samples and annotate corresponding labels for training. This process of weakly supervised training may result in an over-reliance on the signals captured by the labeling functions and hinder models to exploit other signals or to generalize well. We propose KnowMAN, an adversarial scheme that enables to control influence of signals associated with specific labeling functions. KnowMAN forces the network to learn representations that are invariant to those signals and to pick up other signals that are more generally associated with an output label. KnowMAN strongly improves results compared to direct weakly supervised learning with a pre-trained transformer language model and a feature-based baseline.
Luisa Marz, Ehsaneddin Asgari, Fabienne Braune, Franziska Zimmermann, Benjamin Roth
1
9/20/2021 Studying word order through iterative shuffling
As neural language models approach human performance on NLP benchmark tasks, their advances are widely seen as evidence of an increasingly complex understanding of syntax. This view rests upon a hypothesis that has not yet been empirically tested: that word order encodes meaning essential to performing these tasks. We refute this hypothesis in many cases: in the GLUE suite and in various genres of English text, the words in a sentence or phrase can rarely be permuted to form a phrase carrying substantially different information. Our surprising result relies on inference by iterative shuffling (IBIS), a novel, efficient procedure that finds the ordering of a bag of words having the highest likelihood under a fixed language model. IBIS can use any black-box model without additional training and is superior to existing word ordering algorithms. Coalescing our findings, we discuss how shuffling inference procedures such as IBIS can benefit language modeling and constrained generation.
Nikolay Malkin, Sameera Lanka, Pranav Goel, Nebojsa Jojic
1
Python
9/20/2021 CoPHE: A Count-Preserving Hierarchical Evaluation Metric in Large-Scale Multi-Label Text Classification
Large-Scale Multi-Label Text Classification (LMTC) includes tasks with hierarchical label spaces, such as automatic assignment of ICD-9 codes to discharge summaries. Performance of models in prior art is evaluated with standard precision, recall, and F1 measures without regard for the rich hierarchical structure. In this work we argue for hierarchical evaluation of the predictions of neural LMTC models. With the example of the ICD-9 ontology we describe a structural issue in the representation of the structured label space in prior art, and propose an alternative representation based on the depth of the ontology. We propose a set of metrics for hierarchical evaluation using the depth-based representation. We compare the evaluation scores from the proposed metrics with previously used metrics on prior art LMTC models for ICD-9 coding in MIMIC-III. We also propose further avenues of research involving the proposed ontological representation.
Matus Falis, Hang Dong, Alexandra Birch, Beatrice Alex
1
Python
9/20/2021 BiSECT: Learning to Split and Rephrase Sentences with Bitexts
An important task in NLP applications such as sentence simplification is the ability to take a long, complex sentence and split it into shorter sentences, rephrasing as necessary. We introduce a novel dataset and a new model for this `split and rephrase' task. Our BiSECT training data consists of 1 million long English sentences paired with shorter, meaning-equivalent English sentences. We obtain these by extracting 1-2 sentence alignments in bilingual parallel corpora and then using machine translation to convert both sides of the corpus into the same language. BiSECT contains higher quality training examples than previous Split and Rephrase corpora, with sentence splits that require more significant modifications. We categorize examples in our corpus, and use these categories in a novel model that allows us to target specific regions of the input sentence to be split and edited. Moreover, we show that models trained on BiSECT can perform a wider variety of split operations and improve upon previous state-of-the-art approaches in automatic and human evaluations.
Joongwon Kim, Mounica Maddela, Reno Kriz, Wei Xu, Chris Callison-Burch
1
Python
9/20/2021 On the Language-specificity of Multilingual BERT and the Impact of Fine-tuning
Recent work has shown evidence that the knowledge acquired by multilingual BERT (mBERT) has two components: a language-specific and a language-neutral one. This paper analyses the relationship between them, in the context of fine-tuning on two tasks -- POS tagging and natural language inference -- which require the model to bring to bear different degrees of language-specific knowledge. Visualisations reveal that mBERT loses the ability to cluster representations by language after fine-tuning, a result that is supported by evidence from language identification experiments. However, further experiments on 'unlearning' language-specific representations using gradient reversal and iterative adversarial learning are shown not to add further improvement to the language-independent component over and above the effect of fine-tuning. The results presented here suggest that the process of fine-tuning causes a reorganisation of the model's limited representational capacity, enhancing language-independent representations at the expense of language-specific ones.
Marc Tanti, Lonneke van der Plas, Claudia Borg, Albert Gatt
1
Python
9/20/2021 Genre as Weak Supervision for Cross-lingual Dependency Parsing
Recent work has shown that monolingual masked language models learn to represent data-driven notions of language variation which can be used for domain-targeted training data selection. Dataset genre labels are already frequently available, yet remain largely unexplored in cross-lingual setups. We harness this genre metadata as a weak supervision signal for targeted data selection in zero-shot dependency parsing. Specifically, we project treebank-level genre information to the finer-grained sentence level, with the goal to amplify information implicitly stored in unsupervised contextualized representations. We demonstrate that genre is recoverable from multilingual contextual embeddings and that it provides an effective signal for training data selection in cross-lingual, zero-shot scenarios. For 12 low-resource language treebanks, six of which are test-only, our genre-specific methods significantly outperform competitive baselines as well as recent embedding-based methods for data selection. Moreover, genre-based data selection provides new state-of-the-art results for three of these target languages.
Max Muller-Eberstein, Rob van der Goot, Barbara Plank
1
Python
9/20/2021 Speechformer: Reducing Information Loss in Direct Speech Translation
Transformer-based models have gained increasing popularity achieving state-of-the-art performance in many research fields including speech translation. However, Transformer's quadratic complexity with respect to the input sequence length prevents its adoption as is with audio signals, which are typically represented by long sequences. Current solutions resort to an initial sub-optimal compression based on a fixed sampling of raw audio features. Therefore, potentially useful linguistic information is not accessible to higher-level layers in the architecture. To solve this issue, we propose Speechformer, an architecture that, thanks to reduced memory usage in the attention layers, avoids the initial lossy compression and aggregates information only at a higher level according to more informed linguistic criteria. Experiments on three language pairs (en->de/es/nl) show the efficacy of our solution, with gains of up to 0.8 BLEU on the standard MuST-C corpus and of up to 4.0 BLEU in a low resource scenario.
Sara Papi, Marco Gaido, Matteo Negri, Marco Turchi
1
Python
9/20/2021 Filling the Gaps in Ancient Akkadian Texts: A Masked Language Modelling Approach
We present models which complete missing text given transliterations of ancient Mesopotamian documents, originally written on cuneiform clay tablets (2500 BCE - 100 CE). Due to the tablets' deterioration, scholars often rely on contextual cues to manually fill in missing parts in the text in a subjective and time-consuming process. We identify that this challenge can be formulated as a masked language modelling task, used mostly as a pretraining objective for contextualized language models. Following, we develop several architectures focusing on the Akkadian language, the lingua franca of the time. We find that despite data scarcity (1M tokens) we can achieve state of the art performance on missing tokens prediction (89% hit@5) using a greedy decoding scheme and pretraining on data from other languages and different time periods. Finally, we conduct human evaluations showing the applicability of our models in assisting experts to transcribe texts in extinct languages.
Koren Lazar, Benny Saret, Asaf Yehudai, Wayne Horowitz, Nathan Wasserman, Gabriel Stanovsky
1
Python
How can we generate concise explanations for multi-hop Reading Comprehension (RC)? The current strategies of identifying supporting sentences can be seen as an extractive question-focused summarization of the input text. However, these extractive explanations are not necessarily concise i.e. not minimally sufficient for answering a question. Instead, we advocate for an abstractive approach, where we propose to generate a question-focused, abstractive summary of input paragraphs and then feed it to an RC system. Given a limited amount of human-annotated abstractive explanations, we train the abstractive explainer in a semi-supervised manner, where we start from the supervised model and then train it further through trial and error maximizing a conciseness-promoted reward function. Our experiments demonstrate that the proposed abstractive explainer can generate more compact explanations than an extractive explainer with limited supervision (only 2k instances) while maintaining sufficiency.
Naoya Inoue, Harsh Trivedi, Steven Sinha, Niranjan Balasubramanian, Kentaro Inui
1
9/20/2021 Uncovering Implicit Gender Bias in Narratives through Commonsense Inference
Pre-trained language models learn socially harmful biases from their training corpora, and may repeat these biases when used for generation. We study gender biases associated with the protagonist in model-generated stories. Such biases may be expressed either explicitly ("women can't park") or implicitly (e.g. an unsolicited male character guides her into a parking space). We focus on implicit biases, and use a commonsense reasoning engine to uncover them. Specifically, we infer and analyze the protagonist's motivations, attributes, mental states, and implications on others. Our findings regarding implicit biases are in line with prior work that studied explicit biases, for example showing that female characters' portrayal is centered around appearance, while male figures' focus on intellect.
Tenghao Huang, Faeze Brahman, Vered Shwartz, Snigdha Chaturvedi
1
9/20/2021 Efficient Contrastive Learning via Novel Data Augmentation and Curriculum Learning
We introduce EfficientCL, a memory-efficient continual pretraining method that applies contrastive learning with novel data augmentation and curriculum learning. For data augmentation, we stack two types of operation sequentially: cutoff and PCA jittering. While pretraining steps proceed, we apply curriculum learning by incrementing the augmentation degree for each difficulty step. After data augmentation is finished, contrastive learning is applied on projected embeddings of original and augmented examples. When finetuned on GLUE benchmark, our model outperforms baseline models, especially for sentence-level tasks. Additionally, this improvement is capable with only 70% of computational memory compared to the baseline model.
Seonghyeon Ye, Jiseon Kim, Alice Oh
1
Python
9/20/2021 Not All Negatives are Equal: Label-Aware Contrastive Loss for Fine-grained Text Classification
Fine-grained classification involves dealing with datasets with larger number of classes with subtle differences between them. Guiding the model to focus on differentiating dimensions between these commonly confusable classes is key to improving performance on fine-grained tasks. In this work, we analyse the contrastive fine-tuning of pre-trained language models on two fine-grained text classification tasks, emotion classification and sentiment analysis. We adaptively embed class relationships into a contrastive objective function to help differently weigh the positives and negatives, and in particular, weighting closely confusable negatives more than less similar negative examples. We find that Label-aware Contrastive Loss outperforms previous contrastive methods, in the presence of larger number and/or more confusable classes, and helps models to produce output distributions that are more differentiated.
Varsha Suresh, Desmond C. Ong
1
Python
9/20/2021 Can Machines Read Coding Manuals Yet? -- A Benchmark for Building Better Language Models for Code Understanding
Ibrahim Abdelaziz, Julian Dolby, Jamie McCusker, Kavitha Srinivas
1
Python
9/20/2021 Extracting Event Temporal Relations via Hyperbolic Geometry
Detecting events and their evolution through time is a crucial task in natural language understanding. Recent neural approaches to event temporal relation extraction typically map events to embeddings in the Euclidean space and train a classifier to detect temporal relations between event pairs. However, embeddings in the Euclidean space cannot capture richer asymmetric relations such as event temporal relations. We thus propose to embed events into hyperbolic spaces, which are intrinsically oriented at modeling hierarchical structures. We introduce two approaches to encode events and their temporal relations in hyperbolic spaces. One approach leverages hyperbolic embeddings to directly infer event relations through simple geometrical operations. In the second one, we devise an end-to-end architecture composed of hyperbolic neural units tailored for the temporal relation extraction task. Thorough experimental assessments on widely used datasets have shown the benefits of revisiting the tasks on a different geometrical space, resulting in state-of-the-art performance on several standard metrics. Finally, the ablation study and several qualitative analyses highlighted the rich event semantics implicitly encoded into hyperbolic spaces.
Xingwei Tan, Gabriele Pergola, Yulan He
1
Python
9/20/2021 Total Recall: a Customized Continual Learning Method for Neural Semantic Parsers
This paper investigates continual learning for semantic parsing. In this setting, a neural semantic parser learns tasks sequentially without accessing full training data from previous tasks. Direct application of the SOTA continual learning algorithms to this problem fails to achieve comparable performance with re-training models with all seen tasks because they have not considered the special properties of structured outputs yielded by semantic parsers. Therefore, we propose TotalRecall, a continual learning method designed for neural semantic parsers from two aspects: i) a sampling method for memory replay that diversifies logical form templates and balances distributions of parse actions in a memory; ii) a two-stage training method that significantly improves generalization capability of the parsers across tasks. We conduct extensive experiments to study the research problems involved in continual semantic parsing and demonstrate that a neural semantic parser trained with TotalRecall achieves superior performance than the one trained directly with the SOTA continual learning algorithms and achieve a 3-6 times speedup compared to re-training from scratch. Code and datasets are available at: this https URL.
Zhuang Li, Lizhen Qu, Gholamreza Haffari
1
9/20/2021 Old BERT, New Tricks: Artificial Language Learning for Pre-Trained Language Models
We extend the artificial language learning experimental paradigm from psycholinguistics and apply it to pre-trained language models -- specifically, BERT (Devlin et al., 2019). We treat the model as a subject in an artificial language learning experimental setting: in order to learn the relation between two linguistic properties A and B, we introduce a set of new, non-existent, linguistic items, give the model information about their variation along property A, then measure to what extent the model learns property B for these items as a result of training. We show this method at work for degree modifiers (expressions like "slightly", "very", "rather", "extremely") and test the hypothesis that the degree expressed by modifiers (low, medium or high degree) is related to their sensitivity to sentence polarity (whether they show preference for affirmative or negative sentences or neither). Our experimental results are compatible with existing linguistic observations that relate degree semantics to polarity-sensitivity, including the main one: low degree semantics leads to positive polarity sensitivity (that is, to preference towards affirmative contexts). The method can be used in linguistics to elaborate on hypotheses and interpret experimental results, as well as for more insightful evaluation of linguistic representations in language models.
Lisa Bylinina, Alexey Tikhonov, Ekaterina Garmash
0
Jupyter Notebook
9/20/2021 Sister Help: Data Augmentation for Frame-Semantic Role Labeling
While FrameNet is widely regarded as a rich resource of semantics in natural language processing, a major criticism concerns its lack of coverage and the relative paucity of its labeled data compared to other commonly used lexical resources such as PropBank and VerbNet. This paper reports on a pilot study to address these gaps. We propose a data augmentation approach, which uses existing frame-specific annotation to automatically annotate other lexical units of the same frame which are unannotated. Our rule-based approach defines the notion of a sister lexical unit and generates frame-specific augmented data for training. We present experiments on frame-semantic role labeling which demonstrate the importance of this data augmentation: we obtain a large improvement to prior results on frame identification and argument identification for FrameNet, utilizing both full-text and lexicographic annotations under FrameNet. Our findings on data augmentation highlight the value of automatic resource creation for improved models in frame-semantic parsing.
Ayush Pancholy, Miriam R. L. Petruck, Swabha Swayamdipta
0
Java
9/20/2021 Context-aware Entity Typing in Knowledge Graphs
Knowledge graph entity typing aims to infer entities' missing types in knowledge graphs which is an important but under-explored issue. This paper proposes a novel method for this task by utilizing entities' contextual information. Specifically, we design two inference mechanisms: i) N2T: independently use each neighbor of an entity to infer its type; ii) Agg2T: aggregate the neighbors of an entity to infer its type. Those mechanisms will produce multiple inference results, and an exponentially weighted pooling method is used to generate the final inference result. Furthermore, we propose a novel loss function to alleviate the false-negative problem during training. Experiments on two real-world KGs demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. The source code and data of this paper can be obtained from this https URL.
Weiran Pan, Wei Wei, Xian-Ling Mao
0
Python
9/20/2021 An Exploratory Study on Long Dialogue Summarization: What Works and What's Next
Dialogue summarization helps readers capture salient information from long conversations in meetings, interviews, and TV series. However, real-world dialogues pose a great challenge to current summarization models, as the dialogue length typically exceeds the input limits imposed by recent transformer-based pre-trained models, and the interactive nature of dialogues makes relevant information more context-dependent and sparsely distributed than news articles. In this work, we perform a comprehensive study on long dialogue summarization by investigating three strategies to deal with the lengthy input problem and locate relevant information: (1) extended transformer models such as Longformer, (2) retrieve-then-summarize pipeline models with several dialogue utterance retrieval methods, and (3) hierarchical dialogue encoding models such as HMNet. Our experimental results on three long dialogue datasets (QMSum, MediaSum, SummScreen) show that the retrieve-then-summarize pipeline models yield the best performance. We also demonstrate that the summary quality can be further improved with a stronger retrieval model and pretraining on proper external summarization datasets.
Yusen Zhang, Ansong Ni, Tao Yu, Rui Zhang, Chenguang Zhu, Budhaditya Deb, Asli Celikyilmaz, Ahmed Hassan Awadallah, Dragomir Radev
0
9/20/2021 Decision-Focused Summarization
Relevance in summarization is typically defined based on textual information alone, without incorporating insights about a particular decision. As a result, to support risk analysis of pancreatic cancer, summaries of medical notes may include irrelevant information such as a knee injury. We propose a novel problem, decision-focused summarization, where the goal is to summarize relevant information for a decision. We leverage a predictive model that makes the decision based on the full text to provide valuable insights on how a decision can be inferred from text. To build a summary, we then select representative sentences that lead to similar model decisions as using the full text while accounting for textual non-redundancy. To evaluate our method (DecSum), we build a testbed where the task is to summarize the first ten reviews of a restaurant in support of predicting its future rating on Yelp. DecSum substantially outperforms text-only summarization methods and model-based explanation methods in decision faithfulness and representativeness. We further demonstrate that DecSum is the only method that enables humans to outperform random chance in predicting which restaurant will be better rated in the future.
Chao-Chun Hsu, Chenhao Tan
0
9/20/2021 Detecting Propaganda Techniques in Memes
Propaganda can be defined as a form of communication that aims to influence the opinions or the actions of people towards a specific goal; this is achieved by means of well-defined rhetorical and psychological devices. Propaganda, in the form we know it today, can be dated back to the beginning of the 17th century. However, it is with the advent of the Internet and the social media that it has started to spread on a much larger scale than before, thus becoming major societal and political issue. Nowadays, a large fraction of propaganda in social media is multimodal, mixing textual with visual content. With this in mind, here we propose a new multi-label multimodal task: detecting the type of propaganda techniques used in memes. We further create and release a new corpus of 950 memes, carefully annotated with 22 propaganda techniques, which can appear in the text, in the image, or in both. Our analysis of the corpus shows that understanding both modalities together is essential for detecting these techniques. This is further confirmed in our experiments with several state-of-the-art multimodal models.
Dimitar Dimitrov, Bishr Bin Ali, Shaden Shaar, Firoj Alam, Fabrizio Silvestri, Hamed Firooz, Preslav Nakov, Giovanni Da San Martino
0
Python
9/20/2021 A Temporal Variational Model for Story Generation
Recent language models can generate interesting and grammatically correct text in story generation but often lack plot development and long-term coherence. This paper experiments with a latent vector planning approach based on a TD-VAE (Temporal Difference Variational Autoencoder), using the model for conditioning and reranking for text generation. The results demonstrate strong performance in automatic cloze and swapping evaluations. The human judgments show stories generated with TD-VAE reranking improve on a GPT-2 medium baseline and show comparable performance to a hierarchical LSTM reranking model. Conditioning on the latent vectors proves disappointing and deteriorates performance in human evaluation because it reduces the diversity of generation, and the models don't learn to progress the narrative. This highlights an important difference between technical task performance (e.g. cloze) and generating interesting stories.
David Wilmot, Frank Keller
0
Jsonnet